Softening

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Softening is a numerical trick used in N-body techniques to prevent numerical divergences when a particle comes too close to another (and the force goes to infinity). This is obtained by modifying the gravitational potential of each particle as where is the softening parameter. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Softening

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2021 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference (PPC)

The Pulsed Power Conference is held on a biannual basis and serves as the principal forum forthe exchange of information on pulsed power technology and engineering.


2020 IEEE 70th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)

ECTC is the premier international conference sponsored by the IEEE Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Society. ECTC paper comprise a wide spectrum of topics, including 3D packaging, electronic components, materials, assembly, interconnections, device and system packaging, optoelectronics, reliability, and simulation.


2020 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS)

IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS) is an annual conference coordinated by the Plasma Science and Application Committee (PSAC) of the IEEE Nuclear & Plasma Sciences Society.


2020 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)

The International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) is the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society’s biggest conference and one of the leading international forums for robotics researchers to present their work.


2020 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC)

All areas of ionizing radiation detection - detectors, signal processing, analysis of results, PET development, PET results, medical imaging using ionizing radiation


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Periodicals related to Softening

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on

The theory, design and application of Control Systems. It shall encompass components, and the integration of these components, as are necessary for the construction of such systems. The word `systems' as used herein shall be interpreted to include physical, biological, organizational and other entities and combinations thereof, which can be represented through a mathematical symbolism. The Field of Interest: shall ...


Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on

Component parts, hybrid microelectronics, materials, packaging techniques, and manufacturing technology.


Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE

IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications (CG&A) bridges the theory and practice of computer graphics. From specific algorithms to full system implementations, CG&A offers a strong combination of peer-reviewed feature articles and refereed departments, including news and product announcements. Special Applications sidebars relate research stories to commercial development. Cover stories focus on creative applications of the technology by an artist or ...


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Xplore Articles related to Softening

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Analysis of different fillers on performance of asphalt mastic

Proceedings 2011 International Conference on Transportation, Mechanical, and Electrical Engineering (TMEE), 2011

The main objective of this study is to evaluate high temperature performance of asphalt mastic made with hydrated lime or ordinary Portland cement. Softening point, Dynamic Shear Rheological and Viscosity Tests were conducted. The results demonstrated that asphalt mastic with hydrated lime showed significant improvement at the low replacement level, however, higher hydrated lime may lead to lower construction workability. ...


Experimental studies on red bed soft rock used as roadbed filling

2010 International Conference on Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering, 2010

Red bed extensively distributes in Huangshan Area of Anhui Province which belongs to category of soft rock and has the characteristics of softening and slaking with water. So the red bed soft rock cannot be used as roadbed filling directly. The feasibility of the slaking products of the red bed soft rock used as highway roadbed filling is discussed by ...


Controlled synthesis of ortho-substitution ortho-cresol novolac resins

2009 International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, 2009

The structure of ortho-cresol novolac resin is very important for the synthesis of ultra-high purity ortho-cresol novolac epoxy resin used as electronic encapsulating materials. But the relationship between the synthesis conditions and the structure of ortho-cresol novolac resin has not yet been completely clarified. This paper mainly studied the controlled synthesis of different proportion of ortho-substitution ortho-cresol novolac resins under ...


On the Closed-Loop Stability of Constrained QDMC

1991 American Control Conference, 1991

The presence of constraints in the on-line optimization problem solved by Model Predictive Control algorithms results in a nonlinear control system, even if the plant and model dynamics are linear. This is the case both for physical constraints, like saturation constraints, as well for performance or safety constraints on outputs or other variables of the process. This paper discusses how ...


Effect of free carrier accumulation or depletion on zone-center vibrational mode in Ge

2015 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop (SNW), 2015

Heavy impurity doping is known to soften the lattice system in Si and Ge, experimentally [1, 2]. Although it is theoretically explained by the Fano-type electron-phonon interaction [3], it is practically important as well whether this effect may come from heavy impurity doping or high carrier density in semiconductors. Moreover, it may become more important in nano-devices, because the whole ...


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  • Analysis of different fillers on performance of asphalt mastic

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate high temperature performance of asphalt mastic made with hydrated lime or ordinary Portland cement. Softening point, Dynamic Shear Rheological and Viscosity Tests were conducted. The results demonstrated that asphalt mastic with hydrated lime showed significant improvement at the low replacement level, however, higher hydrated lime may lead to lower construction workability. It is recommended that to control the replacement level of hydrated lime not exceed 30% in practical application. The performance of cement asphalt mastic increase with addition of ordinary Portland cement. It is found that workability performance of cement asphalt mastic is markedly improvement with the increase of Filler/Asphalt Ratio.

  • Experimental studies on red bed soft rock used as roadbed filling

    Red bed extensively distributes in Huangshan Area of Anhui Province which belongs to category of soft rock and has the characteristics of softening and slaking with water. So the red bed soft rock cannot be used as roadbed filling directly. The feasibility of the slaking products of the red bed soft rock used as highway roadbed filling is discussed by experimental studies of the slaking of the red bed and the pavement performance of the slaking products. After the stability of the slaking of the red bed, through reasonable collocation of those parts of steady performance, the slaking products of the red bed can meet the strength and stability requirements of highway roadbed filling, and can be used as highway roadbed filling.

