What are real-time embedded systems?
Real-time embedded systems combine features from both real-time systems and embedded systems, quickly delivering highly reliable responses to some external input.
The most cutting-edge real-time embedded systems are a key part of the future of semiconductors. As technology evolves beyond complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS), real-time embedded systems will become more powerful.
This is because as engineers develop digital logic technologies that go beyond CMOS scaling limits, chips will be able to provide greater computational power to digital devices. And more computational power means better real-time embedded systems.
What is a real-time system?
Real-time systems are computer systems that are designed to respond to an event or request from an external environment within a strictly defined time also known as a deadline. An important defining characteristic of these systems is that they are predictable and deterministic. This is essential for systems that need to respond in real time.
For some real-time applications, such as in medical devices sustaining human life, missing a deadline would be absolutely unacceptable. These systems are known as hard real-time systems. For other real-time applications, however, missing a deadline would be undesirable but not absolutely unacceptable. These are known as soft real-time systems.
What is an embedded system?
Embedded systems combine hardware and embedded software for a specific function or functions within a larger system. A very simple and convenient definition of an embedded system is any computer system contained within a product that is not described as a computer.
While all embedded systems, or embedded applications, are computing systems, they have widely varying user interfaces. Some embedded systems are designed to perform a single task and do not require a user interface. Other embedded systems have complex graphical user interfaces.
Why are real-time embedded systems important?
Real-time embedded systems are important because they provide the means to achieve predictable responses to deadlines. This means that they can exert tight control over certain outcomes. They can produce results in real time, without a significant delay.
There are numerous examples of real-time systems in some of the most important places in contemporary commercial, governmental, military, medical, educational, and cultural infrastructures.
Examples include but aren’t limited to the following:
- Traffic control systems for highways, airspace, railway tracks, and shipping lanes
- Process control systems for power plants and chemical plants
- Medical systems for radiation therapy, patient monitoring, and defibrillation
- Military weapon systems
These examples demonstrate the concept of a system capable of responding predictably in real time. All of these systems have to do their jobs without significant time lags.
How a real-time embedded system works
A real-time embedded system works by combining real-time environmental interaction with embedded software processing, creating predictable, deterministic real-time computing systems that are capable of executing “mission critical” applications. Real-time embedded systems use input from the environment and generate real-time responses that affect outcomes.
Real-time embedded systems with embedded software differ from embedded Linux applications by being much more limited: embedded systems comprise static link libraries providing only task scheduling, interprocess communication, synchronization timing and interrupt services, and little else besides. This is in many ways an advantage compared to Linux, since their limited capabilities are geared toward fulfilling their functions.
How does an embedded system work?
An embedded system incorporates a rugged motherboard into an industrial enclosure, with an associated input and output (I/O) and software to fulfill the process that is the function of the system. The hardware component of an embedded system is broadly similar to that of other electronic systems. The hardware is based around a microprocessor or microcontroller, along with the elements of memory and I/O.
This hardware component is the central component of the system, responsible for carrying out computational tasks. To that end, embedded systems contain software known as firmware written for one particular application. The creators of these systems typically write the firmware in high-level formats and compile them to provide code that can be stored within a nonvolatile memory within the hardware.
How do reactive embedded systems work?
Many embedded systems are reactive embedded systems, meaning they must react continuously to any input from their environment by generating an output. Such systems are built around one crucial concern—safety. They embody real-time computing.
The basic structure of a reactive embedded system starts with a sensor, which continuously measures a physical quantity or input and converts it to an electrical signal. The system stores the signal in its memory and reads it with an external observer or analog-to-digital converter.
The processors acquire the digital signal, process it, and measure the output. They can then store the results to memory. A digital-to-analog converter converts the digital data back to analog data, and an actuator can compare the output with the actual expected output and store the approved output.
What are the hardware foundations of a real-time embedded system?
The hardware foundations of a real-time embedded system generally consist of either a microcontroller or a microprocessor. A microcontroller is basically a central processing unit (CPU), or a processor with integrated memory or peripheral devices.
