Axilla

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The axilla (or armpit, underarm, or oxter) is the area on the human body directly under the joint where the arm connects to the shoulder. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Axilla

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2019 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops andinvitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields ofbiomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality paperswill be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and willbe indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE & IEEE Xplore


2019 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS)

The conference covers all aspects of the technology associated with ultrasound generation and detection and their applications.


2019 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC)

This conference is the annual premier meeting on the use of instrumentation in the Nuclear and Medical fields. The meeting has a very long history of providing an exciting venue for scientists to present their latest advances, exchange ideas, renew existing collaboration and form new ones. The NSS portion of the conference is an ideal forum for scientists and engineers in the field of Nuclear Science, radiation instrumentation, software engineering and data acquisition. The MIC is one of the most informative venues on the state-of-the art use of physics, engineering, and mathematics in Nuclear Medicine and related imaging modalities, such as CT and increasingly so MRI, through the development of hybrid devices



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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

All aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.




Xplore Articles related to Axilla

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A Model of Length Increases of the Pectoralis Major Muscle to Provide Rehabilitation Precautions for Patients after Mastectomy.

2005 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology 27th Annual Conference, 2006

A common complication of breast cancer treatment is the development of shoulder stiffness on the affected side. Rehabilitation interventions exist, but scientific guidelines for safe early motion are lacking. A 3-dimensional model of the shoulder and the pectoralis major muscle was used to interactively generate the total muscle excursion during the simulated motions. From these simulation results it can be ...


Human identification from body shape

Fourth International Conference on 3-D Digital Imaging and Modeling, 2003. 3DIM 2003. Proceedings., 2003

We investigate the utility of static anthropometric distances as a biometric for human identification. The 3D landmark data from the CAESAR database is used to form a simple biometric consisting of distances between fixed rigidly connected body locations. This biometric is overt, and invariant to view and body posture. We use this to quantify the asymmetry of human bodies, and ...


Development of diagnostic imaging system for regional lymph node micrometastasis with high-frequency ultrasound

2008 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2008

It is important of diagnosing not only primary tumors but also metastases accurately. Recently, we have established murine lymph node metastasis model and developed a new method to reconstruct the two- and three-dimensional (2D/3D) vessel structures in the model by using nanobubbles (NBs) and high- frequency ultrasound imaging system. In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of 2D/3D vessel ...


Deriving the 12-lead electrocardiogram from four standard leads based on the Frank torso model

2001 Conference Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2001

This paper proposes a lead method and a processing means for monitoring the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) with four standard leads. Leads I, II of the M-L leads and leads V1, V6 of the chest leads are used to record the ECG signals. The ECG waveforms of leads V2 through V5 are derived from the input signals using the least squares ...


Design and performance of a portable positron-sensitive surgical probe

2000 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium. Conference Record (Cat. No.00CH37149), 2000

Reports the design and performance of a portable positron-sensitive surgical probe. The probe is designed to be sensitive to positrons and insensitive to background gammas including 511 keV. The probe consists of a multi-mode PMT and an 8/spl times/8 array of thin 2 mm /spl times/2 mm plastic scintillators coupled 1:1 to GSO crystals. The probe uses three selection criteria ...


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  • A Model of Length Increases of the Pectoralis Major Muscle to Provide Rehabilitation Precautions for Patients after Mastectomy.

    A common complication of breast cancer treatment is the development of shoulder stiffness on the affected side. Rehabilitation interventions exist, but scientific guidelines for safe early motion are lacking. A 3-dimensional model of the shoulder and the pectoralis major muscle was used to interactively generate the total muscle excursion during the simulated motions. From these simulation results it can be concluded that women can externally rotate the shoulder in isolation and fall within the "safe" guidelines for pectoralis major muscle increase. Flexion and extension can also be safely accomplished. However, combined motions, such as abduction with external rotation will fall outside of the "safe" region

  • Human identification from body shape

    We investigate the utility of static anthropometric distances as a biometric for human identification. The 3D landmark data from the CAESAR database is used to form a simple biometric consisting of distances between fixed rigidly connected body locations. This biometric is overt, and invariant to view and body posture. We use this to quantify the asymmetry of human bodies, and to characterize the interpersonal and intrapersonal distance distributions. The former is computed directly and the latter by adding zero-mean gaussian noise to the landmark points. This simulation framework is applicable to arbitrary shape based biometrics. We use gross body proportions information to model a computer vision recognition system.

  • Development of diagnostic imaging system for regional lymph node micrometastasis with high-frequency ultrasound

    It is important of diagnosing not only primary tumors but also metastases accurately. Recently, we have established murine lymph node metastasis model and developed a new method to reconstruct the two- and three-dimensional (2D/3D) vessel structures in the model by using nanobubbles (NBs) and high- frequency ultrasound imaging system. In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of 2D/3D vessel structures in the metastasis model, and compared to normal lymph node. This technique may be useful for early diagnosis of lymph node micrometastasis.

  • Deriving the 12-lead electrocardiogram from four standard leads based on the Frank torso model

    This paper proposes a lead method and a processing means for monitoring the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) with four standard leads. Leads I, II of the M-L leads and leads V1, V6 of the chest leads are used to record the ECG signals. The ECG waveforms of leads V2 through V5 are derived from the input signals using the least squares method based on the Frank torso model. This method makes it possible to monitor the 12-lead ECG during ambulatory and long-term bedside monitoring. Examples recorded in the hospital environment show that the derived ECG waveforms can reproduce main features of the original signals, including the ST segment changes. The advantages of this method are discussed with compared to Dower's EASI ECG.

