Sea surface roughness
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2020 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and North American Radio Science Meeting
The joint meeting is intended to provide an international forum for the exchange of information on state of the art research in the area of antennas and propagation, electromagnetic engineering and radio science
All fields of satellite, airborne and ground remote sensing.
OCEANS 2020 - SINGAPORE
An OCEANS conference is a major forum for scientists, engineers, and end-users throughout the world to present and discuss the latest research results, ideas, developments, and applications in all areas of oceanic science and engineering. Each conference has a specific theme chosen by the conference technical program committee. All papers presented at the conference are subsequently archived in the IEEE Xplore online database. The OCEANS conference comprises a scientific program with oral and poster presentations, and a state of the art exhibition in the field of ocean engineering and marine technology. In addition, each conference can have tutorials, workshops, panel discussions, technical tours, awards ceremonies, receptions, and other professional and social activities.
To promote awareness, understanding, advancement and application of ocean engineering and marine technology. This includes all aspects of science, engineering, and technology that address research, development, and operations pertaining to all bodies of water. This includes the creation of new capabilities and technologies from concept design through prototypes, testing, and operational systems to sense, explore, understand, develop, use, and responsibly manage natural resources.
RADAR2019 is in the frame of the international relations set up between the IET, the IEEE, the CIE, the IEAust and the SEE. The conference will focus on new research and developments in the fields: Radar Systems (ground based, airborne, spaceborne), Radar Environment and Phenomenology, Electromagnetic Modeling Radar Component Technologies, Remote Sensing from Airborne or Spaceborne Systems, SAR & ISAR Imagery Waveform design, beamforming and signal processing Emerging, Radar Applications, Smart Visualization and Information processing, System Modeling, Simulation and Validation, Radar Management Techniques Automatic Classification. The conference will take place at Toulon Neptune Palais. Located on the French Riviera, Toulon is an important centre for naval construction and aeronautical equipment,hosting the major naval centre on France's Mediterranean coast, also home of the French Navy aircraft carrier Charles De Gaulle.
The IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine publishes articles concerned with the various aspects of systems for space, air, ocean, or ground environments.
Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.
It is expected that GRS Letters will apply to a wide range of remote sensing activities looking to publish shorter, high-impact papers. Topics covered will remain within the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Societys field of interest: the theory, concepts, and techniques of science and engineering as they apply to the sensing of the earth, oceans, atmosphere, and space; and ...
Theory, concepts, and techniques of science and engineering as applied to sensing the earth, oceans, atmosphere, and space; and the processing, interpretation, and dissemination of this information.
Microwave theory, techniques, and applications as they relate to components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, transmission, and detection of microwaves.
Proceedings. Fourteenth International Conference on Pattern Recognition (Cat. No.98EX170), 1998
The authors investigate the reliability of a semi-automated system designed to locate the Maltese front from satellite AVHRR and SAR imagery. The opening and closing operations of mathematical morphology afford a means of image segmentation that provides smooth, strong, continuous edges except where the edges are obscured by clouds or similar phenomena. The authors evaluate the results by comparing them ...
[Proceedings] IGARSS'91 Remote Sensing: Global Monitoring for Earth Management, 1991
2009 International Radar Conference "Surveillance for a Safer World" (RADAR 2009), 2009
This paper deals with effects of sea surface roughness and wind direction on electromagnetic waves propagation in presence of evaporation duct. The Parabolic Equation method is used to solve the wave equation above a generated random sea surface which furthermore takes into account a roughness parameter. The wind direction influence on propagation is presented with numerical results of EM wave ...
IGARSS 2008 - 2008 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2008
Changes in the sea surface roughness from the combined effects of wind and rain, on scales of tens of kilometers, are being studied using the QuikSCAT scatterometer (NRCS) and simultaneous NEXRAD three-dimensional measurements of rain. The studies of air-sea interaction, related to surface fluxes. The results to be presented were acquired during a significant rain event in the Gulf of ...