A microprocessor, on the other hand, contains a CPU but makes use of external chips for memory and peripheral interfaces.
Pros and cons of using real-time embedded systems
The upsides and downsides to using real-time embedded systems largely stem from the same set of features. These systems are designed to perform a limited number of tasks quickly, reliably, and without error. As a result, they are prone to trade-offs such as limited function and being difficult to edit and program.
Embedded systems are small, relatively cheap, and specific to one particular task. Because of these features, they are highly reliable, load quickly, use system resources in a highly optimized and efficient manner, and consume low power.
This means that embedded systems are ideal for heterogeneous integration with other components. Thanks to sound embedded systems programming, an embedded system can reliably perform its single allotted task in a manner that enhances the functionality of the rest of the system.
Embedded systems are difficult to upgrade, and if one of them has a problem, it is necessary to reset the settings. Their hardware is very limited, troubleshooting them is difficult, and they do not make it easy to transfer data to other systems.
What are the advantages of using RTOS software architecture for an embedded system?
The advantages of using real-time operating system (RTOS) software architecture for the development of an embedded system include speed, efficiency, and reliability.
RTOS software architecture allows for priority-based scheduling, or real-time scheduling. Using an algorithm, a real-time operating system can act as a scheduler, deciding which tasks to execute at any point in time and which ones to suspend. For that matter, tasks can also suspend themselves.
These systems are fast and deterministic, making them ideal for integration with embedded systems in many ways. Their claims on memory usage are predictable, since each task is allocated defined stack space.
Code reuse is another benefit of RTOS architecture. Similar applications on similar platforms can use some of the same code, allowing developers to create and use a library of standard tasks. Real-time operating systems are also extremely reliable and have the capacity to deliver desired outcomes without error.
What are the disadvantages of using RTOS software architecture for an embedded system?
The disadvantages of using RTOS software architecture for an embedded system have a great deal to do with the same features that make these systems so capable.
For one thing, these systems possess limited task ability. They are designed to provide a fast, resource-efficient, highly reliable means of completing certain tasks. But part of the necessary trade-off is that they can run only a few tasks at the same time. This is necessary to avoid errors.
Another problem is editability. Real-time operating systems rely on complex algorithms, and the very complexity of these algorithms makes it difficult to edit them. A real-time operating system software architecture is not easy to program or edit.
These systems also need specific device drivers and interrupt signals to respond quickly to interrupts. They are not good at switching tasks.
Overall, these systems deliver speed and reliability in the handling of a few tasks at the expense of versatility and editability.
How to implement real-time embedded systems
From a software engineering perspective, how to implement real-time embedded systems is largely a question of choosing a design and installing the real-time operating system onto an embedded device.
What projects can take advantage of a real-time embedded system?
Any application that needs to respond to an external stimulus predictably, quickly, and without error can take advantage of a real-time embedded system. Examples include the following:
- Automobile airbag systems
- Traffic control systems
- Pacemaker systems
- Military weapons, tracking, and command-control systems
What is the best way to implement a real-time embedded system?
The best way to implement a real-time embedded system is to start with clear requirements so that you can be sure the design meets those requirements. Once you have a design, you can proceed to programming.
Object-oriented programming with message-passing ability offers some of the best ways to implement a real-time embedded system. The IEEE Xplore digital library includes numerous resources that offer guidance on implementing a wide range of real-time operating systems in the context of embedded devices.
How can you ensure a smooth implementation of a real-time embedded system?
Smoothly implementing a real-time embedded system starts with addressing the necessary elements of these systems. Their creators have to program them to meet given timing constraints; this is part of the software engineering design and the definition of a real-time system. These constraints include event response—that is, what the system is supposed to do when it encounters the stimulus it is designed to respond to—and task scheduling.
Task scheduling covers the ability of real-time embedded systems to respond to different inputs with different tasks, a task being a response in the form of a set of instructions. Common design patterns include round-robin scheduling, in which each system component takes a turn using shared resources, and queueing design, in which items take their turns.
