IEEE Transactions on Haptics
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Held since 1992, the IEEE Haptics Symposium (HAPTICS) is a vibrant interdisciplinary forum where psychophysicists, engineers, and designers come together to share advances, spark new collaborations, and envision a future that benefits from rich physical interactions between humans and computers, generated through haptic (force and tactile) devices.
Haptic devices enable human-machine interaction through the senses of force and touch. WorldHaptics is the major nternational meeting addressing all aspects related to haptics, covering the basic scientific underpinnings, technological developments, and algorithms and applications.
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The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...
Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.
Part I will now contain regular papers focusing on all matters related to fundamental theory, applications, analog and digital signal processing. Part II will report on the latest significant results across all of these topic areas.
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IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 2011
Haptic perception essentially depends on the executed exploratory movements. It has been speculated that spontaneously executed movements are optimized for the computation of associated haptic properties. We investigated to what extent people strategically execute movements that are tuned for softness discrimination of objects with deformable surfaces. In Experiment 1, we investigated how movement parameters depend on expected stimulus compliance. In ...
IEEE Transactions on Haptics, None
A basic challenge in perception research is to understand how sensory inputs from physical environments and the body are integrated in order to facilitate perceptual inferences. Thermal perception, which arises through heat transfer between extrinsic sources and body tissues, is an integral part of natural haptic experiences, and thermal feedback technologies have potential applications in wearable computing, virtual reality, and ...
IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 2013
Haptic assistants augment user commands to facilitate manipulation and to increase task performance. The strength of assistance, also referred to as assistance level, is one of the main design factors. While existing implementations mainly realize fixed assistance levels that are selected with respect to one design objective, we introduce an assistance policy module that dynamically changes assistance levels and can ...
IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 2010
The compliance of a material can be conveyed through mechanical interactions in a virtual environment and perceived through both visual and haptic cues. We investigated this basic aspect of perception. In two experiments, subjects performed compliance discriminations, and the mean perceptual estimate (PSE) and the perceptual standard deviation (proportional to JND) were derived from psychophysical functions. Experiment 1 supported a ...
IEEE Transactions on Haptics, 2015
This work was motivated by the need for perceptualizing nano-scale scientific data, e.g., those acquired by a scanning probe microscope, where collocated topography and stiffness distribution of a surface can be measured. Previous research showed that when the topography of a surface with spatially varying stiffness is rendered using the conventional penalty-based haptic rendering method, the topography perceived by the ...
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Haptic perception essentially depends on the executed exploratory movements. It has been speculated that spontaneously executed movements are optimized for the computation of associated haptic properties. We investigated to what extent people strategically execute movements that are tuned for softness discrimination of objects with deformable surfaces. In Experiment 1, we investigated how movement parameters depend on expected stimulus compliance. In a discrimination task, we measured exploratory forces for less compliant (hard) stimuli and for more compliant (soft) stimuli. In Experiment 2, we investigated whether exploratory force also depends on the expected compliance difference between the two stimuli. The results indicate that participants apply higher forces when expecting harder objects as compared to softer objects, and they apply higher forces for smaller compliance differences than for larger ones. Experiment 3 examined how applied force influences differential sensitivity for softness as assessed by just noticeable differences (JNDs). For soft stimuli, JNDs did not depend on force. For hard stimuli, JNDs were “worse” (higher) if participants applied less force than they use naturally. We conclude that applying high force is a robust strategy to obtain high differential sensitivity, and that participants used this strategy if it was required for successful discrimination performance.
A basic challenge in perception research is to understand how sensory inputs from physical environments and the body are integrated in order to facilitate perceptual inferences. Thermal perception, which arises through heat transfer between extrinsic sources and body tissues, is an integral part of natural haptic experiences, and thermal feedback technologies have potential applications in wearable computing, virtual reality, and other areas. While physics dictates that thermal percepts can be slow, often unfolding over timescales measured in seconds, much faster perceptual responses can occur in the thermal grill illusion. The latter refers to a burning-like sensation that can be evoked when innocuous warm and cool stimuli are applied to the skin in juxtaposed fashion. Here, we show that perceptual response times to the thermal grill illusion decrease systematically with perceived intensity. Using results from behavioral experiments in combination with a physics-based description of tissue heating, we develop a simple model explaining the perception of the illusion through the evolution of internal tissue temperatures. The results suggest that improved understanding of the physical mechanisms of tissue heating may aid our understanding of thermal perception, as exemplified by the thermal grill illusion, and might point toward more efficient methods for thermal feedback.
Haptic assistants augment user commands to facilitate manipulation and to increase task performance. The strength of assistance, also referred to as assistance level, is one of the main design factors. While existing implementations mainly realize fixed assistance levels that are selected with respect to one design objective, we introduce an assistance policy module that dynamically changes assistance levels and can incorporate multiple performance measures. The design space of this assistance policy module is systematically analyzed and three design factors, 1) performance criteria, 2) performance reference, and 3) assistance policy, are identified. Different implementations of the assistance policy module are compared for a scenario involving guiding virtual fixtures. A single-user evaluation is used to illustrate the effect of the different implementations on the determined assistance levels, and a multi-user study allows for a statistical comparison of them. Results show that adaptive assistance policies can outperform constant assistance policies, switching assistance policies have advantages over continuously adapting policies, a multi-criteria performance measure should be favored if there is no single criterion that has an outstanding priority, and the selection of the performance reference is highly application dependent.
