Boltzmann distribution

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In chemistry, physics, and mathematics, the Boltzmann distribution is a certain distribution function or probability measure for the distribution of the states of a system. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Boltzmann distribution

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2020 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE


2020 59th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC)

The CDC is the premier conference dedicated to the advancement of the theory and practice of systems and control. The CDC annually brings together an international community of researchers and practitioners in the field of automatic control to discuss new research results, perspectives on future developments, and innovative applications relevant to decision making, automatic control, and related areas.


2020 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)

CVPR is the premier annual computer vision event comprising the main conference and several co-located workshops and short courses. With its high quality and low cost, it provides an exceptional value for students, academics and industry researchers.

  • 2019 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)

    CVPR is the premier annual computer vision event comprising the main conference and severalco-located workshops and short courses. With its high quality and low cost, it provides anexceptional value for students, academics and industry researchers.

  • 2018 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)

    CVPR is the premier annual computer vision event comprising the main conference and several co-located workshops and short courses. With its high quality and low cost, it provides an exceptional value for students, academics and industry researchers.

  • 2017 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)

    CVPR is the premiere annual Computer Vision event comprising the main CVPR conferenceand 27co-located workshops and short courses. With its high quality and low cost, it provides anexceptional value for students,academics and industry.

  • 2016 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)

    CVPR is the premiere annual Computer Vision event comprising the main CVPR conference and 27 co-located workshops and short courses. With its high quality and low cost, it provides an exceptional value for students, academics and industry.

  • 2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)

    computer, vision, pattern, cvpr, machine, learning

  • 2014 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)

    CVPR is the premiere annual Computer Vision event comprising the main CVPR conference and 27 co-located workshops and short courses. Main conference plus 50 workshop only attendees and approximately 50 exhibitors and volunteers.

  • 2013 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)

    CVPR is the premiere annual Computer Vision event comprising the main CVPR conference and 27 co-located workshops and short courses. With its high quality and low cost, it provides an exceptional value for students, academics and industry.

  • 2012 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)

    Topics of interest include all aspects of computer vision and pattern recognition including motion and tracking,stereo, object recognition, object detection, color detection plus many more

  • 2011 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)

    Sensors Early and Biologically-Biologically-inspired Vision, Color and Texture, Segmentation and Grouping, Computational Photography and Video

  • 2010 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)

    Concerned with all aspects of computer vision and pattern recognition. Issues of interest include pattern, analysis, image, and video libraries, vision and graphics, motion analysis and physics-based vision.

  • 2009 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)

    Concerned with all aspects of computer vision and pattern recognition. Issues of interest include pattern, analysis, image, and video libraries, vision and graphics,motion analysis and physics-based vision.

  • 2008 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)

  • 2007 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)

  • 2006 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)

  • 2005 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)


2020 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS)

IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS) is an annual conference coordinated by the Plasma Science and Application Committee (PSAC) of the IEEE Nuclear & Plasma Sciences Society.


2020 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC)

The 2020 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC 2020) will be held in Metro Toronto Convention Centre (MTCC), Toronto, Ontario, Canada. SMC 2020 is the flagship conference of the IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society. It provides an international forum for researchers and practitioners to report most recent innovations and developments, summarize state-of-the-art, and exchange ideas and advances in all aspects of systems science and engineering, human machine systems, and cybernetics. Advances in these fields have increasing importance in the creation of intelligent environments involving technologies interacting with humans to provide an enriching experience and thereby improve quality of life. Papers related to the conference theme are solicited, including theories, methodologies, and emerging applications. Contributions to theory and practice, including but not limited to the following technical areas, are invited.


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Periodicals related to Boltzmann distribution

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, IEEE Transactions on

Speech analysis, synthesis, coding speech recognition, speaker recognition, language modeling, speech production and perception, speech enhancement. In audio, transducers, room acoustics, active sound control, human audition, analysis/synthesis/coding of music, and consumer audio. (8) (IEEE Guide for Authors) The scope for the proposed transactions includes SPEECH PROCESSING - Transmission and storage of Speech signals; speech coding; speech enhancement and noise reduction; ...


Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Video A/D and D/A, display technology, image analysis and processing, video signal characterization and representation, video compression techniques and signal processing, multidimensional filters and transforms, analog video signal processing, neural networks for video applications, nonlinear video signal processing, video storage and retrieval, computer vision, packet video, high-speed real-time circuits, VLSI architecture and implementation for video technology, multiprocessor systems--hardware and software-- ...


Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on

Component parts, hybrid microelectronics, materials, packaging techniques, and manufacturing technology.


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Most published Xplore authors for Boltzmann distribution

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Xplore Articles related to Boltzmann distribution

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Improved Simulated Annealing Algorithm Solving for 0/1 Knapsack Problem

Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications, 2006

0/1 knapsack problem belongs to combination optimization problem. Its optimal solution exists in the problem space including substantially large useless solutions besides optimal solutions. Differing with other SA (simulated annealing) algorithms that getting the approximate optimization solution from the whole problem space often need much computation time, this improved SA algorithm proposed in this paper avoided this disadvantage by extracting ...


Visualization of ion flux neutralization effect on electrical field and atom density distribution in Hall thruster channel

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 2005

The effect of ion flux neutralization on discharge in the channel of a Hall thruster was simulated using a hybrid model, in which the atom ensemble was described in two-dimensional (2-D) 0V (X, Y) approximation, ion ensemble in 2-D 2V (X, Y, Vx, Vy), and electron ensemble in 2-D (X, Y) Maxwell distribution function approximations. The influence of the secondary ...


Spectroscopic investigation of multiple Boltzmann distributions of argon atomic and ionic excited states in an expanding H20-Ar dc-arc jet

2010 Abstracts IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science, 2010

Summary form only given. It has been shown for several years that even in non- LTE hot plasmas, the atomic processes tend to establish the Boltzmann distribution of level populations within each electronic configuration. In this contribution we study population distributions of argon atomic and ionic excited states in the supersonic part of an expanding H2O-AR DC-Arc plasma jet by ...


A fuzzy mean field approach for partitioning and placement

Proceedings of ISCAS'95 - International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1995

A new strategy taken from statistical and nuclear physics enables a qualitative and macroscopic approach to combinatorial optimization. For this purpose the mean field approximation is interpreted in a fuzzy manner and the strategy is tested at some NP complete layout problems. The described applications concerning graph partitioning, linear ordering and two dimensional assignment show performance comparable with simulated annealing, ...


Activation Energy of Solute Migration in a Gas-Solid Chromatography

2009 3rd International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 2009

The rate equation of solute migration for a gas-solid chromatography was derived from Maxwell distribution of energy and the principle of equipartition of energy. Different from two-phase distribution ratio being used to explain the retention time of solute in plate theory, the retention time was explained with the activation energy of migration from a new and kinetic viewpoint. According to ...


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Educational Resources on Boltzmann distribution

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Improved Simulated Annealing Algorithm Solving for 0/1 Knapsack Problem

    0/1 knapsack problem belongs to combination optimization problem. Its optimal solution exists in the problem space including substantially large useless solutions besides optimal solutions. Differing with other SA (simulated annealing) algorithms that getting the approximate optimization solution from the whole problem space often need much computation time, this improved SA algorithm proposed in this paper avoided this disadvantage by extracting two kinds of solution spaces, i.e. all optimal solutions space and the most possible part optimal solutions space, from the whole space. Then to improve approximate solution quality some variables were introduced to record the maximum solution, which produced during annealing process but was possibly deserted because of Metropolis rule in SA. We applied this SA algorithm, general SA and greedy-based SA algorithm to knapsack problem. And experimental results showed that this algorithm only searching the two optimal spaces obtained better approximate results and largely decreased the time overhead compared with the other two algorithms searching whole space