2009 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2009
We present a new approach to the retrieval of sea surface roughness using GNSS-R. The steps through the simulation of the whole end-to-end microwave scattering of GNSS signals from the sea surface are explained, with emphasis on how to generate a linear sea surface and to implement the Kirchhoff Approximation (KA), as the large-scale part of the full scattering model. ...
Microwave PCB Structure Selection Microstrip vs. Grounded Coplanar Waveguide: MicroApps 2015 - Rogers Corporation
Waalbot: Agile Climbing with Synthetic Fibrillar Dry Adhesives
Quantum Computation - ASC-2014 Plenary series - 4 of 13 - Tuesday 2014/8/12
IMPASS: Intelligent Mobility Platform with Active Spoke System
Life Sciences: Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, and more
Power: A Fundamental Ingredient of Advanced Science and Applied Technology - Adam Hamilton, APEC 2018
Geoff Mulligan: Welcome Address: WF IoT 2016
IEEE Magnetics Distinguished Lecture - Yoshichika Otani
2011 IEEE Dennis J. Picard Medal for Radar Technologies and Applications - James M. Headrick
3D Body-Mapping for Severely Burned Patients - Julia Loegering - IEEE EMBS at NIH, 2019
BSIM Spice Model Enables FinFET and UTB IC Design
Making Orthogonal Transitions with Climbing Mini-Whegs
A Robot to Mine the Moon
Silicon THz: an Opportunity for Innovation
IROS TV 2019-STAR LAB at the University of Surrey Space Technology for Autonomous systems & Robotics
The ALMA Array: An IMS 2013 Closing Keynote
Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy: From ultralow power spintronics to cancer therapy
Lighting the Way: Optical Sensors in the Life Sciences
Demonstrations of Gravity-Independent Mobility and Drilling on Natural Rock using Microspines
The authors investigate the reliability of a semi-automated system designed to locate the Maltese front from satellite AVHRR and SAR imagery. The opening and closing operations of mathematical morphology afford a means of image segmentation that provides smooth, strong, continuous edges except where the edges are obscured by clouds or similar phenomena. The authors evaluate the results by comparing them with front positions found by experienced Navy analysts. Their system provides an objective method for front location that is less labor-intensive than manual methods currently in use.
This paper deals with effects of sea surface roughness and wind direction on electromagnetic waves propagation in presence of evaporation duct. The Parabolic Equation method is used to solve the wave equation above a generated random sea surface which furthermore takes into account a roughness parameter. The wind direction influence on propagation is presented with numerical results of EM wave propagation.
Changes in the sea surface roughness from the combined effects of wind and rain, on scales of tens of kilometers, are being studied using the QuikSCAT scatterometer (NRCS) and simultaneous NEXRAD three-dimensional measurements of rain. The studies of air-sea interaction, related to surface fluxes. The results to be presented were acquired during a significant rain event in the Gulf of Mexico, to the east of Corpus Christi, and just south of Houston, TX in May 2005. Preliminary results in NRCS caused by rain, relative to that in nearby regions with negligible rain shows distinct characteristics. Three regions with different wind speeds (4-6, 6-8 and 8-10 m/s) show definitive variation of this total NRCS with respect to wind magnitude, satellite- relative wind direction, polarization and rainrate. Relative changes are stronger in the lower wind region for both polarizations, with H-pol providing a more definitive signature. At higher wind speeds (e.g. 10 m/s) the relative splash induced increases in NRCS are still significant, and show distinct differences between polarizations.
We present a new approach to the retrieval of sea surface roughness using GNSS-R. The steps through the simulation of the whole end-to-end microwave scattering of GNSS signals from the sea surface are explained, with emphasis on how to generate a linear sea surface and to implement the Kirchhoff Approximation (KA), as the large-scale part of the full scattering model. We illustrate some examples of radar cross sections calculated using the Kirchhoff scattering model, and how they change with respect to different polarizations. Their variations with geometry, sea state and spatial resolution are investigated and discussed.
