Conferences related to Whole-body PET

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2023 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Conference (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted full papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and poster sessions,will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE.


2020 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP)

The International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), sponsored by the IEEE SignalProcessing Society, is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances andresearch results in the fields of theoretical, experimental, and applied image and videoprocessing. ICIP 2020, the 27th in the series that has been held annually since 1994, bringstogether leading engineers and scientists in image and video processing from around the world.


2020 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC)

All areas of ionizing radiation detection - detectors, signal processing, analysis of results, PET development, PET results, medical imaging using ionizing radiation


ICASSP 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP)

The ICASSP meeting is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference focused on signal processing and its applications. The conference will feature world-class speakers, tutorials, exhibits, and over 50 lecture and poster sessions.


2019 IEEE 16th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI)

The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances in theoretical and applied biomedical imaging.ISBI 2019 will be the 16th meeting in this series. The previous meetings have played a leading role in facilitating interaction between researchers in medical and biological imaging. The 2019 meeting will continue this tradition of fostering cross fertilization among different imaging communities and contributing to an integrative approach to biomedical imaging across all scales of observation.


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Periodicals related to Whole-body PET

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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE

Both general and technical articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering; societal implications of medical technologies; current news items; book reviews; patent descriptions; and correspondence. Special interest departments, students, law, clinical engineering, ethics, new products, society news, historical features and government.


IT Professional

This IEEE Computer Society periodical covers the many rapidly emerging issues facing information technology professionals, developers, and managers of enterprise information systems. IT Professional's coverage areas include: Web services, Internet security, data management; enterprise architectures and infrastructures; organizing and utilizing data; instituting cross-functional systems; using IT for competitive breakthroughs; integrating systems and capitalizing on IT advances; emerging technologies like electronic ...


Medical Imaging, IEEE Transactions on

Imaging methods applied to living organisms with emphasis on innovative approaches that use emerging technologies supported by rigorous physical and mathematical analysis and quantitative evaluation of performance.


Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

All aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.


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Most published Xplore authors for Whole-body PET

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Xplore Articles related to Whole-body PET

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Effect of geometrical constraints on PET performance in whole body simultaneous PET-MR

2009 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (NSS/MIC), 2009

Simultaneous PET-MR scanners are being developed for whole body imaging. These systems require compact and MR compatible readout for the PET component. Another important modification is the geometry of the PET scanner which is determined by space constraints imposed by the surrounding MR scanner. The maximal radius of the PET scanner is limited and it becomes difficult to insert end ...


Characterization of a whole body imaging technique for PET

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1990

An investigation of rapid whole-body PET (positron emission tomography) scanning was performed with a view towards its eventual use in screening for metastatic lesions with /sup 18/F-fluoride ion or /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Longitudinal images of the body were formed using three techniques. Simple 2-D projection images were formed by resorting the sinogram data. The images were created for a set of ...


Performance measurements of a pixelated NaI(Tl) PET scanner

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 2003

A prototype positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for whole body imaging with 4 mm /spl times/ 4 mm /spl times/ 30 mm NaI(Tl) crystals and Anger-logic readout has been built and tested. The scanner is composed of 36,540 NaI(Tl) pixels which are coupled to an optically continuous lightguide and a hexagonal closed packed array of 39 mm photomultiplier tubes. The ...


Performance measurements of a pixelated NaI(Tl) PET scanner

2002 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 2002

A prototype PET scanner for whole body imaging with 4 mm /spl times/ 4 mm /spl times/ 30 mm NaI(Tl) crystals and Anger-logic readout has been built and tested. The scanner is composed of 36,540 NaI(Tl) pixels which are coupled to an optically continuous lightguide and a hexagonal closed packed array of 39 mm photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The scanner is ...


Self normalization for continuous 3D whole body emission data in 3D PET

IEEE Symposium Conference Record Nuclear Science 2004., 2004

Continuous 3D scanning with a large-aperture PET scanner can provide high sensitivity over most of the axial FOV in whole-body studies. To minimum the artifact depended on the uniformity of the different lines-of-response (LORs) in sinograms, accurate normalizing algorithms will be needed. In this study, we propose self-normalization method in which full correction factors are derived from the emission data ...