  • Visualization of ion flux neutralization effect on electrical field and atom density distribution in Hall thruster channel

    The effect of ion flux neutralization on discharge in the channel of a Hall thruster was simulated using a hybrid model, in which the atom ensemble was described in two-dimensional (2-D) 0V (X, Y) approximation, ion ensemble in 2-D 2V (X, Y, Vx, Vy), and electron ensemble in 2-D (X, Y) Maxwell distribution function approximations. The influence of the secondary electron emission coefficient of the dielectric walls on the plasma flow was addressed. The effects of the low-energy ion losses to the ceramic walls and ion recombination on the walls are taken into account. The images of electrical field and xenon atom density distribution in the channel are presented.

  • Spectroscopic investigation of multiple Boltzmann distributions of argon atomic and ionic excited states in an expanding H20-Ar dc-arc jet

    Summary form only given. It has been shown for several years that even in non- LTE hot plasmas, the atomic processes tend to establish the Boltzmann distribution of level populations within each electronic configuration. In this contribution we study population distributions of argon atomic and ionic excited states in the supersonic part of an expanding H2O-AR DC-Arc plasma jet by optical emission spectroscopy. The excitation temperatures are obtained from ArI (13.1-15.3 eV) and ArII Boltzmann (19.2-22.5 eV) diagrams. The ionization temperature is obtained from the intensity ratio of argon ionic and atomic lines, using electron number density calculated from the Stark broadening of hydrogen Hβline and Saha equation.A systematic difference in the total excitation temperature between both argon systems is found, with the ionic excitation temperature being significantly higher and close to the ionization temperature. The Boltzmann plots also reveal that the population distribution within a given electronic configuration can be characterized by an effective temperature which is usually much lower than the total excitation temperature. Furthermore, the configuration temperature of Arl 4p (13.1-13.3 eV) is lower than the configuration temperature of Aril (3P) 4p (19.2-19.9 eV) and this difference increases with increasing distance from the torch exit. Moreover, population distribution of higher argon atomic states belonging to the configurations 5p, 4d, 6s, 5d, 7s, 8s (14.53-15.36 eV) can also be approximated by the Boltzmann distribution with the temperature close to the temperature of Arl 4p. Collisional and radiative processes responsible for multiple Boltzmann distribution as well as their relation with the kinetic temperatures of electrons and heavy species are discussed.

  • A fuzzy mean field approach for partitioning and placement

    A new strategy taken from statistical and nuclear physics enables a qualitative and macroscopic approach to combinatorial optimization. For this purpose the mean field approximation is interpreted in a fuzzy manner and the strategy is tested at some NP complete layout problems. The described applications concerning graph partitioning, linear ordering and two dimensional assignment show performance comparable with simulated annealing, but much faster. Especially a new fuzzy net model can treat hypergraphs without splitting multi pin nets into two point nets.

  • Activation Energy of Solute Migration in a Gas-Solid Chromatography

    The rate equation of solute migration for a gas-solid chromatography was derived from Maxwell distribution of energy and the principle of equipartition of energy. Different from two-phase distribution ratio being used to explain the retention time of solute in plate theory, the retention time was explained with the activation energy of migration from a new and kinetic viewpoint. According to the derivation of the rate equation for solute migration, the activation energy of migration related to the kinetic energy of translation, rotation and vibration. Temperature observably influenced the activation energy of migration. Separation mechanism of gas-solid chromatography was based upon different solutes having different functions of physical adsorption on the stationary phase. This property could be the cause of the activation energy of migration being different from reaction activation energy in nature. The activation energy of migration for alkane homolog increased with carbon number. To investigate the mechanism of gas-solid chromatography was attempted from a kinetic viewpoint, in order to provide some ideal at understanding chromatography process.

