Extracellular

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In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". (Wikipedia.org)






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2020 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE


2020 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP)

The International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), sponsored by the IEEE SignalProcessing Society, is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances andresearch results in the fields of theoretical, experimental, and applied image and videoprocessing. ICIP 2020, the 27th in the series that has been held annually since 1994, bringstogether leading engineers and scientists in image and video processing from around the world.


2020 IEEE International Solid- State Circuits Conference - (ISSCC)

ISSCC is the foremost global forum for solid-state circuits and systems-on-a-chip. The Conference offers 5 days of technical papers and educational events related to integrated circuits, including analog, digital, data converters, memory, RF, communications, imagers, medical and MEMS ICs.


2020 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC)

All areas of ionizing radiation detection - detectors, signal processing, analysis of results, PET development, PET results, medical imaging using ionizing radiation


ICASSP 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP)

The ICASSP meeting is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference focused on signal processing and its applications. The conference will feature world-class speakers, tutorials, exhibits, and over 50 lecture and poster sessions.


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Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, IEEE/ACM Transactions on

Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to, sequence analysis, comparison and alignment methods; motif, gene and signal recognition; molecular evolution; phylogenetics and phylogenomics; determination or prediction of the structure of RNA and Protein in two and three dimensions; DNA twisting and folding; gene expression and gene regulatory networks; deduction of metabolic pathways; micro-array design and analysis; proteomics; ...


Computer

Computer, the flagship publication of the IEEE Computer Society, publishes peer-reviewed technical content that covers all aspects of computer science, computer engineering, technology, and applications. Computer is a resource that practitioners, researchers, and managers can rely on to provide timely information about current research developments, trends, best practices, and changes in the profession.


Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE

Both general and technical articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering; societal implications of medical technologies; current news items; book reviews; patent descriptions; and correspondence. Special interest departments, students, law, clinical engineering, ethics, new products, society news, historical features and government.


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Calcium ion current from an extracellular electrolyte toward a channel opening in an insulating membrane: quantitative model with rotational symmetry

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 1997

A mathematical model of three-dimensional (3-D) ion transport is formulated in an approximation assuming rotational symmetry. The model consists of three particle-conservation equations for sodium, calcium, and chlorine ions complemented with the Poisson equation. The numerical method of solution is based on the Gummel-Scharfetter semianalytical approach, the program is written in FORTRAN and the system of discrete equations is solved ...


Using generalised polynomial chaos to examine various parameters in a half-ellipsoidal ventricular model of partial thickness ischaemia

2017 Computing in Cardiology (CinC), 2017

Elevation and depression in the ST segment of the electrocardiogram is commonly used as part of a diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia, although there is not yet a clear correlation between these observations and partial thickness ischaemia. In this work, we use a half-ellipsoid bidomain model of subendocardial ischaemia in a ventricle to study the effect of changes in model parameters ...


Delivery of Drugs and Finite Speed Diffusion and Response to Pulse Decay

Proceedings of the IEEE 32nd Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, 2006

Controlled relased technology can be more effective in delivering drungs compared with the periodic doses that is currently in vogue. Drug delivery stytems are often dominated by the process of diffusion. The Fick's law of mass diffusion has limitations in the short time regime which is of interest in the drug delivery systems. A damped wave non-Fick diffusion and relaxation ...


Tissue Architecture based on Robotics Manipulation and Functional Artificial Extracellular Matrix

2007 International Symposium on Micro-NanoMechatronics and Human Science, 2007

Ex vivo fabrication of functional tissue composed of cells and extracellular matrix (ECMs) needs precise region-specific positioning of these biological substances. To this end, we utilized two technologies; one is a cell-dispenser robot which enables to place cells at a given position and at a given depth of ECM gel. The other is artificial ECMs which are soluble in aqueous ...


The Spiking Neural Network Agent – The Initial Experimental Study

2018 14th Symposium on Neural Networks and Applications (NEUREL), 2018

The aim of this paper is a proposal of a spiking neural network circuit design continuously modifying synaptic strengths between neurons through the spike- timing-dependent plasticity to fulfil the agent objective. The network consists of Izhikevich neurons controlling an agent which uses three sensors to associate obstacles to the defined classes in its environment. The environment is formed as a ...


