11,548 resources related to Surface roughness
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2021 IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC)
Photovoltaic materials, devices, systems and related science and technology
Energy conversion and conditioning technologies, power electronics, adjustable speed drives and their applications, power electronics for smarter grid, energy efficiency,technologies for sustainable energy systems, converters and power supplies
the IEEE/IEDM has been the world's main forum for reporting breakthroughs in technology, design, manufacturing, physics and the modeling of semiconductors and other electronic devices. Topics range from deep submicron CMOS transistors and memories to novel displays and imagers, from compound semiconductor materials to nanotechnology devices and architectures, from micromachined devices to smart -power technologies, etc.
INTERMAG is the premier conference on all aspects of applied magnetism and provides a range of oral and poster presentations, invited talks and symposia, a tutorial session, and exhibits reviewing the latest developments in magnetism.
All fields of satellite, airborne and ground remote sensing.
Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters (AWP Letters) will be devoted to the rapid electronic publication of short manuscripts in the technical areas of Antennas and Wireless Propagation.
Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission
Video A/D and D/A, display technology, image analysis and processing, video signal characterization and representation, video compression techniques and signal processing, multidimensional filters and transforms, analog video signal processing, neural networks for video applications, nonlinear video signal processing, video storage and retrieval, computer vision, packet video, high-speed real-time circuits, VLSI architecture and implementation for video technology, multiprocessor systems--hardware and software-- ...
IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications (CG&A) bridges the theory and practice of computer graphics. From specific algorithms to full system implementations, CG&A offers a strong combination of peer-reviewed feature articles and refereed departments, including news and product announcements. Special Applications sidebars relate research stories to commercial development. Cover stories focus on creative applications of the technology by an artist or ...
Proceedings. Fourteenth International Conference on Pattern Recognition (Cat. No.98EX170), 1998
The authors investigate the reliability of a semi-automated system designed to locate the Maltese front from satellite AVHRR and SAR imagery. The opening and closing operations of mathematical morphology afford a means of image segmentation that provides smooth, strong, continuous edges except where the edges are obscured by clouds or similar phenomena. The authors evaluate the results by comparing them ...
[Proceedings] IGARSS'91 Remote Sensing: Global Monitoring for Earth Management, 1991
2009 International Radar Conference "Surveillance for a Safer World" (RADAR 2009), 2009
This paper deals with effects of sea surface roughness and wind direction on electromagnetic waves propagation in presence of evaporation duct. The Parabolic Equation method is used to solve the wave equation above a generated random sea surface which furthermore takes into account a roughness parameter. The wind direction influence on propagation is presented with numerical results of EM wave ...
2.5D Printing: Bridging the Gap Between 2D and 3D Applications, None
This chapter explores the relationship between images, pictures and reproductions. It also explores different ways to describe 2.5dimensional (2.5D), the relationship between texture, material and object, the emotional and perceptual relationship with materials, how artists convey the appearance of materials and how materials can be measured and quantified. Artists have been constantly fascinated by the pictorial representation of a three‐dimensional ...
Radio Science, 2007
Diffraction corrections (up to terms ∼1/k2) to the geometric optics backscattering cross sections from a statistically rough 2-D perfectly conducting surface were derived for TE- and TM-polarized electromagnetic waves based on the high-frequency asymptotic expansions of electric and magnetic fields at the surface obtained by Fuks (2004). It was shown that at steep incident angles, where the specular reflections play ...
