Skin

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Skin is a soft outer covering of an animal, in particular a vertebrate. Other animal coverings such as the arthropod exoskeleton or the seashell have different developmental origin, structure and chemical composition. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Skin

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2023 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Conference (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted full papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and poster sessions,will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE.


2020 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS)

IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS) is an annual conference coordinated by the Plasma Science and Application Committee (PSAC) of the IEEE Nuclear & Plasma Sciences Society.


2020 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC)

The 2020 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC 2020) will be held in Metro Toronto Convention Centre (MTCC), Toronto, Ontario, Canada. SMC 2020 is the flagship conference of the IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society. It provides an international forum for researchers and practitioners to report most recent innovations and developments, summarize state-of-the-art, and exchange ideas and advances in all aspects of systems science and engineering, human machine systems, and cybernetics. Advances in these fields have increasing importance in the creation of intelligent environments involving technologies interacting with humans to provide an enriching experience and thereby improve quality of life. Papers related to the conference theme are solicited, including theories, methodologies, and emerging applications. Contributions to theory and practice, including but not limited to the following technical areas, are invited.


2020 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC)

All areas of ionizing radiation detection - detectors, signal processing, analysis of results, PET development, PET results, medical imaging using ionizing radiation


ICASSP 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP)

The ICASSP meeting is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference focused on signal processing and its applications. The conference will feature world-class speakers, tutorials, exhibits, and over 50 lecture and poster sessions.


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Periodicals related to Skin

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Advanced Packaging, IEEE Transactions on

The IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging has its focus on the modeling, design, and analysis of advanced electronic, photonic, sensors, and MEMS packaging.


Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE

IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters (AWP Letters) will be devoted to the rapid electronic publication of short manuscripts in the technical areas of Antennas and Wireless Propagation.


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in

The IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering will review the state-of-the-art and trends in the emerging field of biomedical engineering. This includes scholarly works, ranging from historic and modern development in biomedical engineering to the life sciences and medicine enabled by technologies covered by the various IEEE societies.


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


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Most published Xplore authors for Skin

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Xplore Articles related to Skin

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Power Losses in Skin Layer at Parametric Generation in Crossed Fields

2018 International Conference on Actual Problems of Electron Devices Engineering (APEDE), 2018

The generation of high-frequency oscillations of the terahertz range is connected with the high influence of the skin effect. This report is devoted to the investigation of the influence of the skin effect on parametric generation in crossed fields. Calculation was conduct for power losses as for the electric component of electromagnetic field and for the magnetic component is performed. ...


Minimum Cross Entropy Thresholding Using Entropy-Li Based on Log-normal Distribution for Skin Cancer Images

2011 Seventh International Conference on Signal Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems, 2011

Accurate thresholding of skin cancer images is a very essential issue in medical diagnostic applications and biometric authentication and verification systems [1], another important issue in such applications relates to its computational complexity. The objective of this study is to develop a more accurate and faster solution for estimating the optimal thresholding value of skin images. This work proposes a ...


Analysis of Low Intensity Laser Therapy as adjuvant to Photodynamic Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

2015 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2015

The combination of Low Intensity Laser Therapy and Photodynamic Therapy constitutes a minimal invasive and highly selective alternative for the treatment of skin tumors. Photodynamic effectiveness, specially the absence of recurrence, highly depends on the type of tumor, as well as on several parameters such as those related with the optical source. Therefore it is important to have predictive tools ...


High-Contrast, Low-Cost, 3D Visualization of Skin Cancer Using Ultra-High-Resolution Millimeter-Wave Imaging

IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, None

The goal of this study is to develop a new skin imaging modality which addresses the current clinical need for a non-invasive imaging tool that images the skin over its depth with high resolutions while offering large histopathological-like contrasts between malignant and normal tissues. We demonstrate that by taking advantage of the intrinsic millimeter-wave dielectric contrasts between normal and malignant ...


Detection of Vitiligo Skin Disease using LVQ Neural Network

2017 International Conference on Current Trends in Computer, Electrical, Electronics and Communication (CTCEEC), 2017

Digital image processing is a combination of various algorithms and technique to process different types of images. It is applied in various types of image to process and get a valuable outcome from the image. The Digital image processing is the experimented on image to extract different features of the image. This paper provides the idea which is used to ...


