Myelin

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Myelin is a dielectric material that forms a layer, the myelin sheath, usually around only the axon of a neuron. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Myelin

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2019 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops andinvitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields ofbiomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality paperswill be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and willbe indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE & IEEE Xplore


2019 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS)

The conference covers all aspects of the technology associated with ultrasound generation and detection and their applications.


2019 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC)

This conference is the annual premier meeting on the use of instrumentation in the Nuclear and Medical fields. The meeting has a very long history of providing an exciting venue for scientists to present their latest advances, exchange ideas, renew existing collaboration and form new ones. The NSS portion of the conference is an ideal forum for scientists and engineers in the field of Nuclear Science, radiation instrumentation, software engineering and data acquisition. The MIC is one of the most informative venues on the state-of-the art use of physics, engineering, and mathematics in Nuclear Medicine and related imaging modalities, such as CT and increasingly so MRI, through the development of hybrid devices


ICASSP 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP)

ICASSP is the world’s largest and most comprehensive technical conference focused on signal processing and its applications. The conference will feature world-class presentations by internationally renowned speakers, cutting-edge session topics and provide a fantastic opportunity to network with like-minded professionals from around the world.


2018 7th IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (Biorob)

The RAS/EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics - BioRob 2018 - is a joint effort of the two IEEE Societies of Robotics and Automation - RAS - and Engineering in Medicine and Biology - EMBS.BioRob covers both theoretical and experimental challenges posed by the application of robotics and mechatronics in medicine and biology. The primary focus of Biorobotics is to analyze biological systems from a "biomechatronic" point of view, trying to understand the scientific and engineering principles underlying their extraordinary performance. This profound understanding of how biological systems work, behave and interact can be used for two main objectives: to guide the design and fabrication of novel, high performance bio-inspired machines and systems for many different applications; and to develop novel nano, micro-, macro- devices that can act upon, substitute parts of, and assist human beings in prevention, diagnosis, surgery, prosthetics, rehabilitation.


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Periodicals related to Myelin

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Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Latin America Transactions, IEEE (Revista IEEE America Latina)

The IEEE Region 9 is releasing the IEEE Latin America Transactions to enable the publication of non-published and technically excellent papers from Latin American engineers, in Spanish or Portuguese languages. Engineers and researchers from Portugal and Spain (and others countries with the same language) are also very welcome to submit their proposals.


Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on

Science and technology related to the basic physics and engineering of magnetism, magnetic materials, applied magnetics, magnetic devices, and magnetic data storage. The Transactions publishes scholarly articles of archival value as well as tutorial expositions and critical reviews of classical subjects and topics of current interest.


Medical Imaging, IEEE Transactions on

Imaging methods applied to living organisms with emphasis on innovative approaches that use emerging technologies supported by rigorous physical and mathematical analysis and quantitative evaluation of performance.


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Most published Xplore authors for Myelin

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Xplore Articles related to Myelin

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A distributed-parameter model of the myelinated nerve fiber

Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1988

A model is presented that assumes a triaxial cable form, with separate nodal, paranodal, and internodal regions; a myelin sheath independent of the underlying internodal membrane; and a periaxonal conductance pathway. Unlike previous coaxial-cable-equivalent models, this triaxial form allows inclusion of ionic channels in the internodal membrane. The model uses ionic channel dynamics for the mammal and amphibian derived from ...


Influence of the myelin sheath on excitation properties of nerve fibers

Proceedings of the 22nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (Cat. No.00CH37143), 2000

The excitation and conduction properties of computer-based cable models of mammalian motor nerve fibers incorporating three different myelin representations were compared. The three myelin representations were a perfectly insulating single cable (model A), a finite impedance single cable (model B), and a finite impedance double cable (model C). Extracellular stimulation of the three models was used to study strength-duration, current- ...