  • Design and performance of a portable positron-sensitive surgical probe

    Reports the design and performance of a portable positron-sensitive surgical probe. The probe is designed to be sensitive to positrons and insensitive to background gammas including 511 keV. The probe consists of a multi-mode PMT and an 8/spl times/8 array of thin 2 mm /spl times/2 mm plastic scintillators coupled 1:1 to GSO crystals. The probe uses three selection criteria to identify positrons. An energy threshold on the plastic signals reduces the false positron signals in the plastic due to background gammas: a second energy threshold on the PMT sum signal greatly reduces background gammas in the GSO. Finally, a timing window accepts only 511 keV gammas from the GSO that arrive within 15 ns of the plastic signals, reducing accidental coincidences to a negligible level. The first application being investigated is sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery, to identify in real-time the location of SLNs in the axilla with /sup 18/F-FDG uptake, which may indicate metastasis. The authors' simulations and measurements suggest that the probe's signal to background ratio in this situation will be high. Preliminary results on the performance of the probe are presented.

  • Evaluation of a heuristic approach to estimate motor conduction velocity distributions of peripheral nerves

    A procedure for estimating the motor conduction velocity distribution of peripheral nerves is proposed. The distribution is estimated by fitting a single representative potential to the maximal stimulus-evoked muscle potential in a least-squares fashion. The results obtained for the case of a muscle consisting of 150 motor units are presented. In this example, the estimated distribution closely matches the actual velocity distribution. The results for the case in which the signals used to calculate the velocity distribution are contaminated with noise are presented. Again, there is a good correspondence between the calculated and actual velocity distributions.<<ETX>>

  • Initial study with microwave imaging of the axilla to aid breast cancer diagnosis

    Microwave Imaging (MWI) is one of the most promising imaging modalities for breast cancer early screening and monitoring. An important issue that is not commonly addressed in breast microwave imaging literature is the importance of imaging the underarm region - where up to 80% of breast cancer cells can metastasise to [Cameron et al, ANTEM, 1-3, 2010; Patani, Journal of Cancer Surgery, 33, 409-419, 2007]. When performing mastectomies to remove breast cancer, the axillary lymph nodes are often removed and their histopathological analysis is performed. Thus, the evaluation of whether the cancer has spread beyond the breast is crucial to decide what follow-up exams and therapy to follow. The first nodes to receive drainage from the primary tumour in the breast are called Sentinel Node. If cancer cells are found in the Sentinel Node, there is an increased risk of metastatic breast cancer and an axillary dissection should be performed. However, the non-invasive detection of cancer cells in the Sentinel Node is often inconclusive. Because of that, often too many lymph nodes are surgically removed in a time-consuming process which is associated with a long patients' recovery, pain, risk of infection and lymphedema [Komen, Facts for Life: Axillary Lymph Node, 2009]. Therefore, non- invasive alternatives for the use in axillary staging should be considered in order to reduce the incidence of these adverse events.

  • Pinhole Trajectories for SPECT Imaging of the Breast, Axilla, and Upper Chest

    Several methods have been proposed for dedicated SPECT imaging of the breast. Two key characteristics achieved by these methods are shortened distance and lessened attenuation between the SPECT collimator and the breast. However, many of these methods are unable to image the important regions of the axilla and upper chest. Partial-Circle pinhole trajectories can image into the axilla, but only over a narrow axial range. Here we propose X and X-Line trajectories that can effectively image a broad axial range of the breast, axilla, and upper chest. The X and X-Line trajectories provide a third dimension of pinhole displacement, which is key to expanding the range of sufficient sampling. In order to investigate spatial variations in the imaging characteristics of different pinhole trajectories, phantoms were constructed with hot lesions and Defrise slabs distributed throughout the breast and torso. Projection data were computer simulated, and images were reconstructed by OSEM. These studies indicate that all three trajectories can sample activity well into the axilla. However, the axial range of good sampling is narrow with the Partial-Circle trajectory. The X and X-Line trajectories provide good sampling well into the axilla and over a broad axial range. The convex hulls of the X and X-Line trajectories encompass the breast and much of the axilla and upper chest, thereby satisfying Tuy's condition for sufficient sampling of those regions, truncation issues aside. The spatial extent of the convex hull is tunable. At the same time, the X and X-Line trajectories achieve two other key characteristics of dedicated SPECT breast imaging: Shortened average distance and lessened average attenuation between the collimator, i.e. the pinhole, and the breast and other nearby tissue of interest.

  • Development of component-based normalization correction for the Clear-PEM system

    We are developing a component-based normalization correction for the Clear-PEM positron emission mammography system. This system consists of two opposing parallel planar detectors that rotate around the breast. The distance between detector plates can vary to adapt to the patient and scintillation light is read at two ends of the crystals for Depth of Interaction (DOI) information. The normalization model currently accounts for intrinsic and geometric efficiencies using new methods specifically developed for this purpose. Both efficiencies are calculated from data obtained with a planar source that is parallel to the two detector plates. Support for other components (deadtime and DOI) is currently being developed. The whole normalization scheme is in the process of being assessed with real data using planar and cylindrical sources.

  • Reduced incomplete-sampling artifacts in pinhole SPECT breast imaging using body-contour and lung-boundary constraints

    Dedicated systems for SPECT breast imaging offer improved spatial resolution and sensitivity by maintaining close proximity to the breast throughout the gamma camera orbit However, generally these systems do not adequately sample the important regions of the breast-torso interface and the axilla. Herein we consider the potential of body-contour and lung-boundary information for reducing incomplete-sampling artifacts in these regions. Given the increasing predominance of multi-modality imaging, such information might be available from CT, MRI, or optical imaging. The studies presented here show that such information can significantly improve estimates of radiotracer activity in and near tumors. The studies also suggest that such information may be able to improve detection of focal hot spots



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