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Educational Resources on Skin

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Power Losses in Skin Layer at Parametric Generation in Crossed Fields

    The generation of high-frequency oscillations of the terahertz range is connected with the high influence of the skin effect. This report is devoted to the investigation of the influence of the skin effect on parametric generation in crossed fields. Calculation was conduct for power losses as for the electric component of electromagnetic field and for the magnetic component is performed. It is shown that the skin effect has a negative effect on the generation process and, as a result, new methods of calculating the efficiency are shown. In final, we demonstrate the dependence of the output characteristics on the generation frequency.

  • Minimum Cross Entropy Thresholding Using Entropy-Li Based on Log-normal Distribution for Skin Cancer Images

    Accurate thresholding of skin cancer images is a very essential issue in medical diagnostic applications and biometric authentication and verification systems [1], another important issue in such applications relates to its computational complexity. The objective of this study is to develop a more accurate and faster solution for estimating the optimal thresholding value of skin images. This work proposes a new algorithm for an Iterative Minimum Cross Entropy Thresholding method based on Log-normal distribution(MCET-Lognormal), under the assumption that the data of skin images is best modelled as a mixture of Log-normal distributions. The proposed method was applied on bi- modal skin cancer images and promising experimental results were obtained. Evaluation of the resulting segmented skin images shows that the proposed method yields better estimation of the optimal threshold than does the same MCET method with Gaussian distribution (MCET-Gaussian). It also reduces computational time compared to sequential search techniques.

  • Analysis of Low Intensity Laser Therapy as adjuvant to Photodynamic Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    The combination of Low Intensity Laser Therapy and Photodynamic Therapy constitutes a minimal invasive and highly selective alternative for the treatment of skin tumors. Photodynamic effectiveness, specially the absence of recurrence, highly depends on the type of tumor, as well as on several parameters such as those related with the optical source. Therefore it is important to have predictive tools to provide an appropriate treatment planning. This work proposes the use of a complex predictive model that includes a three-dimensional meshing of the considered tumor geometry and the optical propagation therein by a three-dimensional Monte Carlo method. The proposed tool is applied to three different types of skin tumors, squamous cell carcinoma, nodular and infiltrative basal cell carcinomas. The estimated volume of treatment, depending on the tumor type and source parameters, allows an appropriate treatment planning in order to avoid undesirable tumor recurrence.

  • High-Contrast, Low-Cost, 3D Visualization of Skin Cancer Using Ultra-High-Resolution Millimeter-Wave Imaging

    The goal of this study is to develop a new skin imaging modality which addresses the current clinical need for a non-invasive imaging tool that images the skin over its depth with high resolutions while offering large histopathological-like contrasts between malignant and normal tissues. We demonstrate that by taking advantage of the intrinsic millimeter-wave dielectric contrasts between normal and malignant skin tissues, ultra- highresolution millimeter-wave imaging (UH-MMWI) can achieve three- dimensional, high-contrast images of the skin. In this work, an imaging system with a record-wide bandwidth of 98 GHz is developed using the synthetic ultra- wideband millimeter-wave imaging approach, a new ultra-high-resolution imaging technique recently developed by the authors. Twenty-one non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) specimens are imaged and compared with histopathology for evaluation. A programmable measurement platform is designed to automatically scan the tissues across a rectangular aperture plane. Furthermore, a novel frequencydomain imaging algorithm is developed to process the recorded signals and generate an image of the cancerous tissue. The high correlations achieved between MMWI images and histological images allow for rapid and accurate delineation of NMSC tissues. The millimeter-wave reflectivity values are also found to be statistically significant higher for cancerous areas with respect to normal areas. Since MMWI does not require tissue processing or staining, it can be performed promptly, enabling diagnosis of tumors at an early stage as well as simplify the tumor removal surgery to a single-layer excision procedure.

  • Detection of Vitiligo Skin Disease using LVQ Neural Network

    Digital image processing is a combination of various algorithms and technique to process different types of images. It is applied in various types of image to process and get a valuable outcome from the image. The Digital image processing is the experimented on image to extract different features of the image. This paper provides the idea which is used to detect the affected area of the Vitiligo disease with help of image captured by camera and classified the affected area from non-affected area in image. Vitiligo is the deep rooted skin disease which is depigmentation of the skin in which human skin starts losing or loss of pigment from the skin. The certain portion of the skin of body became white patches. The Vitiligo is visible in dark skin persons because of some genetic problem or environmental issues. Here, the learning vector quantization neural network is used to classify Vitiligo image in affected vs. non-affected region to detect disease. The implementation of LVQ neural network gives very good accuracy of 92.22% and kappa value of 0.810 which is very good for proposed technique.