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2021 26th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA )
ETFA focus is on the latest developments and new technologies in the field of industrial and factory automation. The conference aims to exchange ideas with both industry leaders and a variety of experienced researchers, developers, and practitioners from several industries, research institutes, and academia
2020 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and North American Radio Science Meeting
The joint meeting is intended to provide an international forum for the exchange of information on state of the art research in the area of antennas and propagation, electromagnetic engineering and radio science
IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) is one of the IEEE Communications Society’s two flagship conferences dedicated to driving innovation in nearly every aspect of communications. Each year, more than 2,900 scientific researchers and their management submit proposals for program sessions to be held at the annual conference. After extensive peer review, the best of the proposals are selected for the conference program, which includes technical papers, tutorials, workshops and industry sessions designed specifically to advance technologies, systems and infrastructure that are continuing to reshape the world and provide all users with access to an unprecedented spectrum of high-speed, seamless and cost-effective global telecommunications services.
The Conference focuses on all aspects of instrumentation and measurement science andtechnology research development and applications. The list of program topics includes but isnot limited to: Measurement Science & Education, Measurement Systems, Measurement DataAcquisition, Measurements of Physical Quantities, and Measurement Applications.
The IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON) 2020 is the eleventh in a series of conferences that rotate among central locations in IEEE Region 8 (Europe, Middle East and North Africa). EDUCON is one of the flagship conferences of the IEEE Education Society. It seeks to foster the area of Engineering Education under the leadership of the IEEE Education Society.
The theory, design and application of Control Systems. It shall encompass components, and the integration of these components, as are necessary for the construction of such systems. The word `systems' as used herein shall be interpreted to include physical, biological, organizational and other entities and combinations thereof, which can be represented through a mathematical symbolism. The Field of Interest: shall ...
The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...
Part I will now contain regular papers focusing on all matters related to fundamental theory, applications, analog and digital signal processing. Part II will report on the latest significant results across all of these topic areas.
IEEE Communications Magazine was the number three most-cited journal in telecommunications and the number eighteen cited journal in electrical and electronics engineering in 2004, according to the annual Journal Citation Report (2004 edition) published by the Institute for Scientific Information. Read more at http://www.ieee.org/products/citations.html. This magazine covers all areas of communications such as lightwave telecommunications, high-speed data communications, personal communications ...
Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to, sequence analysis, comparison and alignment methods; motif, gene and signal recognition; molecular evolution; phylogenetics and phylogenomics; determination or prediction of the structure of RNA and Protein in two and three dimensions; DNA twisting and folding; gene expression and gene regulatory networks; deduction of metabolic pathways; micro-array design and analysis; proteomics; ...
2011 IEEE EUROCON - International Conference on Computer as a Tool, 2011
The common approach teaching Embedded Systems Engineering is "Bottom-up", which introduces the "Embedded World" to the students at bit level abstraction. The analysis of students-feedback showed that this approach has demotivating effects as there is a quite big entrance hurdle. The alternative approach is to start at Operating System level and gradually migrate to direct hardware access. The students are ...
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters, 2016
Executing computing tasks with replications is an essential choice to achieve fault-tolerance in designing real-time, embedded systems. A problem of maximizing the number of real-time tasks with replications running on a multiprocessor embedded system is discussed in this letter. The partitioning problem can be modeled as a variant of the bin-packing problem. In the original problem, it is known that ...
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters, 2013
This letter introduces a novel application of model-based runtime monitoring of deeply embedded systems. The proposed framework comprises of a minimally intrusive, generic, software-based, runtime monitoring methodology for visualizing the behavior of deeply embedded systems in real-time. The model- based runtime monitoring results are then reused for generating model-based test cases. A prototype implementation of the proposed framework is discussed ...
