Skull

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The skull is a bony structure in the head of many animals that supports the structures of the face and forms a cavity for the brain. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Skull

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2023 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Conference (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted full papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and poster sessions,will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE.


2020 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP)

The International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), sponsored by the IEEE SignalProcessing Society, is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances andresearch results in the fields of theoretical, experimental, and applied image and videoprocessing. ICIP 2020, the 27th in the series that has been held annually since 1994, bringstogether leading engineers and scientists in image and video processing from around the world.


2020 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC)

All areas of ionizing radiation detection - detectors, signal processing, analysis of results, PET development, PET results, medical imaging using ionizing radiation


2020 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS)

The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2036 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2036

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2031 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2031

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2029 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2029

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2026 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2026

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2025 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2025

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conferencecovering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies;encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including thelatest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulationand more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions,panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2024 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2024

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2023 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2023

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2022 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2022

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2021 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2021

    The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the premier conference covering basic technologies, to passives and actives components to system over a wide range of frequencies including VHF, UHF, RF, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical. The conference will encompass the latest in RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation, wireless systems, RFID and related topics.

  • 2019 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2019

    Comprehensive symposium on microwave theory and techniques including active and passive circuit components, theory and microwave systems.

  • 2018 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2018

    Microwave theory and techniques, RF/microwave/millimeter-wave/terahertz circuit design and fabrication technology, radio/wireless communication.

  • 2017 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2017

    The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the premier conference covering basic technologies, to passives and actives components to system over a wide range of frequencies including VHF, UHF, RF, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical. The conference will encompass the latest in RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation, wireless systems, RFID and related topics.

  • 2016 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2016

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2015 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2015

    The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the premier conference covering basic technologies, to passives and actives components to system over a wide range of frequencies including VHF, UHF, RF, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical. The conference will encompass the latest in RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation, wireless systems, RFID and related topics. The IMS includes technical sessions, both oral and interactive, worksh

  • 2014 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2014

    IMS2014 will cover developments in microwave technology from nano devices to system applications. Technical paper sessions, interactive forums, plenary and panel sessions, workshops, short courses, industrial exhibits, and a wide array of other technical activities will be offered.

  • 2013 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2013

    The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the premier conference covering basic technologies, to passives and actives components to system over a wide range of frequencies including VHF, UHF, RF, microwave, millimeter -wave, terahertz, and optical. The conference will encompass the latest in RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation, wireless systems, RFID and related topics.The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2012 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2012

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2011 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2011

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2010 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2010

    Reports of research and development at the state-of-the-art of the theory and techniques related to the technology and applications of devices, components, circuits, modules and systems in the RF, microwave, millimeter-wave, submillimeter-wave and Terahertz ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  • 2009 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2009

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2008 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2008

  • 2007 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2007

  • 2006 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2006

  • 2005 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2005

  • 2004 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2004

  • 2003 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2003

  • 2002 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2002

  • 2001 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2001

  • 2000 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2000

  • 1999 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT '99

  • 1998 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT '98

  • 1997 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT '97

  • 1996 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT '96


ICASSP 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP)

The ICASSP meeting is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference focused on signal processing and its applications. The conference will feature world-class speakers, tutorials, exhibits, and over 50 lecture and poster sessions.


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Periodicals related to Skull

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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE

IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications (CG&A) bridges the theory and practice of computer graphics. From specific algorithms to full system implementations, CG&A offers a strong combination of peer-reviewed feature articles and refereed departments, including news and product announcements. Special Applications sidebars relate research stories to commercial development. Cover stories focus on creative applications of the technology by an artist or ...


Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

EMC standards; measurement technology; undesired sources; cable/grounding; filters/shielding; equipment EMC; systems EMC; antennas and propagation; spectrum utilization; electromagnetic pulses; lightning; radiation hazards; and Walsh functions


Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE

Both general and technical articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering; societal implications of medical technologies; current news items; book reviews; patent descriptions; and correspondence. Special interest departments, students, law, clinical engineering, ethics, new products, society news, historical features and government.


Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on

Signal-processing aspects of image processing, imaging systems, and image scanning, display, and printing. Includes theory, algorithms, and architectures for image coding, filtering, enhancement, restoration, segmentation, and motion estimation; image formation in tomography, radar, sonar, geophysics, astronomy, microscopy, and crystallography; image scanning, digital half-toning and display, andcolor reproduction.


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Most published Xplore authors for Skull

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Xplore Articles related to Skull

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Design of a phantom head for the in vitro testing of implantable devices

2007 IEEE 33rd Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, 2007

The development of any implant or medical device requires extensive testing. Often in vivo testing is difficult, and sometimes-in the case of neural control devices-impossible. Phantom heads have been constructed in the past for such applications as testing the effects of cellular communication devices, but these models are limited in their utility. The current study is not only aimed at ...


Smoothing cephalographs using modified anisotropic diffusion filter

2009 International Multimedia, Signal Processing and Communication Technologies, 2009

For the automatic detection of cephalometric landmarks in digital skull X-ray, enhancement is required for selective emphasis and suppression of information in the image with the aim of increasing the image's usefulness, image smoothing filters are used for noise removal and blurring for removing small details which clutter the main shape. This image smoothing leads to better edge detction for ...


The reciprocal approach to the inverse problem of electroencephalography

2001 Conference Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2001

Forward transfer matrices relating dipole source to surface potentials can be determined via conventional or reciprocal approaches. In numerical simulations with a triangulated boundary-element three-concentric-spheres head model, we compare four inverse EEG solutions: those obtained with conventional and reciprocal transfer matrices, and relating in each case dipole components to potentials at either triangle centroids or triangle vertices. Dipole localization errors ...


An image processing system for the automatic extraction of craniofacial landmarks

Conference Record of the 1991 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, 1991

A novel algorithm has been developed to locate craniofacial landmarks on skull X-rays. The locations of these landmarks are used by orthodontists for cephalometric evaluations. The proposed image processing method uses mathematical morphology to generate a target recognition error function whose surface is minimized to estimate the probable location of a landmark. An automatic training procedure accompanies the proposed algorithm. ...


An Explanatory Optimal Control Model of Head Movements in Torticollis Spasmodicus and Cerebellar Disorders

Proceedings of the 1988 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1988

None


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Educational Resources on Skull

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Design of a phantom head for the in vitro testing of implantable devices

    The development of any implant or medical device requires extensive testing. Often in vivo testing is difficult, and sometimes-in the case of neural control devices-impossible. Phantom heads have been constructed in the past for such applications as testing the effects of cellular communication devices, but these models are limited in their utility. The current study is not only aimed at producing a head model fit for the testing of neural control devices, but also at providing a template for future work. By providing the fundamental knowledge of and putting together the framework necessary to designing a phantom, this study generalizes the process such that this method of modeling may be useful for other applications.

  • Smoothing cephalographs using modified anisotropic diffusion filter

    For the automatic detection of cephalometric landmarks in digital skull X-ray, enhancement is required for selective emphasis and suppression of information in the image with the aim of increasing the image's usefulness, image smoothing filters are used for noise removal and blurring for removing small details which clutter the main shape. This image smoothing leads to better edge detction for recognizing the landmarks on the edges. This paper proposes a new smoothing technique based on anisotropic diffusion which gives improved results.

  • The reciprocal approach to the inverse problem of electroencephalography

    Forward transfer matrices relating dipole source to surface potentials can be determined via conventional or reciprocal approaches. In numerical simulations with a triangulated boundary-element three-concentric-spheres head model, we compare four inverse EEG solutions: those obtained with conventional and reciprocal transfer matrices, and relating in each case dipole components to potentials at either triangle centroids or triangle vertices. Dipole localization errors are presented in all four cases for varying dipole eccentricity and two different values of skull conductivity. For tangential dipoles, the reciprocal vertex approach performed best overall when considering both skull conductivities. No such clear-cut conclusion could be drawn for radial dipoles.