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  • Calcium ion current from an extracellular electrolyte toward a channel opening in an insulating membrane: quantitative model with rotational symmetry

    A mathematical model of three-dimensional (3-D) ion transport is formulated in an approximation assuming rotational symmetry. The model consists of three particle-conservation equations for sodium, calcium, and chlorine ions complemented with the Poisson equation. The numerical method of solution is based on the Gummel-Scharfetter semianalytical approach, the program is written in FORTRAN and the system of discrete equations is solved explicitly in the axial direction and by iterations in the radial direction. The present report deals with calcium flux toward a channel opening in an insulating impermeable membrane, assuming depolarization to zero potential. The initial homogeneous concentrations of sodium, calcium, and chlorine ions are 8.729/spl times/10/sup 19/, 6.02/spl times/10/sup 17/, and 8.849/spl times/10/sup 19/ (cm/sup -3/), respectively, corresponding to molar concentrations of 145-mM NaCl and 1-mM of CaCl/sub 2/; the calcium concentration in the circle representing the channel entry is set at 0.1 /spl mu/M, corresponding approximately to the concentration of free calcium ions in the cytoplasm. The calculations were carried out up to 3 /spl mu/s. The calcium flux caused a perturbation of quasi-neutrality and the formation of a space charge, which reached the maximum value (i.e., maximum in absolute value) of -0.2 Ccm/sup -3/ at the channel entry; the corresponding maximum of the axial component of the electric field was about 1 kV/cm. The maximum value of the calcium current was 0.362 pA, decreasing to 0.283 pA at 3 /spl mu/s. A review of several experimental studies of calcium currents yielded the average current values for higher and lower conductance channels (mainly L- and T-type) 0.76 and 0.42 pA, respectively. This implies that, at Ca/sup ++/ concentrations of 1 mM or lower the calcium ion current may be limited by the ion influx from an extracellular medium.

  • Using generalised polynomial chaos to examine various parameters in a half-ellipsoidal ventricular model of partial thickness ischaemia

    Elevation and depression in the ST segment of the electrocardiogram is commonly used as part of a diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia, although there is not yet a clear correlation between these observations and partial thickness ischaemia. In this work, we use a half-ellipsoid bidomain model of subendocardial ischaemia in a ventricle to study the effect of changes in model parameters on ST segment epicardial potential distributions (EPDs). We use generalised polynomial chaos techniques to produce mean EPDs, where the six bidomain conductivity values are varied, as well as blood conductivity and fibre rotation, for a number of different representations of the ischaemic region. We find that, as the thickness of the ischaemic region (i.e. the ischaemic depth) increases, the character of the mean EPD first changes from a single minimum approximately above the ischaemic region, to a maximum over the ischaemic region, with the minimum moving to a border of the ischaemic region. Next a second minimum develops, in addition to the previous maximum and minimum. In contrast, the strength of the maximum and the minima is only affected in a minor way by changes in the width of the ischaemic border and the position of the ischaemic region, provided it is not near the apex or base of the ventricle. When the size of the ischaemic region is increased, the magnitudes of both the maximum and the minima increase, but their character does not change. In summary, the qualitative progression of the mean EPD with increasing ischaemic depth, from single minimum through to a maximum surrounded by two minima, is the same, regardless of the size and position of the ischaemic region.

  • Delivery of Drugs and Finite Speed Diffusion and Response to Pulse Decay

    Controlled relased technology can be more effective in delivering drungs compared with the periodic doses that is currently in vogue. Drug delivery stytems are often dominated by the process of diffusion. The Fick's law of mass diffusion has limitations in the short time regime which is of interest in the drug delivery systems. A damped wave non-Fick diffusion and relaxation equation can be derived from the free electron theory by accounting for the acceleration of mass flow effects. The governing equation that results from this equation is solved for the pulse response to the drug by the method of Laplace transorms. A modified Bessel composite function of the first kind and zeroth order and a decaying exponential in time results as the exact solution. The concentration profile exhibits some symmetry and possess saddle points.

  • Tissue Architecture based on Robotics Manipulation and Functional Artificial Extracellular Matrix

    Ex vivo fabrication of functional tissue composed of cells and extracellular matrix (ECMs) needs precise region-specific positioning of these biological substances. To this end, we utilized two technologies; one is a cell-dispenser robot which enables to place cells at a given position and at a given depth of ECM gel. The other is artificial ECMs which are soluble in aqueous solutions but are gelled upon photochemical crosslinking or thermal phase transition. Using these techniques, endothelial cell aggregates, which are capillary-like network, are formed on and in photocured gelatinous gels. Three prototype models are presented.