2012 17th IEEE European Test Symposium (ETS), 2012
When migrating to future technology nodes, dependability becomes a major design problem as variability, aging and susceptibility to soft errors increase. The purpose of this program is to research cross-layer solutions that address the physical problems at system-level i.e. at hardware-level, operating system level, application level etc. The goals and an overview of the DFG SPP 1500 research program are ...
2011 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON), 2011
Embedded systems courses and labs teaching hardware and software design are a necessity in many technical university programs. The attendees of these courses train their skills and expertise on hardware platforms available for the students only during the phase of attendance. To gain practical skills in building such systems, lab courses are required and appropriate parts have to be supplied. ...
ICASSP 2011 Trends in Design and Implementation of Signal Processing Systems
Transportation Electrification: The Connected Locomotive
Media & Women in Technology Panel - Lynnette Reese & Jennifer Elias - WIE ILC 2018
Howard Shrobe: Runtime Security Monitor for Real-time Critical System Embedded Applications: WF IoT 2016
Noise-Shaped Active SAR Analog-to-Digital Converter - IEEE Circuits and Systems Society (CAS) Distinguished Lecture
Robotics History: Narratives and Networks Oral Histories: Gurav Sukhatme
Robotics History: Narratives and Networks Oral Histories: Pradeep Khosla
APEC Speaker Highlights: Robert White, Chief Engineer, Embedded Power
APEC 2015: 3D Packaging
SOC DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR IMPROVED ROBUSTNESS
A 28nm, 475mW, 0.4-to-1.7GHz Embedded Transceiver Front-End Enabling High-Speed Data Streaming Within Home Cable Networks: RFIC Industry Showcase
Fog Computing Test Bed: Cutting Costs and Latency in Data Transmission - Fog World Congress
Computing in the Cambrian Era - ICRC 2018 Plenary, Paolo Faraboschi
KeyTalk with Conor Quinn: Empowering the Electronics Industry - A Power Technology Roadmap - APEC 2017
LPIRC: A Facebook Approach to Benchmarking ML Workload
Advanced Capacitive Sensing for Consumer, Industrial, and Automotive Applications - Lecture by Dr. Hans Klein
APEC Exhibitor Showcase - Texas Instruments Power Management
Fog Computing on the Horizon - Fog World Congress
3D Power Packaging Made Real with Embedded Component and Substrate Technologies - P.M. Raj, APEC 2018
The common approach teaching Embedded Systems Engineering is "Bottom-up", which introduces the "Embedded World" to the students at bit level abstraction. The analysis of students-feedback showed that this approach has demotivating effects as there is a quite big entrance hurdle. The alternative approach is to start at Operating System level and gradually migrate to direct hardware access. The students are already familiar with Operating Systems, since they use them every day and the curriculum prematurely provides them with knowledge about it. This means starting to teach Embedded Systems Engineering at Operating System level picks up the students at an already existing base of knowledge and guides them to the basics of Embedded Systems Engineering.
Executing computing tasks with replications is an essential choice to achieve fault-tolerance in designing real-time, embedded systems. A problem of maximizing the number of real-time tasks with replications running on a multiprocessor embedded system is discussed in this letter. The partitioning problem can be modeled as a variant of the bin-packing problem. In the original problem, it is known that the first-fit (FF) method has a good worst- case performance bound of 4/3. Whether or not the same bound is achievable in the variant problem remains an open question. This letter closes the question by proving that the worst-case performance bound of using the FF method approaches to 2 but it never reaches it. Then, a tight bound of asymptotic worst-case performance is shown.
This letter introduces a novel application of model-based runtime monitoring of deeply embedded systems. The proposed framework comprises of a minimally intrusive, generic, software-based, runtime monitoring methodology for visualizing the behavior of deeply embedded systems in real-time. The model- based runtime monitoring results are then reused for generating model-based test cases. A prototype implementation of the proposed framework is discussed along with examples.
When migrating to future technology nodes, dependability becomes a major design problem as variability, aging and susceptibility to soft errors increase. The purpose of this program is to research cross-layer solutions that address the physical problems at system-level i.e. at hardware-level, operating system level, application level etc. The goals and an overview of the DFG SPP 1500 research program are presented.
