Ice

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Ice is water frozen into the solid state. Usually ice is the phase known as ice Ih, which is the most abundant of the varying solid phases on the Earth's surface. It can appear transparent or opaque bluish-white color, depending on the presence of impurities or air inclusions. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Ice

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2023 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Conference (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted full papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and poster sessions,will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE.


2021 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference (PPC)

The Pulsed Power Conference is held on a biannual basis and serves as the principal forum forthe exchange of information on pulsed power technology and engineering.


2020 22nd European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'20 ECCE Europe)

Energy conversion and conditioning technologies, power electronics, adjustable speed drives and their applications, power electronics for smarter grid, energy efficiency,technologies for sustainable energy systems, converters and power supplies


2020 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC)

APEC focuses on the practical and applied aspects of the power electronics business. Not just a power designer’s conference, APEC has something of interest for anyone involved in power electronics including:- Equipment OEMs that use power supplies and converters in their equipment- Designers of power supplies, dc-dc converters, motor drives, uninterruptable power supplies, inverters and any other power electronic circuits, equipments and systems- Manufacturers and suppliers of components and assemblies used in power electronics- Manufacturing, quality and test engineers involved with power electronics equipment- Marketing, sales and anyone involved in the business of power electronic- Compliance engineers testing and qualifying power electronics equipment or equipment that uses power electronics


2020 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM)

The Annual IEEE PES General Meeting will bring together over 2900 attendees for technical sessions, administrative sessions, super sessions, poster sessions, student programs, awards ceremonies, committee meetings, tutorials and more


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Periodicals related to Ice

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Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE

The IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine publishes articles concerned with the various aspects of systems for space, air, ocean, or ground environments.


Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE

IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters (AWP Letters) will be devoted to the rapid electronic publication of short manuscripts in the technical areas of Antennas and Wireless Propagation.


Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Serves as a compendium for papers on the technological advances in control engineering and as an archival publication which will bridge the gap between theory and practice. Papers will highlight the latest knowledge, exploratory developments, and practical applications in all aspects of the technology needed to implement control systems from analysis and design through simulation and hardware.


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Xplore Articles related to Ice

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Active Microwave Measurements Of Artificial Sea Ice

International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 'Remote Sensing: Moving Toward the 21st Century'., 1988

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Sensitivity Of Passive Micro Wave Sea Ice Concentration to the Selection Of Locally And Seasonally Adjusted Points

12th Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium,, 1989

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Microwave and thermal infrared emission from young sea ice and pancake ice

IGARSS '96. 1996 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1996

The goals of this study are to observe the development of multifreqency microwave emissivity (e) of new and young sea ice grown under dynamic conditions, and to investigate the effects of ice growth and structural changes on its microwave signature. In particular, the authors are interested in three ice types, whose signatures are particularly difficult to investigate under normal field ...


Near Surface Measurements Of Arctic Sea Ice During The Fall Freeze-up

10th Annual International Symposium on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 1990

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Sea Ice Classification Using Fast Learning Neural Networks

[Proceedings] IGARSS '92 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1992

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Educational Resources on Ice

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Active Microwave Measurements Of Artificial Sea Ice

    None

  • Sensitivity Of Passive Micro Wave Sea Ice Concentration to the Selection Of Locally And Seasonally Adjusted Points

    None

  • Microwave and thermal infrared emission from young sea ice and pancake ice

    The goals of this study are to observe the development of multifreqency microwave emissivity (e) of new and young sea ice grown under dynamic conditions, and to investigate the effects of ice growth and structural changes on its microwave signature. In particular, the authors are interested in three ice types, whose signatures are particularly difficult to investigate under normal field conditions. Unconsolidated frazil ice and pancake ice, which occur when ice forms in a wave field under stormy conditions, are found in abundance in the marginal ice zones of the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice packs. They make up a significant portion of the area covered by the new and young ice. Because new and young ice types are weaker than the surrounding thick ice and fracture first under conditions of high ice stress, a large percentage of the ridged ice consists of thin saline ice. As the ridges evolve, brine drains out of the elevated parts causing substantial changes in the permittivity distribution which can affect their microwave emissivities. Previous studies have shown that the microwave signatures of these ice types appear to be distinct in several respects, but the data from these experiments are sparse and the uncertainties are still relatively large. The differences between the microwave signatures of these ice types and those of first-year (FY) ice types grown under relatively calm conditions are important for interpreting satellite derived ice concentrations and ice type distributions. This paper presents the results of the author's latest studies of the microwave emissivities of these ice types.