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Educational Resources on Whole-body PET

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Effect of geometrical constraints on PET performance in whole body simultaneous PET-MR

    Simultaneous PET-MR scanners are being developed for whole body imaging. These systems require compact and MR compatible readout for the PET component. Another important modification is the geometry of the PET scanner which is determined by space constraints imposed by the surrounding MR scanner. The maximal radius of the PET scanner is limited and it becomes difficult to insert end shielding. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of modified geometry and reduced shielding on the PET performance with regards to spatial resolution, singles, trues, scatter and random coincidences. Materials and methods: All data were simulated using the GATE Monte Carlo simulation tool. The reference system for the simulation was a state of the art PET-CT scanner (Gemini TF scanner with LYSO crystals Philips Medical systems). This system has a diameter of 90 cm and end shields with an inner diameter of 70 cm. The energy resolution of the system is 12 % and based on this system a whole body PET scanner was designed with less modules positioned at a smaller radius. This modification enables it to fit inside a 3T MR scanner. This system was simulated without end shielding and with limited end shielding (60 cm diameter). For the three systems the trues, random and scatter were simulated to quantify the effect of the modified geometry. The object used was the 70 cm long NEMA scatter phantom containing activity in a line source at a radial distance of 4.5 cm. Results: Reducing the diameter from 90 cm to 70 cm results in an increase of the amount of trues by 28 %. The relative scatter fraction increases from 33 % to 36 % for the 70 cm diameter system without end shields. The introduction of short shields resulted in a small reduction (2 %) of scattered and random coincidence fraction. More detailed analysis about origin of the events showed that in the new design 85 % of scattered events originates from inside the FOV, while 90 % of the random coincidences is caused by outside FOV activity. Conclusions: For PET systems with good energy resolution, end shields only play a limited role in the reduction of scatter. The end shields are only blocking a limited part of the scattered outside FOV activity and are mostly effective in reducing the singles and resulting randoms from outside FOV.

  • Characterization of a whole body imaging technique for PET

    An investigation of rapid whole-body PET (positron emission tomography) scanning was performed with a view towards its eventual use in screening for metastatic lesions with /sup 18/F-fluoride ion or /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Longitudinal images of the body were formed using three techniques. Simple 2-D projection images were formed by resorting the sinogram data. The images were created for a set of angles covering a full 180 degrees to facilitate viewing in a cine format. The effects of summing over a number of angles per view and filtering to reduce noise were investigated. Limited-angle backprojection images were formed using a small range of angles and no reconstruction filter. The resulting volume was then sliced coronally to give planar images as a function of depth. Coronal images were also obtained after reconstruction with a standard filtered backprojection technique, but with no attenuation correction. All three processes provided surprisingly good images of diagnostic quality, which were obtainable in practical scan times.<<ETX>>

  • Performance measurements of a pixelated NaI(Tl) PET scanner

    A prototype positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for whole body imaging with 4 mm /spl times/ 4 mm /spl times/ 30 mm NaI(Tl) crystals and Anger-logic readout has been built and tested. The scanner is composed of 36,540 NaI(Tl) pixels which are coupled to an optically continuous lightguide and a hexagonal closed packed array of 39 mm photomultiplier tubes. The scanner is designed with a crystal-to-crystal diameter of 89 cm and an axial field of view (AFOV) of 25 cm. The main goals of this study are: 1) to overcome the count-rate limitation of the continuous NaI(Tl) scanner (C-PET); 2) to improve the spatial resolution and image contrast by using small pixels; and 3) to eliminate the relatively large data gaps between the detectors in the continuous NaI(Tl) scanner. The use of pixelated crystals allows the light spread to be controlled by the proper lightguide design, thereby reducing the spreading of the light relative to a continuous crystal. A two-dimensional position histogram obtained using the pixelated NaI(Tl) scanner shows very good crystal discrimination due to the high light output of NaI(Tl).