Embedded systems courses and labs teaching hardware and software design are a necessity in many technical university programs. The attendees of these courses train their skills and expertise on hardware platforms available for the students only during the phase of attendance. To gain practical skills in building such systems, lab courses are required and appropriate parts have to be supplied. To train the same skills and expertise in distance learning courses, a new approach is necessary, as everything has to be supplied to the students "at home". Apart from detailed hands on tutorials and teaching materials, a hardware platform for every student is mandatory. To keep the motivation for the subject high, a start at Operating System level (nowadays well known to all the students) and gradual decent to bit-level and the attachment of external hardware to a microcontroller, is the introduced approach. This is standing in opposition to common concepts that start at pin- level and progress up to Operating System level. To train practical skills in assembling an embedded system a HW/SW co simulation tool comes in handy. The students can prepare and test a self designed electronic completely in the simulation environment and hands-on skills with real components can be gained quickly in a very short attendance phase. The concepts and recommended tools for such a distance learning course are described in this paper.
Tool integration in the context of embedded systems development and maintenance is challenging due to such systems' lengthy life cycles and adaptability to process specifications. The iFEST framework provides flexibility in development processes and extends support for long product life cycles.
This article introduces status and prospects of current embedded systems industry as well as its professional personnel education status and existing problems in universities and colleges in China, presents embedded systems professionals demand and ability and quality constitutions from enterprises' points of view, introduces the course systems and practice arrangements for embedded systems-majored professional personnel education from Harbin Normal University, and lastly forecasts the future of embedded systems major and proposes the way this industry goes as well.
In a model-driven engineering development process that focuses on guaranteeing that extra-functional concerns modeled at design level are preserved at platform execution level, the task of automated code generation must produce artifacts that enable back-annotation activities. In fact when the target platform code has been generated, quality attributes of the system are evaluated by appropriate code execution monitoring/analysis tools and their results back-annotated to the source models to be extensively evaluated. Only at this point the preservation of analysed extra-functional aspects can be either asserted or achieved by re-applying the code generation chain to the source models properly optimized according to the evaluation results. In this work we provide a solution for the problem of automatically generating target platform code from source models focusing on producing code artifacts that facilitate analysis and enable back-annotation activities. Arisen challenges and solutions are described together with completed and planned implementation of the proposed approach.
Teaching and learning can be accomplished in different ways. In this paper, we report on how theoretical concepts can be revisited and mastered through student projects in Embedded systems course. Over the past 10 years we have been developing a course in Embedded Systems Engineering at the University of Iceland. This course has evolved over the years and many student projects are outstanding in quality, some have even spun off as hi-tech start-up companies. The recipe for successful project driven senior/masters level course on Embedded Systems Engineering seems to have three main ingredients; student ownership, challenge and mentorship. In this paper, we discuss the Importance of mentorship, student ownership, and challenging projects to enforce theoretical subjects. Course and curriculum development in project based Embedded Systems Engineering course is also discussed.
With the aim of stimulating an interest in embedded systems among engineering students and young professionals, spreading the latest advances in embedded systems, and encouraging collaboration between industry and academia, the second edition of the Simposio Argentino de Sistemas Embebidos, SASE, (i.e. Argentinean Symposium of Embedded Systems) was organized in Buenos Aires, Argentina. SASE is one of the biggest South American meetings on embedded systems, having about four hundred attendees, the sponsorship of fifty universities, fifteen institutions and thirty companies, and offering 120 ninety-minute tutorials, 17 three-hour hands-on workshops, a scientific meeting with paper and poster presentations, six plenary sessions, a student- projects contest, an entrepreneurship contest, a university-equipment donation program, and a travel and accommodation grant program; all under the scope of a low fee event. In this paper we present a brief summary on how SASE was conceived, how professors from different universities and people from industry worked together to organize this event, and the obtained results.
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