IEEE Organizations related to Electrothermal Actuators

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Conferences related to Electrothermal Actuators

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2020 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)

The International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) is the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society’s biggest conference and one of the leading international forums for robotics researchers to present their work.


IECON 2020 - 46th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society

IECON is focusing on industrial and manufacturing theory and applications of electronics, controls, communications, instrumentation and computational intelligence.


2019 20th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems & Eurosensors XXXIII (TRANSDUCERS & EUROSENSORS XXXIII)

The world's premiere conference in MEMS sensors, actuators and integrated micro and nano systems welcomes you to attend this four-day event showcasing major technological, scientific and commercial breakthroughs in mechanical, optical, chemical and biological devices and systems using micro and nanotechnology.The major areas of activity in the development of Transducers solicited and expected at this conference include but are not limited to: Bio, Medical, Chemical, and Micro Total Analysis Systems Fabrication and Packaging Mechanical and Physical Sensors Materials and Characterization Design, Simulation and Theory Actuators Optical MEMS RF MEMS Nanotechnology Energy and Power


2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

DNA Nanotechnology Micro-to-nano-scale Bridging Nanobiology and Nanomedicine Nanoelectronics Nanomanufacturing and Nanofabrication Nano Robotics and Automation Nanomaterials Nano-optics, Nano-optoelectronics and Nanophotonics Nanofluidics Nanomagnetics Nano/Molecular Heat Transfer & Energy Conversion Nanoscale Communication and Networks Nano/Molecular Sensors, Actuators and Systems


2019 IEEE Canadian Conference of Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE)

Electrical Engineering, Academic and Industrial


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Periodicals related to Electrothermal Actuators

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Most published Xplore authors for Electrothermal Actuators

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Xplore Articles related to Electrothermal Actuators

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A large rotational angle micromirror based on hypocycloidal electrothermal actuators for endoscopic imaging

2010 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics, 2010

The paper presents a large rotational angle micromirror base on hypocycloidal electrothermal actuators for circumferential endoscopic imaging. The micromirror consists of a double-side Cr/Au coated high reflective mirror plate (1mm by 0.8mm) laterally supported by two hypocycloidal electrothermal actuators on both sides (Fig. 1(a)). In our design, 1μm PVD Al deposited on 2μm single crystal silicon (SCS) forms a bimorph ...


Polymer Materials for Cost-efficient Manufacturing of Electrothermal Actuators

ACTUATOR 2018; 16th International Conference on New Actuators, 2018

For performance optimization of electrothermal drives this work presents a detailed analysis and comparison of polymer foil materials. Suitable materials are characterized by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and used for fabrication of electrothermal actuators. A comparison of material analysis, simulation data and characterization of fabricated actuators shows that polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and polyimide (PI) are suitable materials for fabrication ...


Large rotation angle micromirror based on hypocycloidal electrothermal actuators

Electronics Letters, 2010

A large rotation angle micromirror using hypocycloidal electrothermal actuators (HEAs) is presented. The mechanical rotation angle of the micromirror is ~35° at 2.6 V in nonresonant mode. The Cr/Au coated square mirror plate is supported by two groups of HEAs in order to achieve single axis rotation. Four Al/Si bimorph structures are staggerly connected in parallel to form a HEA. ...


Self-aligned electrostatic angular vertical comb actuators assembled on-chip using in-plane electrothermal actuators

TRANSDUCERS 2009 - 2009 International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, 2009

We have designed, fabricated and tested self-aligned angular vertical comb- drive (AVC) actuators by on-chip assembly technique using in-plane electrothermal actuators. The AVC actuators are fabricated on a silicon-on- insulator (SOI) wafer using three photomasks and three times of deep etching steps. The maximum optical scan angle of 30.7deg is achieved at 4.56 kHz under the sinusoidal driving voltage of ...


Modeling and Thermal Metrology of Thermally Isolated MEMS Electrothermal Actuators for Strain Engineering of 2D Materials in Air

Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2019

We present electrothermal microelectromechanical (MEMS) actuators as a practical platform for straining 2-D materials. The advantages of the electrothermal actuator are its high output force and displacement for low input voltage, but its drawback is that it is actuated by generating high amounts of heat. It is crucial to mitigate the high temperatures generated during actuation for reliable 2-D material ...