  • Near Surface Measurements Of Arctic Sea Ice During The Fall Freeze-up

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  • Sea Ice Classification Using Fast Learning Neural Networks

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  • Polarimetric backscattering at 23 cm wavelength from Antarctic lead ice and estimation of ice thickness

    Copolar ratios and phases in backscattering from Beaufort Sea ice at 23 cm wavelength (L-band) vary with apparent ice thickness. Specifically, copolar ratios for multiyear and apparently thick first-year ice agree with those expected for Bragg scattering from an effectively infinitely thick slab with small surface roughness (relative to the radiation wavelength). Copolar phases for multiyear ice cluster tightly around one value, which was taken as a reference value (early data were not phase-calibrated). Copolar phases for apparently thick first-year ice cluster around the same reference value, but are slightly more variable. Both ratios and phases for lead ice, however, display large departures from thick ice values. A scattering model proposed to explain those variations predicts approximately equal likelihoods for copolar phases greater than and less than the reference value. The Beaufort Sea data, however, show negative copolar phase values (i.e., values below the reference value) in all but one case. While this may be because all leads imaged in the data set were of similar ages, the paucity of positive copolar phases was a significant gap in observational support for the theory. The author presents new data from the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIRC) mission during October 1994 showing leads in the northern Weddell Sea. As in the Beaufort, essentially no surface observations are available, but conventional SAR imagery suggests the presence of lead ice of at least two distinct ages in close proximity in the Weddell scene. Ice regions in the two categories show spatially coherent, but quite different, polarimetric signatures at L-band, including copolar phases larger than neighbouring thicker ice in one case and smaller in the other. The copolar phase also varies between regions. The author presents a quantitative analysis of the observations and a comparison with theory. The author concludes with an assessment of the possibility of estimating lead ice thickness directly from snapshot and time-sequential L-band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery.

  • Evaluation of SSM/I-derived sea ice concentrations with AVHRR imagery

    Sea ice concentration fields from several different passive microwave algorithms are compared with AVHRR visible and infrared imagery. AVHRR imagery is obtained over a several month period for the Barents Sea, East Greenland Sea, and Baffin Bay regions. These encompass a variety of different ice and weather conditions; in this paper, only the East Greenland Sea region is presented. Of the algorithms evaluated, the NASA Team 2 algorithm appears to perform the best, with a lower bias and lower RMS difference when compared to AVHRR concentrations, especially in regions of thin ice. The Cal/Val performs well in thin ice, but overestimates thicker ice concentrations. The NASA Team and Bootstrap tend to overestimate concentration near the ice edge, but underestimate it within the ice pack.

  • Active and Passive Microwave Observations of Arctic Sea Ice During the Fall Freeze-up

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  • Sensitivity analysis of operational passive microwave sea-ice algorithms

    Given the importance of the relatively long-term passive microwave record for climate studies, we evaluated the sensitivity of passive microwave brightness temperatures and corresponding sea ice concentrations to variations in surface and atmospheric conditions. Based on model results, this effort allows sources and magnitudes of error in the available algorithms and the existing passive, microwave derived time series or sea ice concentrations to be better quantified.

  • Potential of RADARSAT-2 for sea ice classification

    Polarimetric data acquired by the CCRS CV-580 airborne SAR are used to assess the capability of RADARSAT-2 for operational sea ice classification. The information content of the polarimetric data is illustrated by showing how specific scattering mechanisms are portrayed by the entropy, anisotropy and /spl alpha/-angle features. Ice type classes are derived from the full polarimetric data set using a complex Wishart classifier. The classes are then mapped into 2-D scatterplots to compare the information content between dual and fully polarimetric data. While dual polarimetric data are an improvement over single channel data, it is found that fully polarimetric data are needed to provide accurate ice classification performance.



Standards related to Ice

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IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz

Recommendations are made to protect against established adverse health effects in human beings associated with exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields in the frequency range of 3 kHz to 300 GHz. The recommendations are expressed in terms of basic restrictions (BRs) and maximum permissible exposure (MPE) values. The BRs are limits on internal fields, specific absorption rate (SAR), and ...