  • Controlled synthesis of ortho-substitution ortho-cresol novolac resins

    The structure of ortho-cresol novolac resin is very important for the synthesis of ultra-high purity ortho-cresol novolac epoxy resin used as electronic encapsulating materials. But the relationship between the synthesis conditions and the structure of ortho-cresol novolac resin has not yet been completely clarified. This paper mainly studied the controlled synthesis of different proportion of ortho-substitution ortho-cresol novolac resins under different reaction conditions, such as molar ratio of ortho-cresol to formaldehyde, different catalyst types, reaction time. Then, the structure of different ortho-substitution ortho-cresol novolac resins were investigated by many measurements, such as FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and the softening point. And the relationships between the structure and the reaction conditions were thus studied. The results indicated that, the ortho-cresol novolac resin with the needed proportion of ortho-substitution was synthesized through the adjustment of the reaction conditions.

  • On the Closed-Loop Stability of Constrained QDMC

    The presence of constraints in the on-line optimization problem solved by Model Predictive Control algorithms results in a nonlinear control system, even if the plant and model dynamics are linear. This is the case both for physical constraints, like saturation constraints, as well for performance or safety constraints on outputs or other variables of the process. This paper discusses how constraints affect the stability properties of the closed-loop nonlinear system. In particular we concentrate on presenting a formulation that allows one to relate hard as well as soft constraints to stability. The degree of softening can be determined to guarantee stability.

  • Effect of free carrier accumulation or depletion on zone-center vibrational mode in Ge

    Heavy impurity doping is known to soften the lattice system in Si and Ge, experimentally [1, 2]. Although it is theoretically explained by the Fano-type electron-phonon interaction [3], it is practically important as well whether this effect may come from heavy impurity doping or high carrier density in semiconductors. Moreover, it may become more important in nano-devices, because the whole channel will be either in volume inversion or volume accumulation. It is, however, difficult to experimentally distinguish free carrier effects from dopant atom ones in heavily doped semiconductors. Then, the objective of this work is to clarify which plays a more significant role, by studying electron-phonon interactions in lightly doped (carrier accumulation) as well as in heavily doped Ge (carrier depletion), experimentally.

  • An electromagnetic scattering model for multiple tree trunks above a tilted rough ground plane

    An efficient and complete electromagnetic scattering model for multiple tree trunks above the ground is presented. The individual trunks are modeled by finite-length stratified cylinders, with an external corrugated bark layer. The ground is modeled by a dielectric half space underneath the cylinders, with a slightly rough interface. The spatial distribution of the cylinders is random over an elliptic illuminated area, and their lengths follow a Gaussian distribution. Moreover, cylinders are randomly oriented with a variable degree of noncolinearity, and the ground can have an arbitrary orientation. The scattering results provided in this paper consider the summation of all scattered fields from the trunk-ground sets as a response to the incident field. Results have been computed for the mean square error of the bistatic scattering pattern, by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. The computed patterns are highly dependent on the geometry of the problem (lengths and radii of the trunks, tilting, surface roughness, incidence, and observation angles). The variability of the involved random parameters produces softening effects and an increased cross-polarized signal. Moreover, results are very sensitive to the dielectric characteristics of the trunks. As a result, the method can be useful in the interpretation of remote-sensing measurements from vegetation and in the development of classification schemes.

  • Study the Test Methods and Pavement Performance Indexes about Hard Asphalt Binder Material

    In order to improve high temperature stability and water stability of the asphalt pavement, there have mainly the methods and measures as optimization grade, increasing asphalt amount, enhancing compactness and so on. Though these methods improve the high temperature stability and water stability to some extend, they are not fundamentally methods to solve the problems. This paper analyzes the indexes of high temperature performance, low temperature stability, temperature susceptibility, fatigue resistance performance and water stability about the different materials of hard asphalt (a-30 asphalt), a-70 asphalt, and modified asphalt. According to the analyzing results, the paper educes that hard asphalt material is better than other materials and puts forward the test methods and pavement performance indexes of hard asphalt binder material.

  • Optical mode softening of ferroelectric SrBi/sub 2/(Nb/sub x/Ta/sub 1-x/)/sub 2/O/sub 9/ system

    The vibrational properties of the ferroelectric phase transitions of the SrBi/sub 2/(Nb/sub x/Ta/sub 1-x/)/sub 2/O/sub 9/ ceramic system (x=0, 1/3, 2/3, 1) have been studied by Raman spectroscopy in the temperature range from room temperature up to 500/spl deg/C. For all compositions the lowest optical modes indicate the remarkable temperature dependence towards T/sub c/ and disappear above T/sub c/. Their damping factors increase rapidly towards T/sub c/, while the softening of mode frequency is relatively small. The composition dependence of the rigid-sublattice mode amid the symmetric stretching mode of oxygen octahedra has been discussed.

  • Numerical study on groove formation of rails for various materials

    Recovered rails exhibit groove formation along the outer edge of the armature/rail contact surface in many experiments. Different causes are hypothesized, such as local melting resulting from the concentration of current density, material yielding due to high contact pressure, and material softening at elevated temperatures. Numerical simulations using the hybrid finite element/boundary element code EMAP3D were conducted to identify the cause of this damage. Various rail materials such as chrome copper, 7055 aluminum alloy, beryllium copper, and dispersion-strengthened copper are investigated. The results are presented in this paper, and they do show that groove formation is due to the effect of both material softening at high local temperature and material yielding.

  • Training a hybrid neural-fuzzy system

    It is shown that hybrid neural-fuzzy systems can be described almost as concisely as conventional layered neural networks and can be subjected to the same methods for training. Combining elements of neural and fuzzy systems in this way offers clear benefits whenever the training a neural network can be improved by incorporation of prior knowledge or where a fuzzy system requires careful tuning. The examples suggest that the inclusion of fuzzy elements in a neural network framework may, for certain applications, increase representational power with fewer parameters than would be required by merely increasing the number of conventional nodes and layers.<<ETX>>



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