Conferences related to Indirect liquid cooling

Back to Top

2020 19th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm)

The ITherm Conference series is the leading international venue for scientific and engineering exploration of thermal, thermomechanical, and emerging technology issues associated with electronic devices, packages, and systems.



Periodicals related to Indirect liquid cooling

Back to Top

Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on

Component parts, hybrid microelectronics, materials, packaging techniques, and manufacturing technology.


Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Theory and applications of industrial electronics and control instrumentation science and engineering, including microprocessor control systems, high-power controls, process control, programmable controllers, numerical and program control systems, flow meters, and identification systems.


Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Measurements and instrumentation utilizing electrical and electronic techniques.



Most published Xplore authors for Indirect liquid cooling

Back to Top

Xplore Articles related to Indirect liquid cooling

Back to Top

Experimental study on the liquid cooling of a test MCM using paraffin slurry

ITherm'98. Sixth Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (Cat. No.98CH36208), 1998

This study investigated the effects of the experimental parameters on the cooling performance of the indirect liquid cooling method using water and paraffin slurry. The experimental parameters are mass fraction of 2.5/spl sim/7.5%, heat flux of 10/spl sim/40 W/cm/sup 2/ for the simulated VLSI chips and Reynolds numbers of 5,300/spl sim/16,000. The apparatus consisted of a test section, paraffin slurry ...


Direct liquid cooling of a stacked multichip module

4th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, 2002., 2002

With the advances in microfabrication techniques and high performance chips, the heat flux from electronic components is reaching a point where air-cooling is unlikely to meet the cooling requirements for future generation computer chips. Direct single-phase liquid cooling of a stacked multichip module using FC-77 is examined in this paper. Three-dimensional numerical simulation is conducted to investigate the flow and ...


Advanced cooling technology for leading-edge computer products

1998 5th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology. Proceedings (Cat. No.98EX105), 1998

Cooling technology has been a vital prerequisite for the rapid and continued advancement of computer products, ranging from lap-tops to supercomputers. This paper provides a review of the recent development of cooling technology for computers. Both air cooling and liquid cooling are included. Air cooling is discussed in terms of the advantages of impinging flow. An example of module internal ...


Experimental and numerical study on natural convection from upward horizontal rectangular grooved fins

InterSociety Conference on Thermal Phenomena in Electronic Systems, I-THERM V, 1996

Natural convection from two-dimensional upward horizontal rectangular grooved fins was studied experimentally and numerically. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used in the experiment and the local Nusselt numbers on each surface (outer, left, bottom, and right surfaces) of the grooves were measured quantitatively by analyzing the interferograms. In some cases (grooves of some aspect ratios in low Grashof number), the total ...


Gas Cooling Enhancement Technology for Integrated Circuit Chips

IEEE Transactions on Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, 1984

New approaches are described for increasing the capability of forced gas convection cooling for integrated circuit chips, using an enhanced heat transfer technique and a higher gas flow velocity in a closed-cycle flow. A turbulence promoting fin with low pressure loss has been developed and enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient using gas flow velocities up to 50 m/s is ...


More Xplore Articles

Educational Resources on Indirect liquid cooling

Back to Top

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Experimental study on the liquid cooling of a test MCM using paraffin slurry

    This study investigated the effects of the experimental parameters on the cooling performance of the indirect liquid cooling method using water and paraffin slurry. The experimental parameters are mass fraction of 2.5/spl sim/7.5%, heat flux of 10/spl sim/40 W/cm/sup 2/ for the simulated VLSI chips and Reynolds numbers of 5,300/spl sim/16,000. The apparatus consisted of a test section, paraffin slurry maker, pump, constant temperature baths, flowmeter, etc. The test section contains an in-line, four-row array of 12 heat sources for simulation of a 4/spl times/3 multichip module, which were flush mounted on the top wall of a horizontal rectangular channel with an aspect ratio of 0.2. The inlet temperature was 20/spl deg/C for all experiments. The paraffin slurry size of between 10/spl sim/40 /spl mu/m did not change before or after the experiment. The chip surface temperatures for paraffin slurry with a mass fraction of 7.5% were lower by 16/spl deg/C than those for water when the heat flux is 40 W/cm/sup 2/. The local heat transfer coefficients for the paraffin slurry with a mass fraction of 7.5% were larger by 17/spl sim/25% than those of water at the first and the fourth row. The local heat transfer coefficients reached a row-number-independent, thermally fully developed value approximately at the third row. The local average Nusselt numbers at the fourth row for paraffin slurry with a mass fraction of 7.5% were larger by 23/spl sim/29% than those for water. The liquid cooling method using paraffin slurry can be applied for high heat flux cases over 40 W/cm/sup 2/.

  • Direct liquid cooling of a stacked multichip module

    With the advances in microfabrication techniques and high performance chips, the heat flux from electronic components is reaching a point where air-cooling is unlikely to meet the cooling requirements for future generation computer chips. Direct single-phase liquid cooling of a stacked multichip module using FC-77 is examined in this paper. Three-dimensional numerical simulation is conducted to investigate the flow and the conjugated convection-conduction heat transfer in the cooling structure. The effects of the top clearance, the side clearance, flow rate, heating arrangement on the maximum chip temperature and velocity distribution are presented.