  • The Spiking Neural Network Agent – The Initial Experimental Study

    The aim of this paper is a proposal of a spiking neural network circuit design continuously modifying synaptic strengths between neurons through the spike- timing-dependent plasticity to fulfil the agent objective. The network consists of Izhikevich neurons controlling an agent which uses three sensors to associate obstacles to the defined classes in its environment. The environment is formed as a torus of revolution. The reinforcement of synapses of the control network is based on the spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), which is modulated by extracellular dopamine. The controlled agent may perform four different output actions: move forward, turn left, turn right, and release repulse beacon to avoid all obstacles with a negative impact on the agent. The testing environment has been populated with obstacles randomly placed in the torus. Experiments confirmed that the agent is able to associate negative and positive object classes in its environment. The continuation of this work was outlined in the conclusion.

  • Evidence of mass transfer limitation in the inactivation of pantoea agglomerans biofilms with atmospheric cold gas plasma

    The susceptibility of the biofilm-forming bacterium Pantoea agglomerans to the lethal effects of cold atmospheric gas plasmas was investigated. When biofilms of P. agglomerans were produced on membranes and treated using a gas plasma, young biofilms (<; 10 h old) showed viability reductions of between 4 and 5 log10 when treated for 300 s. Biofilms aged 20 or 30 h were reduced by approximately 1 log10 and biofilms aged 40 or 100 h were unaffected by the gas plasma. When the extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS) in which the cells were embedded was removed and the cells redeposited onto membranes and treated with gas plasma, the microbial reduction was about 3 log10 for 40 h old biofilms and 2 log10 for 100 hour old biofilms. Furthermore, the biofilm thickness was about 20 μm for biofilms younger than 20 h, whilst it was 40 μm and 100 μm for biofilms 70 hours and 100 hours old, respectively.

  • Dependence of transmembrane voltage on pulsed electric field frequency

    This paper deduced the relationship of transmembrane voltage on cell membrane and frequency by solving the Laplace's equation. The value of transmembrane voltage will decrease when the frequency of outer electric field increases, and this decrease will be faster if the frequency exceeds a certain frequency band. The transmembrane voltage is determined by frequency components contained in the pulse on the condition of the electric field intensity is fixed when a pulsed electric field is applied. The more low-frequency components contained, the larger transmembrane voltage is, and thus a better sterilization effect can be obtained. By comparing the frequency components contained in the three types of pulses mostly used in PEF and their sterilization effect respectively, the analysis of relationship of transmembrane voltage-frequency is validated.

  • Use of Time Integrals of the ECG to Solve the Inverse Problem

    With the use of a bisyncytial model of the heart, it is shown that time integrals of QRS and QSR-T are related to the amplitude (A), area (μ) activation time (τ) the cellular action potential (AP) on the closed surface surrounding the ventricles. For the normal heart, solution of the inverse problem would give μ and τ on the heart surface and, by interpolation, in the myocardium, allowing reconstruction of the AP. In the case of ischemia and infarction, μ and Aτ would be available which, while not defining the AP, might provide valuable information. Necrosis introduces an unknown perturbation.

  • Extention Of The Flow-compartmental Model Of Glucose Transport Kinetics To Measure Glucose Metabolism In The Human Skeletal Muscle

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  • Towards photosensor movement-adaptive image analysis in an electronic retinal prosthesis

    By way of extracellular, stimulating electrodes, electronic vision prosthesis aims to render discrete light spots - so-called phosphenes - in the visual field, thereby providing a phosphene image serving as a rudimentary remediation of profound blindness. It is proposed that a digital camera, or some other photosensitive array, captures frames, the frames be analyzed, and phosphenes be actuated accordingly. We present a numerical experiment wherein we observed the phosphene image in response to a set of stimuli for various image analysis schemes. We used the mutual-information function to quantify the efficacy of analysis schemes; the function penalizes a scheme for introducing redundancy to the phosphene image, while accounting for the probability of each stimulus. We demonstrate an effective scheme involving Laplacian of Gaussian (/spl nabla/2G) kernels geometrically transformed in accordance with phosphene layout. Further, we propose adapting the kernels comprising a scheme in accordance with photosensor movement.



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