Microwave PCB Structure Selection Microstrip vs. Grounded Coplanar Waveguide: MicroApps 2015 - Rogers Corporation
Waalbot: Agile Climbing with Synthetic Fibrillar Dry Adhesives
Quantum Computation - ASC-2014 Plenary series - 4 of 13 - Tuesday 2014/8/12
IMPASS: Intelligent Mobility Platform with Active Spoke System
Life Sciences: Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, and more
IEEE Magnetics Distinguished Lecture - Yoshichika Otani
3D Body-Mapping for Severely Burned Patients - Julia Loegering - IEEE EMBS at NIH, 2019
BSIM Spice Model Enables FinFET and UTB IC Design
Making Orthogonal Transitions with Climbing Mini-Whegs
A Robot to Mine the Moon
Silicon THz: an Opportunity for Innovation
IROS TV 2019-STAR LAB at the University of Surrey Space Technology for Autonomous systems & Robotics
Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy: From ultralow power spintronics to cancer therapy
Lighting the Way: Optical Sensors in the Life Sciences
ASC-2014 SQUIDs 50th Anniversary: 4 of 6 - Keiji Enpuku
Demonstrations of Gravity-Independent Mobility and Drilling on Natural Rock using Microspines
ISEC 2013 Special Gordon Donaldson Session: Remembering Gordon Donaldson - 5 of 7 - SQUID Instrumentation for Early Cancer Diagnostics
Lunar Industrialization: The First Step to the Solar System
The authors investigate the reliability of a semi-automated system designed to locate the Maltese front from satellite AVHRR and SAR imagery. The opening and closing operations of mathematical morphology afford a means of image segmentation that provides smooth, strong, continuous edges except where the edges are obscured by clouds or similar phenomena. The authors evaluate the results by comparing them with front positions found by experienced Navy analysts. Their system provides an objective method for front location that is less labor-intensive than manual methods currently in use.
This paper deals with effects of sea surface roughness and wind direction on electromagnetic waves propagation in presence of evaporation duct. The Parabolic Equation method is used to solve the wave equation above a generated random sea surface which furthermore takes into account a roughness parameter. The wind direction influence on propagation is presented with numerical results of EM wave propagation.
This chapter explores the relationship between images, pictures and reproductions. It also explores different ways to describe 2.5dimensional (2.5D), the relationship between texture, material and object, the emotional and perceptual relationship with materials, how artists convey the appearance of materials and how materials can be measured and quantified. Artists have been constantly fascinated by the pictorial representation of a three‐dimensional world through the two‐dimensional media of painting and drawing, and by employing drawing elements such as perspective, illusion, colour, texture, light and shade to create more convincing and immersive environments. In order to address issues relating to reproduction of digital prints, one approach has been to tag artworks, whereby each print is allocated its own security code and DNA, which can then be linked to a certificate of authentication. Printing technologies are now moving away from the reproduction of entire objects to concentrate on macrotextural elements.
Diffraction corrections (up to terms ∼1/k2) to the geometric optics backscattering cross sections from a statistically rough 2-D perfectly conducting surface were derived for TE- and TM-polarized electromagnetic waves based on the high-frequency asymptotic expansions of electric and magnetic fields at the surface obtained by Fuks (2004). It was shown that at steep incident angles, where the specular reflections play the main part in scattering, diffraction results can be interpreted as scattering by a fictitious surface, the roughness of which is gentler that the real surface at HH polarization and steeper at VV polarization. The HH/VV polarization ratio (dB), being positive at steep incident angles, gradually decreases as the incident angle increases, and it becomes negative for moderate incident angles.
Changes in the sea surface roughness from the combined effects of wind and rain, on scales of tens of kilometers, are being studied using the QuikSCAT scatterometer (NRCS) and simultaneous NEXRAD three-dimensional measurements of rain. The studies of air-sea interaction, related to surface fluxes. The results to be presented were acquired during a significant rain event in the Gulf of Mexico, to the east of Corpus Christi, and just south of Houston, TX in May 2005. Preliminary results in NRCS caused by rain, relative to that in nearby regions with negligible rain shows distinct characteristics. Three regions with different wind speeds (4-6, 6-8 and 8-10 m/s) show definitive variation of this total NRCS with respect to wind magnitude, satellite- relative wind direction, polarization and rainrate. Relative changes are stronger in the lower wind region for both polarizations, with H-pol providing a more definitive signature. At higher wind speeds (e.g. 10 m/s) the relative splash induced increases in NRCS are still significant, and show distinct differences between polarizations.