Wind and current variations at the ocean surface can give rise to a modulation of the sea surface roughness and thus become visible in radar images. The discrimination between radar signatures of oceanic and atmospheric phenomena can be difficult, since signatures of different origin can have very similar shapes and magnitudes and are often superimposed upon each other. From an oceanographer's point of view it is therefore important to identify characteristics of radar signatures of atmospheric phenomena to distinguish them from those of oceanic phenomena as well as to profit from the information they contain on parameters like, e.g., wind speed. In this work the authors employ a numerical radar imaging model for an investigation of typical properties of radar signatures of atmospheric convective cells. They show that main characteristics of observed multifrequency/multipolarization radar signatures of atmospheric convective cells over the Gulf Stream are reproduced quite well by the proposed model. This encourages them to vary wind and radar parameters systematically in order to get an overview of the dependency of atmospherically induced radar signatures on these parameters.
The combination of sea surface roughness and whitewater causes a change in emissivity from an undisturbed sea surface. Previous measurements of this effect have covered the frequency range 1-37 GHz. The seven-channel SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) on the Block 5D-2 spacecraft extends this range to 85.5 GHz, at a fixed viewing angle of 53 degrees from normal. To correct for atmospheric attenuation, vapor and liquid water in the atmosphere and surface wind speed were simultaneously estimated from the 22.2 GHz vertically polarized and the 37.0 GHz dual-polarized channels. Data with liquid water burden in excess of 0.07 kg/m/sup 2/ were excluded. In the horizontally polarized measurements, the wind-speed sensitivity of emissivity at 85.5 GHz was greater than at 37.0 GHz by a factor of approximately 1.4. For vertical polarization at 85.5 GHz, the sensitivity was much smaller than for horizontal polarization, and somewhat smaller than for vertical polarization at 37 GHz.<<ETX>>
A set of geophysical error sources for the microwave remote sensing of ocean surface salinity have been examined. The error sources include the sea surface temperature, sea surface roughness, atmospheric gases, ionospheric Faraday rotation, and solar and Galactic emission sources. It is shown that the brightness temperature effects of a few kelvin can be expected for most of these error sources. The key correction requirements for accurate salinity measurements are the knowledge accuracy of 0.5/spl deg/C for the sea surface temperature (SST), 10 mbar for the surface air pressure, 2/spl deg/C for the surface air temperature, 0.20 accuracy for the Faraday rotation, and surface roughness equivalent to 0.3 m s/sup -1/ for the surface wind speed. We suggest the use of several data products for corrections, including the AMSR-type instruments for SST and liquid cloud water, the AMSU-type product for air temperature, the scatterometer products or numerical weather analysis for the air pressure, coincidental radar observations with 0.2 dB precision for surface roughness, and on-board polarimetric radiometer channel for Faraday rotation. The most significant sky radiation is from the Sun. A careful design of the antenna is necessary to minimize the leakage of solar radiation or reflection into the antenna sidelobes. The narrow-band radiation from Galactic hydrogen clouds with a bandwidth of less than 1 MHz is also significant, but can be corrected with a radio sky survey or minimized with a notched (band- rejection) filter centered at 1.421 GHz. The other planetary and Galactic radio sources can also be flagged with a small data loss. We have performed a sampling analysis for a polar-orbiting satellite with 900 km swath width to determine the number of satellite observations over a given surface grid cell during an extended period. Under the assumption that the observations from different satellite passes are independent, it is suggested that an accuracy of 0.1 psu (practical salinity unit) is achievable for global monthly 10 latitude by 10 longitude gridded products.
Scattering cross-sections for a rough sea surface in presence of wind and rain are simulated at oblique incidences and for various environmental conditions. They are compared with Ku-band radar signatures available from the literature.
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