  • Performance measurements of a pixelated NaI(Tl) PET scanner

    A prototype PET scanner for whole body imaging with 4 mm /spl times/ 4 mm /spl times/ 30 mm NaI(Tl) crystals and Anger-logic readout has been built and tested. The scanner is composed of 36,540 NaI(Tl) pixels which are coupled to an optically continuous lightguide and a hexagonal closed packed array of 39 mm photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The scanner is designed with a crystal-to- crystal diameter of 89 cm and an axial field of view (AFOV) of 25 cm. The main goals of this study are (1) to overcome the count-rate limitation of the continuous NaI(Tl) scanner (CPET), (2) to improve the spatial resolution and image contrast by using small pixels, and (3) to eliminate the relatively large data gaps between the detectors in the continuous NaI(Tl) scanner.

  • Self normalization for continuous 3D whole body emission data in 3D PET

    Continuous 3D scanning with a large-aperture PET scanner can provide high sensitivity over most of the axial FOV in whole-body studies. To minimum the artifact depended on the uniformity of the different lines-of-response (LORs) in sinograms, accurate normalizing algorithms will be needed. In this study, we propose self-normalization method in which full correction factors are derived from the emission data itself without using conventional normalize scan of cylinder phantom. In this method, transaxial block profile and crystal efficiency were calculated from the original emission data, and correction factors applied itself. We implemented proposed method to a 5 ring GSO PET scanner which has continuous 3D scan mode and evaluated. To accurate correction factor, components were calculated from dataset which summed in the direction of the bed movement. To investigate the performance, we compared the proposed method with conventional component based normalization using uniform cylinder phantom. And To evaluate clinical performance, we also /sup 18/FDG human studies were performed. In both phantom and human studies, the block profile and crystal efficiencies can be calculated correctly using proposed method. Evaluating percent standard deviation, self-normalization improved transaxial uniformity since it reduced ring artifacts. Especially, the accuracy of transaxial block profiles which influenced easily by some physical phenomena has unproved. Our self-normalize method was accurate enough for continuous 3D scanning with a large aperture PET scanner. The image quality using self-normalization was superior than conventional component normalization. This method contributes to the improvement of system operation , since regular acquisition of cylinder phantom for normalization is not necessary.

  • High spatial resolution detector using an 8/spl times/8 MLS crystal array and a quad anode photomultiplier

    A compact and high position resolution detector for whole body PET has been developed using an 8/spl times/8 MLS scintillation crystal array and a quad- anode photomultiplier. The scintillation crystal block consists of 64 single crystals with dimensions of 4.67/spl times/4.67/spl times/30mm/sup 3/. Light sharing is controlled through the finishes of the crystal surfaces, Teflon reflective layers and a simple thin light guide. The block properties have been characterized using 511 keV gamma rays using Ge/sup 68/. Peaks in the crystal decoding map are well isolated with an average peak-to-valley ratio of 3.17. An energy resolution of 15% FWHM and a timing resolution of 1.2 ns FWHM were obtained.

  • Implementation of Histogram Based Soft-tissue Segmentation for Single Spiral Transmission Scanning in Whole Body PET

    3D continuous emission and spiral transmission (CEST) scanning provides a high-throughput whole-body PET study using two dedicated detectors for 3D emission and single transmission with continuous bed movement. Since post- injection single transmission data contains emission contamination (EC) and transmission scatter components (TSC), the transmission detector was designed to have a short axial extent with a highly collimated <sup>137</sup>Cs point source, and be implemented using a realtime EC correction method. However, transmission images can be still affected by residual EC and TSC, depending on patient size and dose injected. This results in slight variations in attenuation coefficients, depending on the patient's axial position. In this study, we developed a new soft-tissue segmentation (STS) method based on histogram scaling at each axial position of the spiral transmission. Peaks, corresponding to soft-tissue in a histogram of attenuation coefficients, were found at each axial position and the transmission image was scaled using the ratio of soft-tissue histogram peaks to the theoretical water attenuation coefficient. In scaled transmission images, the pixel values near the soft- tissue peak were replaced with the theoretical water attenuation coefficient. Quantitative evaluation was performed of the transmission images obtained under various acquisition conditions, both with and without the proposed STS method. Regarding final imaging performance, emission images reconstructed using both STS attenuation correction and hybrid scatter correction were evaluated. Results showed that the proposed STS method for spiral transmission scanning provided quantitative images independent of object size and containing activity concentration.