We present a new approach to the retrieval of sea surface roughness using GNSS-R. The steps through the simulation of the whole end-to-end microwave scattering of GNSS signals from the sea surface are explained, with emphasis on how to generate a linear sea surface and to implement the Kirchhoff Approximation (KA), as the large-scale part of the full scattering model. We illustrate some examples of radar cross sections calculated using the Kirchhoff scattering model, and how they change with respect to different polarizations. Their variations with geometry, sea state and spatial resolution are investigated and discussed.
Wind and current variations at the ocean surface can give rise to a modulation of the sea surface roughness and thus become visible in radar images. The discrimination between radar signatures of oceanic and atmospheric phenomena can be difficult, since signatures of different origin can have very similar shapes and magnitudes and are often superimposed upon each other. From an oceanographer's point of view it is therefore important to identify characteristics of radar signatures of atmospheric phenomena to distinguish them from those of oceanic phenomena as well as to profit from the information they contain on parameters like, e.g., wind speed. In this work the authors employ a numerical radar imaging model for an investigation of typical properties of radar signatures of atmospheric convective cells. They show that main characteristics of observed multifrequency/multipolarization radar signatures of atmospheric convective cells over the Gulf Stream are reproduced quite well by the proposed model. This encourages them to vary wind and radar parameters systematically in order to get an overview of the dependency of atmospherically induced radar signatures on these parameters.
The combination of sea surface roughness and whitewater causes a change in emissivity from an undisturbed sea surface. Previous measurements of this effect have covered the frequency range 1-37 GHz. The seven-channel SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) on the Block 5D-2 spacecraft extends this range to 85.5 GHz, at a fixed viewing angle of 53 degrees from normal. To correct for atmospheric attenuation, vapor and liquid water in the atmosphere and surface wind speed were simultaneously estimated from the 22.2 GHz vertically polarized and the 37.0 GHz dual-polarized channels. Data with liquid water burden in excess of 0.07 kg/m/sup 2/ were excluded. In the horizontally polarized measurements, the wind-speed sensitivity of emissivity at 85.5 GHz was greater than at 37.0 GHz by a factor of approximately 1.4. For vertical polarization at 85.5 GHz, the sensitivity was much smaller than for horizontal polarization, and somewhat smaller than for vertical polarization at 37 GHz.<<ETX>>
A set of geophysical error sources for the microwave remote sensing of ocean surface salinity have been examined. The error sources include the sea surface temperature, sea surface roughness, atmospheric gases, ionospheric Faraday rotation, and solar and Galactic emission sources. It is shown that the brightness temperature effects of a few kelvin can be expected for most of these error sources. The key correction requirements for accurate salinity measurements are the knowledge accuracy of 0.5/spl deg/C for the sea surface temperature (SST), 10 mbar for the surface air pressure, 2/spl deg/C for the surface air temperature, 0.20 accuracy for the Faraday rotation, and surface roughness equivalent to 0.3 m s/sup -1/ for the surface wind speed. We suggest the use of several data products for corrections, including the AMSR-type instruments for SST and liquid cloud water, the AMSU-type product for air temperature, the scatterometer products or numerical weather analysis for the air pressure, coincidental radar observations with 0.2 dB precision for surface roughness, and on-board polarimetric radiometer channel for Faraday rotation. The most significant sky radiation is from the Sun. A careful design of the antenna is necessary to minimize the leakage of solar radiation or reflection into the antenna sidelobes. The narrow-band radiation from Galactic hydrogen clouds with a bandwidth of less than 1 MHz is also significant, but can be corrected with a radio sky survey or minimized with a notched (band- rejection) filter centered at 1.421 GHz. The other planetary and Galactic radio sources can also be flagged with a small data loss. We have performed a sampling analysis for a polar-orbiting satellite with 900 km swath width to determine the number of satellite observations over a given surface grid cell during an extended period. Under the assumption that the observations from different satellite passes are independent, it is suggested that an accuracy of 0.1 psu (practical salinity unit) is achievable for global monthly 10 latitude by 10 longitude gridded products.
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