  • A digital computer program for the simulation of positive or negative particle beams on a PC

    PBGUNS, an expanded and improved version of the SNOW2D code for extracted ion beams will be described and demonstrated. The new code includes the electrode description and electron beam capabilities of the SPEED code. The new version includes positive and negative ion beam extraction systems and may include skew/sup 1/ (azimuthal energy particles) permitting the simulation of thermal effects in high energy plasmas, thermal effects in low energy electron beams, and the computation of x-x' emittance plots from axisymmetric simulations. Plasma electrons (and positive ions for negative ion beams) are simulated with background Boltzmann distributions. Electrodes are described with quadratic equations while potentials are solved by basic relaxation techniques on a rectangular array of squares. Smooth electrodes are created by extending fields into electrodes. A fine mesh covers the cathode and/or plasma- extraction region to furnish the additional accuracy required for the calculations near the particle emission surface. Axisymmetric and rectangular magnetic fields can be included in the trajectory calculations. It is written in FORTRAN 77, employing Calcomp-Versatec type plotting routines and is run on 386 or 486 IBM PC's with DOS Extenders. Generic FORTRAN 77 is used to facilitate the transfer of the program to other computers with only minor modifications.<<ETX>>

  • A New Hydrodynamic Model For High Energy Tail Electrons

    None

  • Static Analysis of Nano Fixed-Fixed Beam Based on Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    In this paper, molecular dynamics simulation method is used to study static characteristic of nano fixed-fixed beam, which is used in nano-electric- mechanical switch. Firstly, model of solid beam and hollow beam are developed. The solid beam consists of 5times20times5 crystal cell, and dimension is 2.715 nm times 10.860 nm times 2.715 nm. For the hollow beam, its wall thickness is one crystal cell, the model consists of 5times20times5 crystal cells and 7times20times7 crystal cells. Then Tersoff potential function is used to compute the interaction of single crystal silicon atoms. The initial position is set on crystal lattice point and the initial speed is set to meet Boltzmann distribution. System freely calculates for period of time until it comes to balance. At last, beams are applied with external voltage to show bending deformation when the length of beam is 3.6 nm, 7 nm and 10 nm. Results show that: firstly, for solid beam, atom's position has a little deviation from the ideal lattice's position after relaxation, yet for hollow beam, the atom position is far from the ideal lattice and the section of beam is flat shape along diagonal line; then comparing simulation data with traditional theory data under uniform static load, it is found that two group data well conform to each other, only there are a few differences on the middle part of beam. The maximum difference is 0.050488 nm; at last, we discuss the effect for beam flexivity caused by length of beam. We found that the two end of beam only can affect no more than 2 nm long distance from the support base. More far from the support base is, the effect is less. So the longer nano beam is, the middle level distance is longer.

  • Beyond simple rule extraction: the extraction of planning knowledge from reinforcement learners

    This paper discusses learning in hybrid models that goes beyond simple rule extraction from backpropagation networks. Although simple rule extraction has received a lot of research attention, to further develop hybrid learning models that include both symbolic and subsymbolic knowledge and that learn autonomously, it is necessary to study autonomous learning of both subsymbolic and symbolic knowledge in integrated architectures. This paper describes knowledge extraction from neural reinforcement learning. It includes two approaches towards extracting plan knowledge: the extraction of explicit, symbolic rules from neural reinforcement learning, and the extraction of complete plans. This work points to the creation of a general framework for achieving the subsymbolic to symbolic transition in an integrated autonomous learning framework.

  • Efficient 1.94-/spl mu/m Tm:YALO laser

    Laser emission from Tm:YALO is observed over the range 1.93-2.00 /spl mu/m. A model including reabsorption loss and polarization effects, predicting the output wavelength as a function of laser parameters, is used to design a Tm:YALO laser with output restricted to 1.94 /spl mu/m, without employing a tuning element. This laser is potentially useful for medical applications, offing to the strong absorption coefficient at 1.94 /spl mu/m in liquid water (twice that of the 2.02-/spl mu/m Tm:YAG laser and four times that of the 2.09-/spl mu/m Ho:YAG laser).<<ETX>>



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