  • Advanced cooling technology for leading-edge computer products

    Cooling technology has been a vital prerequisite for the rapid and continued advancement of computer products, ranging from lap-tops to supercomputers. This paper provides a review of the recent development of cooling technology for computers. Both air cooling and liquid cooling are included. Air cooling is discussed in terms of the advantages of impinging flow. An example of module internal conduction enhancement is given. Liquid cooling is discussed in terms of indirect liquid cooling with water coupled with enhanced conduction, and direct immersion cooling with dielectric coolants. Special cooling technology is included in terms of the application of heat pipes and the possibility of using liquid metal flow to cool electronic packages.

  • Experimental and numerical study on natural convection from upward horizontal rectangular grooved fins

    Natural convection from two-dimensional upward horizontal rectangular grooved fins was studied experimentally and numerically. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used in the experiment and the local Nusselt numbers on each surface (outer, left, bottom, and right surfaces) of the grooves were measured quantitatively by analyzing the interferograms. In some cases (grooves of some aspect ratios in low Grashof number), the total heat transfer rate from the grooved surface is even smaller than that from a non-grooved surface though the surface area is greater; care should be practised to avoid such cases. As revealed by the numerical analysis, a secondary recirculation flow is frequently found in the groove. It prevents the main flow from flowing into the groove. When this happens, the heat transfer rate from the inner surfaces is significantly smaller than that from the outer surface. The results have been compressed by the Nu vs. Gr correlations and they give an important guideline for selecting proper aspect ratio and dimensions for upward horizontal grooved fins.

  • Gas Cooling Enhancement Technology for Integrated Circuit Chips

    New approaches are described for increasing the capability of forced gas convection cooling for integrated circuit chips, using an enhanced heat transfer technique and a higher gas flow velocity in a closed-cycle flow. A turbulence promoting fin with low pressure loss has been developed and enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient using gas flow velocities up to 50 m/s is examined using air and helium gas as coolants. 'By applying these techniques, the cooling capability of a package is investigated through the use of prototype equipment. Cooling of an alumina substrate (75 mm square) mounted with 25 chips (8 mm square) can be cooled up to 200 W in an air flow of 20 m/s. In helium gas convection cooling, the allowable heat dissipation increases to 300 W or more, and fan input power decreases to about one-fifth of that needed for air convection cooling. This cooling capability is equal to that of indirect water cooling.

  • Thermal analysis for multichip module using computational fluid dynamic simulation

    With the increasing heat flux at the chip and package levels, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation is becoming more popular and important for estimating thermal performance of high density electronic packages. In this study, a series of similar experiments are conducted to validate the CFD numerical simulation method, and then a three-dimensional CFD model is established to investigate the temperature distribution and thermal characteristics of indirect liquid cooling for a seven-chip multichip module which is applied in a kind of supercomputer. The effects of material properties of thermal grease and thermal interface material, package geometry such as thickness of chips, space between chips, solder bump and solder ball patterns, flow rate and inlet liquid temperature on the maximum chip temperature are also presented. The results obtained from the simulation are of great value in suggesting design of multichip module.

  • Experiments and Modeling of Multilayer Copper Minichannel Heat Sinks in Single-Phase Flow

    One of the most promising configurations for indirect liquid cooling of electronic systems is in the use of heat sinks or cold plates where a liquid is forced to flow through channels embedded in a solid matrix. Traditional microchannel heat sinks consist of a single layer of parallel, high-aspect ratio rectangular channels microfabricated in silicon or copper. These heat sinks can achieve very high heat fluxes due to: 1) high heat transfer coefficients from microchannels, and 2) large surface areas from high-aspect ratio channels. When manufacturing techniques prohibit the fabrication of high-aspect ratio channels, stacking or creating multilayers of single layered channels can be an alternative to increasing surface area. In this work, square channel copper minichannel heat sinks were fabricated with single and multiple layers. It was experimentally shown that multilayer heat sinks have significant advantages over single layer equivalents with reductions in thermal resistance and pressure drop. Numerical simulations using CFD were performed and comparisons were made with experimental results. An approximate one-dimensional resistance network model for both single and multilayered heat sinks was also developed. Both numerical and resistance network models compared well with experiments

  • VLSI Packaging Technique Using Liquid-Cooled Channels

    A new packaging technique which employs innovative indirect liquid cooling is described. The technique involves mounting very large-scale integrated (VLSI) chips on a multilayered alumina substrate which incorporates very fine coolant channels. In particular, an investigation into the optimal structure for the cooling section by computer simulation and by experiment involving the physical implementation of this structure is discussed. The numerical solution of the coolant flow distribution obtained ensures that the coolant distributor and collector structure dimensions can be determined to meet the uniform velocity distribution condition. Additionally, the channel cross section is designed to be 800 um wide x 400 um high to achieve a lower thermal resistance. An outline of an indirect liquid cooling package fabricated based on the results of these structures is presented. The package mounts a 5 x 5 array of 8-mm<sup>2</sup>VLSI chips on a substrate measuring 85 mm x 105 mm. The substrate features 29 very fine coolant channels, six conductor layers, and 900 input/output (I/O) pins. The technique permits the realization of an allowable heat dissipation higher than 400 W per package at a flow rate of 1.0 1/min. Furthermore, since the thickness of the cooling section is smaller than 1.0 mm, the volume power density increases 17 kW/l or more. This cooling capability is tenfold greater than that obtained by conventional indirect water cooling.



Standards related to Indirect liquid cooling

Back to Top

No standards are currently tagged "Indirect liquid cooling"


Jobs related to Indirect liquid cooling

Back to Top