Electromagnetic stimulation of a myelinated axon

Sixteenth Annual Northeast Conference on Bioengineering, 1990

A mathematical model of electromagnetic stimulation of a peripheral nerve axon in a limb is presented. The model predicts the distribution of transmembrane potential along the axon, and the shape of the tissue volume that is stimulated. It is shown that threshold stimulus strength is inversely proportional to the square of the axon diameter.<<ETX>>


Modeling Complex Current Waves of a Sural Nerve after Electric Stimulation in case of a Thin Myelin Sheath

2007 IEEE/ICME International Conference on Complex Medical Engineering, 2007

A nerve conduction test checks whether the function of a nerve to conduct action potentials is normal or not by measuring compound action potential on the skin. In some neuropathies, a decrease in the thickness of the myelin sheath is observed. This is considered to be a cause of any delay or decay of the conduction of compound action potentials. ...


Registration of Diffusion Tensor Images Based on Hybrid Optimization Method

2009 3rd International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 2009

Registration of diffusion tensor images has attracted more and more attention in recent years. In this paper a novel affine registration algorithm for diffusion tensor (DT) MR images that enables explicit analytic optimization of tensor reorientation is presented. The objective function captures both the image similarity and tensor reorientation, which is necessary for warping DT images. The final optimization method ...


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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • A distributed-parameter model of the myelinated nerve fiber

    A model is presented that assumes a triaxial cable form, with separate nodal, paranodal, and internodal regions; a myelin sheath independent of the underlying internodal membrane; and a periaxonal conductance pathway. Unlike previous coaxial-cable-equivalent models, this triaxial form allows inclusion of ionic channels in the internodal membrane. The model uses ionic channel dynamics for the mammal and amphibian derived from recent experimental studies. It reproduces conduction behavior seen in experimental and previous modeling efforts, as well as the depolarizing afterpotential described by several investigators, which may have significance in determining the behavior of the nerve fiber as multiple action potentials are conducted or as multiple stimuli are imposed. This afterpotential cannot be produced by the previous coaxial models. The influence of the characteristics of the myelin sheath, underlying internodal membrane, and the periaxonal conductance pathway on the behavior of the nerve fiber is explored.<<ETX>>

  • Influence of the myelin sheath on excitation properties of nerve fibers

    The excitation and conduction properties of computer-based cable models of mammalian motor nerve fibers incorporating three different myelin representations were compared. The three myelin representations were a perfectly insulating single cable (model A), a finite impedance single cable (model B), and a finite impedance double cable (model C). Extracellular stimulation of the three models was used to study strength-duration, current- distance (I-X), conduction velocity (CV) properties. All three models had a chronaxie time (Tch) that was within the experimental range. Models B and C had increased threshold current as compared to model A, but each model had a slope to the I-X relationship that matched experimental results. Model B had a CV that matched experimental data while the CV of models A and C were above and below the experimental range, respectively. These results indicate that the presence of a finite impedance myelin sheath does influence the excitation properties of nerve fiber models and must be considered when using models for design of neural stimulation paradigms.

  • Electromagnetic stimulation of a myelinated axon

    A mathematical model of electromagnetic stimulation of a peripheral nerve axon in a limb is presented. The model predicts the distribution of transmembrane potential along the axon, and the shape of the tissue volume that is stimulated. It is shown that threshold stimulus strength is inversely proportional to the square of the axon diameter.<<ETX>>

  • Modeling Complex Current Waves of a Sural Nerve after Electric Stimulation in case of a Thin Myelin Sheath

    A nerve conduction test checks whether the function of a nerve to conduct action potentials is normal or not by measuring compound action potential on the skin. In some neuropathies, a decrease in the thickness of the myelin sheath is observed. This is considered to be a cause of any delay or decay of the conduction of compound action potentials. However degenerated nerves include those with missing nerve fibers, which also decreases the velocity and amplitude of the potential. To investigate the effect of myelin sheath exfoliation, the compound action current was defined as modeling the source of compound action potentials, which are constructed as a complex of axonal currents of each nerve fiber inside a nerve. As a result, the thickness of the nerve fiber contributed to slowing the velocity of the current wave; however, the amplitude of the wave did not always decrease.

