792 resources related to Ice surface
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Energy conversion and conditioning technologies, power electronics, adjustable speed drives and their applications, power electronics for smarter grid, energy efficiency,technologies for sustainable energy systems, converters and power supplies
All areas of ionizing radiation detection - detectors, signal processing, analysis of results, PET development, PET results, medical imaging using ionizing radiation
The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.
All fields of satellite, airborne and ground remote sensing.
To promote awareness, understanding, advancement and application of ocean engineering and marine technology. This includes all aspects of science, engineering, and technology that address research, development, and operations pertaining to all bodies of water. This includes the creation of new capabilities and technologies from concept design through prototypes, testing, and operational systems to sense, explore, understand, develop, use, and responsibly manage natural resources.
The IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine publishes articles concerned with the various aspects of systems for space, air, ocean, or ground environments.
Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters (AWP Letters) will be devoted to the rapid electronic publication of short manuscripts in the technical areas of Antennas and Wireless Propagation.
Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission
Electrical insulation common to the design and construction of components and equipment for use in electric and electronic circuits and distribution systems at all frequencies.
Ocean 72 - IEEE International Conference on Engineering in the Ocean Environment, 1972
The physical nature of the sea ice surface is discussed with respect to small- scale roughness. The dielectric properties of sea ice at 34 GHz are presented. Results of in situ reflectivity are presented. Interest in the Arctic Ocean in recent years has produced the need for new and better methods of transport through and over its ice cover. To ...
OCEANS '85 - Ocean Engineering and the Environment, 1985
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Grounds Penetrating Radar, 2004. GPR 2004., 2004
In a previous study Liu and Arcone  discussed the effects of a near-surface thin layer on the lateral propagation of a radar pulse with 2-dimensional numerical models. They concluded that the near-surface stratigraphic structure plays an important role when it combines with different antenna polarization modes. Numerical modeling successfully simulated the wavefield dispersion caused by the existence of the ...
IGARSS '98. Sensing and Managing the Environment. 1998 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Symposium Proceedings. (Cat. No.98CH36174), 1998
The use of altimeter data in the polar regions has previously been limited by the presence of permanent and seasonal ice cover. Changes in the radar echo shape received by the altimeter over sea ice, as compared with the open ocean, cause problems in the on-board estimates of surface height, making the data unusable. The majority of noise on the ...
10th Annual International Symposium on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 1990
Owning a Tesla, Going Electric - IEEE Southern Minnesota presentation
Quantum Computation - ASC-2014 Plenary series - 4 of 13 - Tuesday 2014/8/12
IMPASS: Intelligent Mobility Platform with Active Spoke System
IEEE in the North and South Poles (INSP) - Tony Milne - Ignite: Sections Congress 2017
Life Sciences: Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, and more
IEEE Magnetics Distinguished Lecture - Yoshichika Otani
BSIM Spice Model Enables FinFET and UTB IC Design
3D Body-Mapping for Severely Burned Patients - Julia Loegering - IEEE EMBS at NIH, 2019
Making Orthogonal Transitions with Climbing Mini-Whegs
A Robot to Mine the Moon
IROS TV 2019-STAR LAB at the University of Surrey Space Technology for Autonomous systems & Robotics
Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy: From ultralow power spintronics to cancer therapy
Microwave PCB Structure Selection Microstrip vs. Grounded Coplanar Waveguide: MicroApps 2015 - Rogers Corporation
Silicon THz: an Opportunity for Innovation
Lighting the Way: Optical Sensors in the Life Sciences
ASC-2014 SQUIDs 50th Anniversary: 4 of 6 - Keiji Enpuku
Demonstrations of Gravity-Independent Mobility and Drilling on Natural Rock using Microspines
ISEC 2013 Special Gordon Donaldson Session: Remembering Gordon Donaldson - 5 of 7 - SQUID Instrumentation for Early Cancer Diagnostics
Lunar Industrialization: The First Step to the Solar System
The physical nature of the sea ice surface is discussed with respect to small- scale roughness. The dielectric properties of sea ice at 34 GHz are presented. Results of in situ reflectivity are presented. Interest in the Arctic Ocean in recent years has produced the need for new and better methods of transport through and over its ice cover. To facilitate routing of ice breakers and surface effect vehicles, better ice navigation systems and methods of determining ice surface topography are needed. One area of major emphasis is in the development of radar systems which produce an image of the ice surface, both for large area surveillance, as in the case of airborne side-looking radars, and for navigational radars carried by the vessels themselves. Because of the detail of the surface and the guidance information needed high degrees of resolution are desired, requiring the use of systems operating at frequencies in excess of 20 GHz. To aid in design of such systems, some fundamental information about sea ice as a millimeter wave reflector has been obtained.
