274 resources related to Infant Mortality
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The Conference focuses on all aspects of instrumentation and measurement science andtechnology research development and applications. The list of program topics includes but isnot limited to: Measurement Science & Education, Measurement Systems, Measurement DataAcquisition, Measurements of Physical Quantities, and Measurement Applications.
The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops andinvitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields ofbiomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality paperswill be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and willbe indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE & IEEE Xplore
Photovoltaic materials, devices, systems and related science and technology
IEEE-ECCE 2019 brings together practicing engineers, researchers, entrepreneurs and other professionals for interactive and multi-disciplinary discussions on the latest advances in energy conversion technologies. The Conference provides a unique platform for promoting your organization.
International Geosicence and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) is the annual conference sponsored by the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (IEEE GRSS), which is also the flagship event of the society. The topics of IGARSS cover a wide variety of the research on the theory, techniques, and applications of remote sensing in geoscience, which includes: the fundamentals of the interactions electromagnetic waves with environment and target to be observed; the techniques and implementation of remote sensing for imaging and sounding; the analysis, processing and information technology of remote sensing data; the applications of remote sensing in different aspects of earth science; the missions and projects of earth observation satellites and airborne and ground based campaigns. The theme of IGARSS 2019 is “Enviroment and Disasters”, and some emphases will be given on related special topics.
The IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine publishes articles concerned with the various aspects of systems for space, air, ocean, or ground environments.
The IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering will review the state-of-the-art and trends in the emerging field of biomedical engineering. This includes scholarly works, ranging from historic and modern development in biomedical engineering to the life sciences and medicine enabled by technologies covered by the various IEEE societies.
Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.
Component parts, hybrid microelectronics, materials, packaging techniques, and manufacturing technology.
Design and analysis of algorithms, computer systems, and digital networks; methods for specifying, measuring, and modeling the performance of computers and computer systems; design of computer components, such as arithmetic units, data storage devices, and interface devices; design of reliable and testable digital devices and systems; computer networks and distributed computer systems; new computer organizations and architectures; applications of VLSI ...
2010 Fourth Asia International Conference on Mathematical/Analytical Modelling and Computer Simulation, 2010
The aim of this paper is to compare the performances of ARIMA, Neural Network and Linear Regression models for the prediction of Infant Mortality Rate. The performance comparison is based on the Infant Mortality Rate data collected in Indonesia during the years 1995 - 2008. We compare the models using performance measures such as Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute ...
IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies, 2008
The following concepts are discussed: burn-in effectiveness, component failure distributions, early life distribution, early life failures, infant mortality.
2018 1st International Conference on Data Intelligence and Security (ICDIS), 2018
Parental education, income per capita and health service indicators are the three most important determinants of child mortality. In this paper, we explored the influence of parental education and per capita income on infant mortality rate (IMR) using higher degree polynomial ridge regression. The polynomial regression analysis draws valid inferences about IMR based on an analysis of a representative sample ...
13th IEEE International On-Line Testing Symposium (IOLTS 2007), 2007
Infant Mortality problems have been around for a long time (maybe that is why sometimes we have a shorter warranty period for many electronic products). Anyway, the explanation of infant mortality is that these are left over (or latent) defects. Defects that do not necessarily expose themselves and they can skip by all the manufacturing tests, including system test. However, ...
2011 IEEE International Symposium of Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), 2011
Abstract-Used materials, oxides thicknesses, and ultra-small channel lengths are contributors to the impact of well known reliability issue such as NBTI (Negative Bias Temperature Instability). This paper describes a case study using an Intra-Die Variation Probe (IDVP) test to screen out Infant Mortality (IM) failures. The approach is pursued by applying the learning of yield and reliability on 45 nm ...
The aim of this paper is to compare the performances of ARIMA, Neural Network and Linear Regression models for the prediction of Infant Mortality Rate. The performance comparison is based on the Infant Mortality Rate data collected in Indonesia during the years 1995 - 2008. We compare the models using performance measures such as Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results show that the Neural Network model with 6 input neurons, 10 hidden layer neurons and using hyperbolic tangent activation functions for the hidden and output layers is the best among the different models considered.
The following concepts are discussed: burn-in effectiveness, component failure distributions, early life distribution, early life failures, infant mortality.
Parental education, income per capita and health service indicators are the three most important determinants of child mortality. In this paper, we explored the influence of parental education and per capita income on infant mortality rate (IMR) using higher degree polynomial ridge regression. The polynomial regression analysis draws valid inferences about IMR based on an analysis of a representative sample of infants. Results from such analysis can be generalized to the larger population which is a predictive model in the form of a set of equations. This study estimated the comparative importance of mean years of male schooling, female schooling and per capita income on reducing the IMR with the statistical learning from the regression perspective. Results and analysis shows the importance of the parental education levels in reducing IMR. Moreover, female education, especially in lower grades are found significantly important in reducing IMR.