  • Registration of Diffusion Tensor Images Based on Hybrid Optimization Method

    Registration of diffusion tensor images has attracted more and more attention in recent years. In this paper a novel affine registration algorithm for diffusion tensor (DT) MR images that enables explicit analytic optimization of tensor reorientation is presented. The objective function captures both the image similarity and tensor reorientation, which is necessary for warping DT images. The final optimization method seeks a hybrid optimization method. Results show that this method is a stable one, which not only avoids local extrema successfully, but also ensures that the DT orientations remain consistent with the anatomy after image transformations and also improves the average of overlap of eigenvalue-eigenvector.

  • Low-level microwave effect on nerve pulse propagation velocity

    The hypotheses that microwave radiation can affect permeability of the nerve fibers membranes or myelin sheaths was examined in this study. The changes in fiber membrane permeability affect propagation velocity of the nerve pulse. The experimental investigation was carried out for nerve pulse propagation velocity with and without applied microwave field and different orientations of its polarization to the nerve axon. The 450 MHz radiation was applied polarized perpendicular or parallel to the nerve fiber. The measured field power density at the skin was 0.87 mW/cm/sup 2/. The left and right nervus medianus motor nerve fibers of two young female subjects were under the study. The results of 20 measurements show that low-level microwave radiation caused statistically significant increase in nerve pulse propagation velocity in human motor nerve fiber. It is important to point out that the effect depends on polarization. The changes were detected for perpendicular to the nerve fiber polarization only. The effect would be related rather to reduction of axional resistance of the nerve axon than to the myelin sheath.

  • Study of conduction in a new model of the myelinated nerve fiber

    A new mathematical model of the myelinated nerve fiber was applied to the study of conduction behavior. This model represents the myelinated nerve fiber as a multiaxial equivalent electric circuit incorporating separate intra- axonal, periaxonal and extra-axonal longitudinal conductive pathways with independent representations of the myelin sheath versus the underlying axolemmal membrane. A detailed anatomical representation of the node is included, with the periaxonal space extending to the nodal compartment. Both amphibian and mammalian nerve fibers were modeled. Model results show a physiological conduction velocity of 57.6 m/s for 17.5- mu m-diameter mammalian nerve fiber at 37 degrees C with a change in conduction velocity versus temperature closely correlated to experimental findings. The periaxonal space width and the axon radius in the paranodal region are shown to have a strong influence on conduction velocity.<<ETX>>

  • Segmentation of Nerve Fibers by Introducing Intensity Priority in Level Set

    The segmentation of the optic nerve fibers is important for the morphometry study of optic nerve. However, such studies are hampered by the thousands of fibers involved when manual segmentation has to be used. We have developed an automatic segmentation method which is principally based on improved Chan-Vese level set model which integrating myelin sheath intensity priority. Next, identify the axon candidates by labeling closed region based on marker. Our results indicate that this approach for segmenting nerve fiber images is efficient, and advisable compared to manual segmentation.

  • An electrodiffusion model of the mammalian myelinated nerve fiber

    A new model of the mammalian myelinated nerve fiber is presented which includes the representation of longitudinal electrodiffusion of component ions within the intra-axonal and periaxonal volumes. The model utilizes a non- uniform compartmental approximation to the detailed anatomy of the nodal and paranodal regions. The axonal membrane includes ionic pumps and multiple types of ionic channels whose spatial distribution and dynamics are derived from contemporary experimental studies. The model takes the form of a system of coupled non-linear parabolic partial differential equations with time-varying coefficients. A finite-difference approximation to this system is formed and solved utilizing an implicit numerical integration method. This model also includes a graphical user interface as well as a simulation management and optimization environment. The model reproduces conduction behavior seen in previous experimental and modeling efforts. Importantly, this model represents activity-dependent changes in ion concentration within the myelinated nerve fiber. In particular, significant changes can be seen in the concentration of potassium ions in the restricted periaxonal volume contained between the inner layer of the myelin sheath and the axon.



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