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Educational Resources on Electrothermal Actuators

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • A large rotational angle micromirror based on hypocycloidal electrothermal actuators for endoscopic imaging

    The paper presents a large rotational angle micromirror base on hypocycloidal electrothermal actuators for circumferential endoscopic imaging. The micromirror consists of a double-side Cr/Au coated high reflective mirror plate (1mm by 0.8mm) laterally supported by two hypocycloidal electrothermal actuators on both sides (Fig. 1(a)). In our design, 1μm PVD Al deposited on 2μm single crystal silicon (SCS) forms a bimorph microstructure with the length of 800 μm and the width of 60μm. Four bimorph structures were staggerly connected in parallel to form a hypocycloidal electrothermal actuator. In this configuration, a metal layer was on a silicon backbone in one bimorph structure while the metal layer was deposited below the silicon backbone in adjacent bimorph structures (Fig. 1(b)). Since the radius of curvature of each bimorph structure is the same, the deflection of each structure is the same. Hence the rotational axis keeps still and there is no lateral shifting effect. Simulations via finite element analysis (FEA) show that the mechanical deflection angle of a micromirror significantly increases by using this actuator design. 141.2° was found in the design with fully double-side Al coated actuators (Fig. 2(a, b)) and 68.6° was found in the design with only frontside Al coated actuators (Fig. 2(c, d)). Micromirrors were fabricated by a post-CMOS MEMS process on 8 inches SOI wafers. An optical microscopic image and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph of a released micromirror are shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b), respectively. However, so far we have not successfully patterned Al layer below the SCS layer as part of the actuator and therefore only micromirrors equipped by frontside Al coated actuators were experimentally characterized (Fig. 4). ~35° mechanical deflection was achieved by 2.6 V DC input voltage (Fig. 5). It has a discrepancy in comparison in comparison with the FEA simulation. -3dB cutoff frequency was found to be about 29 Hz as the large signal frequency response (Fig. 5). Current-voltage relationship of an electrothermal actuator is also shown in Fig. 5. A series of frames from a video of a switching micromirror shows various tilting angles of the micromirror under a sinusoidal drive signal with the amplitude of 2.6 V was still with absence of microstructures with backside Al coated, the concept of achieving large deflection angle by using hypocycloidal electrothermal actuators has been demonstrated. Both FEA simulation and experimental results prove the capability of the Single-axis rotational micromirror device.

  • Polymer Materials for Cost-efficient Manufacturing of Electrothermal Actuators

    For performance optimization of electrothermal drives this work presents a detailed analysis and comparison of polymer foil materials. Suitable materials are characterized by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and used for fabrication of electrothermal actuators. A comparison of material analysis, simulation data and characterization of fabricated actuators shows that polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and polyimide (PI) are suitable materials for fabrication of electrothermal actuators with cost-efficient mass-production methods used for fabrication of printed circuit boards (PCB).

  • Large rotation angle micromirror based on hypocycloidal electrothermal actuators

    A large rotation angle micromirror using hypocycloidal electrothermal actuators (HEAs) is presented. The mechanical rotation angle of the micromirror is ~35° at 2.6 V in nonresonant mode. The Cr/Au coated square mirror plate is supported by two groups of HEAs in order to achieve single axis rotation. Four Al/Si bimorph structures are staggerly connected in parallel to form a HEA. This structure is experimentally demonstrated to increase the deflection angle. Moreover, the rotation axis keeps still and there is no lateral shifting effect. The -3 dB cutoff frequency was found to be about 29 Hz as the large signal frequency response.

  • Self-aligned electrostatic angular vertical comb actuators assembled on-chip using in-plane electrothermal actuators

    We have designed, fabricated and tested self-aligned angular vertical comb- drive (AVC) actuators by on-chip assembly technique using in-plane electrothermal actuators. The AVC actuators are fabricated on a silicon-on- insulator (SOI) wafer using three photomasks and three times of deep etching steps. The maximum optical scan angle of 30.7deg is achieved at 4.56 kHz under the sinusoidal driving voltage of 0~80 V applied to the AVC actuator. After the reliability test performed by operating the actuator for 1.6 times 108 cycles, the measured optical scan angle variation and resonant frequency change were within 8 Hz and 1.1%, respectively.