  • An image processing system for the automatic extraction of craniofacial landmarks

    A novel algorithm has been developed to locate craniofacial landmarks on skull X-rays. The locations of these landmarks are used by orthodontists for cephalometric evaluations. The proposed image processing method uses mathematical morphology to generate a target recognition error function whose surface is minimized to estimate the probable location of a landmark. An automatic training procedure accompanies the proposed algorithm. The training provides the means by which the algorithm may automatically learn to deal with subtle differences in a landmark's appearance. A novel decomposition technique that provides some size invariance and a method for minimizing the search window sizes are also presented. A system was trained to locate 20 landmarks. Tests on 40 X-rays showed an 88% recognition rate and a mean location error of 1.1 mm.<<ETX>>

  • An Explanatory Optimal Control Model of Head Movements in Torticollis Spasmodicus and Cerebellar Disorders

    None

  • X-ray image segmentation using auto adaptive fuzzy index measure

    Image segmentation is a crucial step in a wide range of medical image processing systems. It is useful in visualization of the different objects present in the image. For example separation of the soft, boney tissues and background on the lateral skull X-ray plays an important role in producing cephalometric tracing and hence producing accurate cephalometric evaluation used in orthodontic practice. In spite of the several methods available in the literature, image segmentation still a challenging problem in most of the image processing applications. The challenge comes from the fuzziness of image objects and the overlapping of the different regions. In this paper we propose fast auto adaptive image segmentation algorithm for finding the optimal thresholds for segmenting gray scale images. The proposed method is based on minimizing a fuzzy index which decreases as the similarity between pixels increases. The system uses initial estimates of the parameters of the fuzzy subsets derived from the image histogram then uses fuzzy entropy as cost measure to maximize the similarity between pixels of the same subset. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  • Diffuse reflection and energy distribution of 633, 780, 850, and 940nm low power laser in brain and laser acupuncture for drug detoxification of 115 addicted patients

    When using low power laser in therapy and diagnostics, the knowledge about the relationship between laser wavelengths and the percentage of reflected energy in the interface air-tissue and the distribution of energy in tissue helps us to choose appropriate wavelengths. In this paper, we present some results obtained from the simulation of low power 633, 780, 850, and 940 nm laser in brain by Monte Carlo method, with the model of brain consisted of 3 mm scalp, 5 mm skull, 3 mm cerebral cortex &amp; grey matter, and white matter. Based on these results, we fabricated devices called ldquolaser semiconductor optoacupuncture devicerdquo using 780 and 940 nm semiconductor lasers to treat some diseases such as cerebral palsy at children, and drug detoxification. In this paper we present the results of dug detoxification for 115 addicted patients using ldquolaser semiconductor optoacupuncture device".

  • A 3D model of quasi-static brain mechanics: application to tumor-bearing image registration

    A 3D biomechanical model of the human brain is being developed. Currently, the model is used to predict tumor growth "mass effect" (movement of brain tissue due to the tumor) and, thus, to improve image registration of various normal to tumor-bearing images.

  • New developments on geometric hashing for curve matching

    The problem of fast rigid matching of 3D curves with subvoxel precision is addressed. More invariant parameters are used, and new hash tables are implemented in order to process larger and more complex sets of data curves. There exists a Bayesian theory of geometric hashing that explains why local minima are not really a problem. The more likely transformation always wins. It is also possible to predict the uncertainty on the match with the help of the Kalman filter, and compare it with real measures.<<ETX>>

  • Single-unit and polygraphic recordings in the awake, anaesthetic-free and head-restrained rat

    In vivo investigation of the central nervous system is subject to interference with anaesthetic agents. Their influence on neural activity during electrophysiological recordings can be bypassed using a pre-implanted animal model, developed in the authors' laboratory. In this model, the preimplantation on the skull of a light device for further stereotaxic frame attachment allows, after a contention habituation period, classical electrophysiological approaches in the central nervous system of anaesthetic free-rats, The use of this model is compatible with repetitive single unit recordings. These experiments may be associated with other electrophysiological or physiological recordings such as electroencephalogram and electromyogram (EEG, EMG) or systemic/local pharmacological challenges (iontophoresis, pneumatic ejection). This technique allowed the authors to record simultaneously cortical activity and firing activity of basal ganglia neurones involved in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The authors describe time-locked changes in firing pattern of subthalamic nucleus cells and cortical activity during vigilance state transitions in the normal rat.



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