Infant Mortality problems have been around for a long time (maybe that is why sometimes we have a shorter warranty period for many electronic products). Anyway, the explanation of infant mortality is that these are left over (or latent) defects. Defects that do not necessarily expose themselves and they can skip by all the manufacturing tests, including system test. However, with electrical and thermal stresses during use, they will eventually degrade to cause a significant functionality problem and will result as a failed system in the field. Product may last for hours to months if such a latent defect is trapped within. Since field failures are undesirable and field failures have to be below a certain level so as not to create general customer resentment, some kind of infant mortality acceleration is needed. Burn-in is the process to accelerate these latent defects that eventually will lead to infant mortality failures. The same electrical and thermal stress is applied to the chip during the burn-in test step, though at a much elevated level such that months to years of life time of the product is consumed in hours. Hence these latent defects will be detected and screened within the manufacturing test flow and will not be shipped to customers. So, if this is a production worthy process and has been used extensively in many kinds of chip manufacturing, why is there a problem? The issue is that scaling has created very short channel transistors and very thin gate oxide. These shorter channel transistors bring along higher electrical field around the source-drain and create hot electrons which lead to gate damage and shortening the life of the transistors. Higher Vcc also cause more stress to the gate oxide and can cause more soft- breakdown. The electrical and thermal acceleration essentially exacerbate this wearout effect, even though it reduces infant mortality. We are therefore trading one type of reliability for another. Process change (like changeover to a different gate stack) would push back this wearout effect by a generation, but the drive to scale to ever smaller devices will continue and the problem may come back. Lowering Vcc will likely contain the long term wearout effect but it will hurt performance and voltage scaling has already slowed down substantially in recent years. Traditional solution of placing test guardband into manufacturing test will not be cost effective in the long run, especially facing a competitive environment. It is likely that we need both circuit and architectural level solutions to deal with this. Will online testing or fault tolerance come to the rescue? Will fault tolerant techniques be sufficient for dealing with infant mortality problem? Will these high reliability system features eventually move into main stream computing products? Or better yet, will we have latent defect acceleration or screening without the ill effect of degrading long term lifetime of our product? All of these remain to be answered.
Abstract-Used materials, oxides thicknesses, and ultra-small channel lengths are contributors to the impact of well known reliability issue such as NBTI (Negative Bias Temperature Instability). This paper describes a case study using an Intra-Die Variation Probe (IDVP) test to screen out Infant Mortality (IM) failures. The approach is pursued by applying the learning of yield and reliability on 45 nm process technology for the System-On-A-Chip (SoC) products. Using this approach, the IDVP test is determined as a better reliability screen than the Electrical Test (E-Test), due to poor E-Test coverage in the Gross Failure Area (GFA). It has been revealed that the GFA only becomes visible after Burn In stress and we found that the IM failures are a mixture of post-stress Automated Test Equipment (ATE) failures. This approach will produce an outgoing level of quality that enables the 45 nm SoC products to reduce burn-in sampling in the production flow and will be proliferated to the 32 nm process technology products.
The approach used in developing an infant mortality requirement for fiber optic transport systems used in Bellcore client networks is described. Two generic parameters are considered: failure rate ratio, which is the ratio of the instantaneous failure rate to the steady-state failure rate, and infant mortality factor, which is the ratio of the expected number of failures in the first year of service to the expected number of failures in a steady-state year. Each of these parameters is discussed, and two methods of deriving a value for the infant mortality requirement are discussed. The first, a time- effective method, analyzes the infant mortality models to determine when there has been sufficient decay in the rate of change of the number of failures. The second, a cost-effective method, analyzes the models to determine a point at which overall costs are minimized.<>
Two goals of the work - verification of suitability of mechanical tests of solder joints reliability and infant mortality (early failures) of lead-free joints are selected. The results of reliability tests of lead - free solder joints of SMT resistors showed a tendency to increase of infant mortality failure rate comparing to SnPb eutectic joints. These new results are presented. Soldering process parameters, manufacturing equipment, testing methodology and working conditions of lead - free electronic products are discussed and compared to SnPb solder joints technology. Infant mortality and fatigue caused cracks after thermal and mechanical tests are shown in photos and metallographic sections. Statistical results are presented in Weibull plots and failure rate characteristics. Achieved results of primary failures data are presented and discussed. Practical conclusions for manufacturing technology are specified.
Product factory test is inadequate to identify 100% of the products that will fail within one year of use before shipment. Product infant mortality failures that would occur after delivery are eliminated by using prognostic analysis for illustrating and identifying deterministic behavior (failure precursors) in all products that will fail in the near future.
Six hundred and forty III-V triple-junction solar cells were evaluated in this study. The cells were initially electrically and optically characterized prior to being packaged and placed on-sun for a short exposure. Following exposure, the cells were partitioned according to their performance change. An infant mortality rate of 0.5% was observed and attributed to preexisting voids in the die attach that promoted thermal runaway. All other cells that significantly degraded following exposure were initially measured with shunt currents >;100 mA at 1.5 V; therefore, a similar limit would serve as an appropriate screening current and only reduce yield by ~1.5% . While many cells both above and below this shunt current limit exhibited artifacts in their electroluminescence (EL) emission, it was not found to predict subsequent performance. The current investigation, however, focused on detecting a short- term degradation and did not evaluate how artifacts in the EL emission or a short-term change in shunt current may correlate with other wear out mechanisms.
In the paper under discussion, the Van der Pol article referenced by this author and also by the commentator is a study of a large number of devices used in commercial products where both the long term reliability in system application (field reliability) and long term life test were compared to sample burn-in testing. The authors of this reference found that life test data and system reliability were both well fitted to Weibull distribution. The formulae in the IEEE forum article are based on an empirical fit to this very large number of experimental data points. These are not assumptions but simply an empirical model well grounded in an extensive experimental data set. This author does not assert that a single failure mechanism is appropriate to a complete explanation of infant mortality in integrated circuits. I concur that many failure mechanisms actually apply with different failure characteristics (best detected by failure analysis of infant mortals) and different acceleration.
Processes and methodologies for conducting reliability predictions for electronic systems and equipment.
A standardized medium for developing reliability predictions of electronic systems and equipment.