  • In vivo Raman spectroscopic sensing of biophysical changes in skin cancer

    We developed a biophysical Raman model of human skin and validated it using in vivo clinical screening data. Key biophysical changes were used for fast and accurate diagnosis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  • Dielectric properties estimation of normal and malignant skin tissues at millimeter-wave frequencies using effective medium theory

    Millimeter-wave reflectometry can be used as a non-invasive method for early detection of skin cancers. Less penetration and higher resolution are only some reasons to use mm-waves for skin cancer diagnosis. The dielectric parameters data of human skin at mm-wave frequencies are not widely addressed in the literature due to the expensive instruments and the complicated structure of human skin. Available dielectric properties of cancerous tissues in the literature are for other tissues rather than skin and are restricted to the frequencies below 20 GHz. In this paper, dielectric properties of healthy and malignant skin tissues were estimated in the range of 20-100 GHz by applying the effective medium theory. A stratified skin model and some skin tumors were presented. The possibility of mm-wave reflectometry for detection of skin cancers has also been studied. The results of this paper can be used as a theoretical basis for taking further steps in skin cancer research.

  • Massachusetts institute of technology

    None

  • Ultra-High-Resolution Millimeter-Wave Imaging: A New Promising Skin Cancer Imaging Modality

    The goal of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using millimeter- wave imaging as a new medical imaging modality for the detection of skin cancer at early stages. In a recent large-scale study, the authors have demonstrated that statistically considerable contrasts exist between the millimeter-wave dielectric properties of normal skin and skin cancer tissues. In this work, an imaging system with a record-wide bandwidth of 98 GHz was developed using the synthetic ultra-wideband millimeterwave imaging approach, a new ultra-high-resolution imaging technique recently developed by the authors. Ex-vivo imaging experiments were conducted on two freshly-excised malignant skin tissues obtained from skin cancer patients having undergone Mohs micrographic surgeries at Hackensack University Medical Center. A programmable measurement platform was designed to automatically scan the tissues across a rectangular aperture plane. Furthermore, a novel frequency- domain imaging algorithm was developed to process the recorded signals and generate an image of the cancerous tissue. The obtained images correctly identified the tumor locations as verified by Mohs histological evaluations.

  • Ultrawideband, Stable Normal and Cancer Skin Tissue Phantoms for Millimeter-Wave Skin Cancer Imaging

    This work introduces new, stable, and broadband skin-equivalent semisolid phantoms for mimicking interactions of millimeter waves with the human skin and skin tumors. Realistic skin phantoms serve as an invaluable tool for exploring the feasibility of new technologies and improving design concepts related to millimeter-wave skin cancer detection methods. Normal and malignant skin tissues are separately mimicked by using appropriate mixtures of deionized water, oil, gelatin powder, formaldehyde, TX-150 (a gelling agent, widely referred to as “super stuff”), and detergent. The dielectric properties of the phantoms are characterized over the frequency band of 0.5-50 GHz using a slim-form open-ended coaxial probe in conjunction with a millimeter-wave vector network analyzer. The measured permittivity results show excellent match with ex vivo, fresh skin (both normal and malignant) permittivities determined in our prior work over the entire frequency range. This work results in the closest match among all phantoms reported in the literature to surrogate human skin tissues. The stability of dielectric properties over time is also investigated. The phantoms demonstrate long-term stability (up to 7 months was investigated). In addition, the penetration depth of millimeter waves into normal and malignant skin phantoms is calculated. It is determined that millimeter waves penetrate the human skin deep enough (0.6 mm on average at 50 GHz) to affect the majority of the epidermis and dermis skin structures.



Standards related to Skin

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IEEE Recommended Practice for Determining the Peak Spatial-Average Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the Human Head from Wireless Communications Devices: Measurement Techniques

To specify protocols for the measurement of the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (SAR) in a simplified model of the head of users of hand-held radio transceivers used for personal wireless communications services and intended to be operated while held next to the ear. It applies to contemporary and future devices with the same or similar operational characteristics as contemporary ...


IEEE Recommended Practice for Measurements and Computations of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields With Respect to Human Exposure to Such Fields, 100 kHz-300 GHz

Revise and develop specifications for preferred methods for measuring and computing external radiofrequency electromagnetic fields to which persons may be exposed. In addition, the document will specify preferred methods for the measurement and computation of the resulting fields and currents that are induced in bodies of humans exposed to these fields over the frequency range of 100 kHz to 300 ...