  • Modeling and Thermal Metrology of Thermally Isolated MEMS Electrothermal Actuators for Strain Engineering of 2D Materials in Air

    We present electrothermal microelectromechanical (MEMS) actuators as a practical platform for straining 2-D materials. The advantages of the electrothermal actuator are its high output force and displacement for low input voltage, but its drawback is that it is actuated by generating high amounts of heat. It is crucial to mitigate the high temperatures generated during actuation for reliable 2-D material strain device implementation. Here, we implement a chevron actuator design that incorporates a thermal isolation stage in order to avoid heating the 2-D material from the high temperatures generated during the actuation. By comparing the experiment and simulation, we ensure our design does not compromise output displacement while keeping the 2-D material strain device stage cool. We also provide a simple analytical model useful for quickly evaluating different thermal isolation stage designs.

  • Magnetostatic bistable MEMS switch with electrothermal actuators

    The design, fabrication, and an experiment, of a bistable MEMS switch with magnetostatic latching and electrothermal actuation for achieving lower power consumption are presented. The bistabilities feature a crisscross-shaped torsion/cantilever beam system and a permanent magnet for holding the closed state. Therefore, the device is suitable for bistable switching relay applications. Electrical performances have been characterised by a self-built test system using an Agilent oscilloscope. In addition, switching between two stable states of the microswitch was successfully validated with the WYKO NT1100 optical profiling system. Results show that the consumed exciting power is only 0.64 mJ in one DC pulse.

  • Bi-directional movable latched micromechanism using one-directional movable Chevron electrothermal actuators for switch and relay applications

    In this paper, we present a creative bi-directional movable latched micromechanism for switch and relay application. Bistable microelectromechanical (MEM) mechanisms provide two relative positions that are both mechanically stable. Preliminary results prove this new design is promising in optical switch application.

  • Deformation induced by residual stress during deposition process of lateral motion micro electrothermal actuators

    Lateral motion micro thermal actuator is one of an important actuator for its large deformation and driving force. The lateral motion electrothermal actuator is often fabricated by surface micromachining. The out of plane deformation would be induced by residual stress, due to mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between structure and sacrificial layers.Such deformation has advantage to overcome sticking problem during removing sacrificial layer by wet etching. From experiment results, the maximum deformation value depends on structure layer thickness and doping density. It can be considered the annealing process can diminish most residual stress in cold beam.

  • Characterization of electrothermal actuators and arrays fabricated in a four-level, planarized surface-micromachined polycrystalline silicon process

    This paper presents the results of tests performed on a variety of electrothermal microactuators and arrays of these actuators recently fabricated in the four-level planarized polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) SUMMiT process at the U.S. Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories. These results are intended to aid designers of thermally actuated mechanisms, and will apply to similar actuators made in other polysilicon MEMS processes. The measurements include force and deflection versus input power, maximum operating frequency, effects of long term operation, and ideal actuator and array geometries for different design criteria. A typical application in a stepper motor is shown to illustrate the utility of these actuators and arrays.

  • Electrothermal actuators for hard disk drive applications

    This paper presents two electrothermal actuator designs for future HDD applications. The first is an electrothermal actuator for track following. This design uses heaters within the slider body to achieve lateral deformation akin to what is done with deformation normal to the ABS for fly height control. We present simulations that suggest +/-0.2 nm of lateral deformation per degree C of temperature rise is possible, making a +/- 30 nm movement feasible. We also present a more complex actuator design for skew compensation. This design, (presented previously), uses thermomechanical deformation of bimorph spokes to achieve rotation of several degrees with tens of mW's of power and a thermal cutoff frequency of bandwidth 300 Hz. Here we present the advantages offered by adding heaters on the spokes themselves to achieve more distributed heating, and better rotation per degree of temperature rise.



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