The compliance of a material can be conveyed through mechanical interactions in a virtual environment and perceived through both visual and haptic cues. We investigated this basic aspect of perception. In two experiments, subjects performed compliance discriminations, and the mean perceptual estimate (PSE) and the perceptual standard deviation (proportional to JND) were derived from psychophysical functions. Experiment 1 supported a model in which each modality acted independently to produce a compliance estimate, and the two estimates were then integrated to produce an overall value. Experiment 2 tested three mathematical models of the integration process. The data ruled out exclusive reliance on the more reliable modality and stochastic selection of one modality. Instead, the results supported an integration process that constitutes a weighted summation of two random variables, which are defined by the single modality estimates. The model subsumes optimal fusion but provided valid predictions also if the weights were not optimal. Weights were optimal (i.e., minimized variance) when vision and haptic inputs were congruent, but not when they were incongruent.
This work was motivated by the need for perceptualizing nano-scale scientific data, e.g., those acquired by a scanning probe microscope, where collocated topography and stiffness distribution of a surface can be measured. Previous research showed that when the topography of a surface with spatially varying stiffness is rendered using the conventional penalty-based haptic rendering method, the topography perceived by the user could be significantly distorted from its original model. In the worst case, a higher region with a smaller stiffness value can be perceived to be lower than a lower region with a larger stiffness value. This problem was explained by the theory of force constancy: the user tends to maintain an invariant contact force when s/he strokes the surface to perceive its topography. In this paper, we present a haptization algorithm that can render the shape of a mesh surface and its stiffness distribution with high perceptual accuracy. Our algorithm adaptively changes the surface topography on the basis of the force constancy theory to deliver adequate shape information to the user while preserving the stiffness perception. We also evaluated the performance of the proposed haptization algorithm in comparison to the constraint-based algorithm by examining relevant proximal stimuli and carrying out a user experiment. Results demonstrated that our algorithm could improve the perceptual accuracy of shape and reduce the exploration time, thereby leading to more accurate and efficient haptization.
The authors of "A Physics-Based Vibrotactile Feedback Library for Collision Events" which appeared in the July-September 2017 issue of this journal [ibid., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 325-337, Jul.-Sep. 2017] would like to update their Acknowledgments section to say: The authors thank Jong-Rak Park for his discussion on the physics of multi-body collision and vibration. This work was supported by an MSIP/IITP grant (No. 16ZC1300), an IITP grant (No. 2017-0-00179), and an NRF grant (No. NRF-2017R1A2B4008144), all funded by the Korean government. Seungmoon Choi is the corresponding author.
Several names in the "2009 Reviewers List" published in the January-March 2010 issue of Transactions on Haptics were incomplete or incorrect. A list of corrected names is presented here.
The authors of "Real-Time Dual-Band Haptic Music Player for Mobile Devices," which appeared in the July-September 2013 issue of this journal [ibid., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 340-351, Jul.-Sep. 2013], point out a typographical error that occurred in the 'Acknowledgments' section.
Compared to conventional visual- and auditory-based assisted driving technologies, haptic modality promises to be more effective and less disturbing assistance to the driver. However, in most previous studies, haptic assistance systems were evaluated from safety and stability viewpoints. Moreover, the effect of haptic assistance on human driving behavior has not been sufficiently discussed. In this paper, we introduce an assisted driving method based on haptic assistance for driver training in reverse parking, which is considered as an uncertain factor in conventional assisted driving systems. The proposed system assists the driver by applying a torque on the steering wheel to guide proper and well-timed steering. To design the appropriate assistance method, we conducted a measurement experiment to determine the qualitative reverse parking driver characteristics. Based on the determined characteristics, we propose a haptic assistance calculation method that utilizes the receding horizon control algorithm. For a simulation environment to assess the proposed assistance method, we also developed a scaled car simulator comprising a 1/10 scaled robot car and an omnidirectional camera. We used the scaled car simulator to conduct comparative experiments on subjects, and observed that the driving skills of the assisted subjects were significantly better than those of the control subjects.
In human-computer collaboration involving haptics, a key issue that remains to be solved is to establish an intuitive communication between the partners. Even though computers are widely used to aid human operators in teleoperation, guidance, and training, because they lack the adaptability, versatility, and awareness of a human, their ability to improve efficiency and effectiveness in dynamic tasks is limited. We suggest that the communication between a human and a computer can be improved if it involves a decision-making process in which the computer is programmed to infer the intentions of the human operator and dynamically adjust the control levels of the interacting parties to facilitate a more intuitive interaction setup. In this paper, we investigate the utility of such a dynamic role exchange mechanism, where partners negotiate through the haptic channel to trade their control levels on a collaborative task. We examine the energy consumption, the work done on the manipulated object, and the joint efficiency in addition to the task performance. We show that when compared to an equal control condition, a role exchange mechanism improves task performance and the joint efficiency of the partners. We also show that augmenting the system with additional informative visual and vibrotactile cues, which are used to display the state of interaction, allows the users to become aware of the underlying role exchange mechanism and utilize it in favor of the task. These cues also improve the user's sense of interaction and reinforce his/her belief that the computer aids with the execution of the task.
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