  • Utilization of 3-D elastic transformation in the registration of chest X-ray CT and whole body PET

    X-ray CT is widely used for detection and localization of lesions in the thorax. Whole Body PET with 18-FDG is becoming accepted for staging of cancer because of its ability to detect malignancy. Combining information from these two modalities has a significant value to improve lung cancer staging and treatment planning. Due to the non-rigid nature of the thorax and the differences in the acquisition conventions, the subject is stretched non- uniformly and the images of these two modalities requires non-rigid transformation for proper registration. Techniques to register chest X-ray CT and Whole Body PET images were developed and evaluated. Accuracy of 3-D elastic transformation was tested by phantom study. Studies on patients with lung carcinoma were used to validate the technique in localizing the 18-FDG uptake and in correlating PET to X-ray CT images. The fused images showed an accurate alignment and provided confident identification of the detailed anatomy of the CT with the functional information of the PET images.

  • Extra shielding for improved signal-to-noise in 3D whole-body PET

    In 3D PET measurements, activity outside of the direct FOV is known to degrade signal-to-noise within the direct FOV, primarily by increasing the overall rate of random coincidences. In 3D brain studies, various configurations of additional shielding around the patient have already been successfully implemented to limit the singles field of view, and thereby reduce the randoms measured by the tomograph. In this work, we extend this idea for use in the torso with a shielding configuration consisting of two "clam-shell" shields of lead surrounding the patient both above and below the axial FOV. The lead is 6 mm thick by 10 or 20 cm in axial length, and curved into a C-shape to fit around the phantom or the patient's torso. The top half of the clam-shell rests on plastic wheels which travel on two rails mounted to the edge of the patient pallet, and the lower half of each shield is fixed beneath. The shields are placed just outside the direct field of view and as close to the patient as possible. Noise Equivalent Count (NEC) curves were measured with and without shields in place around an axially long cylindrical phantom. The NEC rates from 2D and 3D patient studies were then compared with the phantom- derived NEC curves to predict the signal-to-noise gain possible by using the shields. Over the range of activity concentrations typical of whole body FDG studies, we estimate unshielded 3D offers an NEC advantage of approximately a factor of two. Our shield appears to provide only a small additional improvement at the high end of this activity range.

  • 3D list-mode cardiac PET for simultaneous quantification of myocardial blood flow and ventricular function

    Current PET instrumentation and performance metrics have been developed primarily to optimize whole-body imaging with18FDG. Dynamic 3D-mode PET imaging for quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) with82Rb requires high count-rate capability and correction accuracy maintained over a wide range of activity. Therefore, we propose a new method to evaluate dynamic range for 3D cardiac PET imaging and evaluate the performance of a high count- rate PET system (GEHC Discovery Rx) for single-scan simultaneous quantification of MBF and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) using list- mode PET imaging. Dynamic imaging was performed over a wide range of activities using82Rb and13NH3in a heart phantom, within and without an anthropomorphic torso, by FORE-FBP and a 12 mm 3D Hann filter. Time-activity curves (TAC) in the liver, myocardium and ventricle were analyzed to determine the operating range where quantitative accuracy is maintained in the reconstructed images. Dynamic rest-stress list-mode imaging was also performed in 21 patients with82Rb PET to compare MBF and EF quantification between 2D and 3D-modes. Based on the phantom results, injected activity was targeted at 10 MBq/kg to permit accurate measurement of the bolus first-pass activity in the LV cavity. The phantom studies indicated that activity concentrations were measured accurately (≪15% deviation) with prompt count rates ≪10 Mcps and dead-time losses ≪35%. There was no count-rate-dependent loss of resolution observed in the myocardium:liver TACs, even above these limits. Residual scatter in the ventricle cavity:liver was 3.4% and consistent across the whole dynamic range. For the patient studies, pseudo-NEC rates were 30% higher in 3D (p≪0.001), resulting in improved image quality. There were no significant differences in segmental myocardium uptake distribution, LVEF or MBF between 2D and 3D-modes (P=NS). Conclusion: Quantitative 3D cardiac imaging appears to be accurate with82Rb activity administered in the range of 9±1.5 MBq/kg used in this study. If the dynamic range of the PET system was increased further, higher injected activity and improved ECG-gated image quality may be obtained, while still retaining the quantitative accuracy of the first-pass data for accurate MBF quantification.



Standards related to Whole-body PET

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