In a previous study Liu and Arcone  discussed the effects of a near-surface thin layer on the lateral propagation of a radar pulse with 2-dimensional numerical models. They concluded that the near-surface stratigraphic structure plays an important role when it combines with different antenna polarization modes. Numerical modeling successfully simulated the wavefield dispersion caused by the existence of the surface thin layer. In this paper the analysis has been extended to include the azimuthal effects in radiation patterns with the use of a 3- dimensional (3-D) pseudospectral time domain (PSTD) numerical modeling technique to understand radar pulse propagation in a similarly complex environment. In these preliminary test cases, the propagation of radar pulse generated by a horizontal dipole aligned with the r-direction was modeled in 3 dimensions. The model of material properties includes (i) a uniform half-space with either higher or lower conductivity, and (ii) a thin dielectric layer overlaid on the half space. A significant electric field in the vertical direction (Ez-field) was observed in the end-tire direction for all cases. As predicted by the analytic solution, the Ex-field reaches the minimum in the end-fire direction and maximum in the broadside direction. The thin layer complicates the waveform; however, the fundamental radiation patterns remain the same with the half-space case. We will model the effect of geometric and material heterogeneities for more complicated terrain environments in the near future.
The use of altimeter data in the polar regions has previously been limited by the presence of permanent and seasonal ice cover. Changes in the radar echo shape received by the altimeter over sea ice, as compared with the open ocean, cause problems in the on-board estimates of surface height, making the data unusable. The majority of noise on the signal can be reduced by retracking the full waveform data set (WAP). Careful quality control is applied to ensure that only those return echoes from which accurate height measurements can be obtained are retained. Consideration of possible backscattering mechanisms from ice and water, and comparisons with imagery, suggest that the specular waveforms typically found in altimeter data over sea ice originate from regions of open water or new thin ice exposed within the altimeter footprint. However, diffuse waveforms similar to those found in ice free seas have been observed in areas of consolidated ice, and may be used to measure ice freeboard. Until recently, even retracked heights contained substantial residual errors due to the interaction of the on-board tracking system with the complex return echoes over sea ice. Software simulation of the tracking system has led to the development of new ground processing algorithms, which further reduce the short wavelength (/spl sim/26 km) noise, from 30-50 cm to around 7 cm. This provides, for the first time in ice covered seas, the capability for accurate mean sea surface generation, measurement of tidal and oceanographic signals and determination of sea ice freeboard. The authors present the results of comparisons of sea surface height variability from ERS-2 radar altimetry in the Arctic with the output from a high resolution Arctic Ocean circulation model.
The investigations undertaken in this article are aimed at exploring the fundamental physical processes of electric discharges on a surface of ice. The understanding of these phenomena could allow a better design of equipment adapted to icy atmospheric conditions and thus increase the reliability of transmission networks in cold regions. The ultra high speed photographic techniques are used to observe and analyse the first nanoseconds of development of the discharge on the ice surface. The shape of the insulators is complex, a simple physical geometry model (stem-plan), with different radii of curvature, is used. The appearance of streamers and their propagation speed and thus the processes of creation of space charge on the ice surface are studied. The results are compared with those obtained in the air gaps.
Identification of atmospheric precipitation and Earth surfaces and algorithms of the parameter retrieval have been extensively studied during the course of SSM/I calibration/validation effort. However, the author has found that some conventional algorithms are not proper in many applications. The author has developed the vector radiative transfer modeling at SSM/I channels for Earth surfaces such as snow/vegetation, rough sea surface, scattering media of sea ice, etc., and derived several new algorithms to invert some parameters from SSM/I data. The retrieval results are well compared with the ground truth measurements.
The goals of this study are to observe the development of multifreqency microwave emissivity (e) of new and young sea ice grown under dynamic conditions, and to investigate the effects of ice growth and structural changes on its microwave signature. In particular, the authors are interested in three ice types, whose signatures are particularly difficult to investigate under normal field conditions. Unconsolidated frazil ice and pancake ice, which occur when ice forms in a wave field under stormy conditions, are found in abundance in the marginal ice zones of the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice packs. They make up a significant portion of the area covered by the new and young ice. Because new and young ice types are weaker than the surrounding thick ice and fracture first under conditions of high ice stress, a large percentage of the ridged ice consists of thin saline ice. As the ridges evolve, brine drains out of the elevated parts causing substantial changes in the permittivity distribution which can affect their microwave emissivities. Previous studies have shown that the microwave signatures of these ice types appear to be distinct in several respects, but the data from these experiments are sparse and the uncertainties are still relatively large. The differences between the microwave signatures of these ice types and those of first-year (FY) ice types grown under relatively calm conditions are important for interpreting satellite derived ice concentrations and ice type distributions. This paper presents the results of the author's latest studies of the microwave emissivities of these ice types.
Experimental studies were carried out to analyze and better understand the effect of water film thickness and applied water conductivity on arc propagation process over an ice surface. The thickness of the water film was found to be a determinant factor for discharge initiation and initial current level. As concerns the conductivity of the water used for ice formation it was found that it has a decisive role on the rate of current increase.
The guide specifies procedures for testing equipment when external insulation of the test object is subjected to combinations of contamination, ice, snow, or cold fog. The methods are applicable only to tests on equipment with a rated voltage above 1 kV.The guide specifies procedures for testing equipment when external insulation of the test object is subjected to combinations of contamination, ...