Boltzmann equation

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The Boltzmann equation, also often known as the Boltzmann transport equation, devised by Ludwig Boltzmann, describes the statistical distribution of one particle in rarefied gas. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Boltzmann equation

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2021 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference (PPC)

The Pulsed Power Conference is held on a biannual basis and serves as the principal forum forthe exchange of information on pulsed power technology and engineering.


2020 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE


2020 59th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC)

The CDC is the premier conference dedicated to the advancement of the theory and practice of systems and control. The CDC annually brings together an international community of researchers and practitioners in the field of automatic control to discuss new research results, perspectives on future developments, and innovative applications relevant to decision making, automatic control, and related areas.


2020 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP)

The International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), sponsored by the IEEE SignalProcessing Society, is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances andresearch results in the fields of theoretical, experimental, and applied image and videoprocessing. ICIP 2020, the 27th in the series that has been held annually since 1994, bringstogether leading engineers and scientists in image and video processing from around the world.


2020 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS)

IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS) is an annual conference coordinated by the Plasma Science and Application Committee (PSAC) of the IEEE Nuclear & Plasma Sciences Society.


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Periodicals related to Boltzmann equation

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on

Component parts, hybrid microelectronics, materials, packaging techniques, and manufacturing technology.


Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, IEEE/ACM Transactions on

Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to, sequence analysis, comparison and alignment methods; motif, gene and signal recognition; molecular evolution; phylogenetics and phylogenomics; determination or prediction of the structure of RNA and Protein in two and three dimensions; DNA twisting and folding; gene expression and gene regulatory networks; deduction of metabolic pathways; micro-array design and analysis; proteomics; ...


Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Methods, algorithms, and human-machine interfaces for physical and logical design, including: planning, synthesis, partitioning, modeling, simulation, layout, verification, testing, and documentation of integrated-circuit and systems designs of all complexities. Practical applications of aids resulting in producible analog, digital, optical, or microwave integrated circuits are emphasized.


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Xplore Articles related to Boltzmann equation

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Hierarchical 2-D DD and HD noise simulations of Si and SiGe devices II. Results

IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 2002

For pt. I see ibid., vol. 49, pp. 1250-1257 (2002). Terminal current noise is investigated with Langevin-type drift-diffusion (DD) and hydrodynamic (HD) noise models for one-dimensional (1-D) N/sup +/ NN/sup +/ and P/sup +/ PP/sup +/ structures and a realistic two-dimensional (2-D) SiGe NPN HBT. The new noise models, which are suitable for technology computer aided design (TCAD), are validated ...


Hierarchical 2-D DD and HD noise simulations of Si and SiGe devices. I. Theory

IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 2002

Langevin-type two-dimensional (2-D) bipolar drift-diffusion (DD) and hydrodynamic (HD) noise models are presented for Si and SiGe devices, which are based on the new concept of modified Langevin forces, which ensure that the DD and HD models exactly reproduce the fluctuations of the full-band Monte Carlo (MC) model under homogeneous bulk conditions. All transport and noise parameters are generated by ...


AC conductivity of metallic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exposed to a DC field

2011 XXXth URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium, 2011

The AC conductivity of a carbon nanotube (CNT) is derived and it is shown that it can become negative when the CNT is exposed to a DC axial field in addition to the AC field. For this purpose, the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) is solved within the relaxation time approximation (RTA) by separating the AC and DC contributions. The near-equilibrium ...


Modeling effects of velocity overshoot in extremely scaled MOSFETs

2003 IEEE Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (IEEE Cat. No.03TH8668), 2003

A physical model of velocity-overshoot of hot-carriers based on the balanced equation of energy is developed and implemented in MOSFET models. Derived from the Boltzmann equation, a simple analytic simulation model can be put into the BSIM3 simulation model. There are better identical verifications among the model of velocity overshoot, standard BSIM3 model (not including effects of velocity overshoot) and ...


Gate leakage current simulation for nanoscale NMOSFETs with nitrided gate dielectric by Boltzmann transport equation

2001 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium. Symposium Proceedings (Cat. No.01EX497), 2001

We present an efficient but rigorous method to calculate gate leakage current for nanoscale devices, with and without nitrided gate dielectric. We achieve this by utilizing our results from the spherical harmonic Boltzmann transport equation calculations, which give the distribution function fairly fast. We calculate tunneling current using the WKB method and include potential barrier lowering due to image charge. ...


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Educational Resources on Boltzmann equation

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Hierarchical 2-D DD and HD noise simulations of Si and SiGe devices II. Results

    For pt. I see ibid., vol. 49, pp. 1250-1257 (2002). Terminal current noise is investigated with Langevin-type drift-diffusion (DD) and hydrodynamic (HD) noise models for one-dimensional (1-D) N/sup +/ NN/sup +/ and P/sup +/ PP/sup +/ structures and a realistic two-dimensional (2-D) SiGe NPN HBT. The new noise models, which are suitable for technology computer aided design (TCAD), are validated by comparison with Monte Carlo (MC) device simulations for the 1-D structures including noise due to particle scattering and generation of secondary particles by impact ionization (II). It is shown that the accuracy of the usual approach based on the DD model in conjunction with the Einstein relation degrades under nonequilibrium conditions. 2-D MC noise simulations are found to be feasible only if the current correlation functions decay on a subpicosecond scale, what is not always the case.

  • Hierarchical 2-D DD and HD noise simulations of Si and SiGe devices. I. Theory

    Langevin-type two-dimensional (2-D) bipolar drift-diffusion (DD) and hydrodynamic (HD) noise models are presented for Si and SiGe devices, which are based on the new concept of modified Langevin forces, which ensure that the DD and HD models exactly reproduce the fluctuations of the full-band Monte Carlo (MC) model under homogeneous bulk conditions. All transport and noise parameters are generated by MC bulk simulations and stored in lookup tables, which must be built only once. As a consequence, the accuracy of the DD and HD models is improved without an increase in CPU time compared to models with analytical expressions for the parameters. Considering the full-band structure, a remarkably strong dependence of noise on crystal orientation is found.

  • AC conductivity of metallic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exposed to a DC field

    The AC conductivity of a carbon nanotube (CNT) is derived and it is shown that it can become negative when the CNT is exposed to a DC axial field in addition to the AC field. For this purpose, the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) is solved within the relaxation time approximation (RTA) by separating the AC and DC contributions. The near-equilibrium approximation is used for the DC part of the carrier distribution. The AC carrier distribution and the AC conductivity are subsequently found via a semi-analytical procedure. Absolute negative AC conductivity is found at for a DC field above 10<sup>5</sup> V/m, which is a promising result toward enabling CNT traveling-wave amplifiers.

  • Modeling effects of velocity overshoot in extremely scaled MOSFETs

    A physical model of velocity-overshoot of hot-carriers based on the balanced equation of energy is developed and implemented in MOSFET models. Derived from the Boltzmann equation, a simple analytic simulation model can be put into the BSIM3 simulation model. There are better identical verifications among the model of velocity overshoot, standard BSIM3 model (not including effects of velocity overshoot) and real device data.

  • Gate leakage current simulation for nanoscale NMOSFETs with nitrided gate dielectric by Boltzmann transport equation

    We present an efficient but rigorous method to calculate gate leakage current for nanoscale devices, with and without nitrided gate dielectric. We achieve this by utilizing our results from the spherical harmonic Boltzmann transport equation calculations, which give the distribution function fairly fast. We calculate tunneling current using the WKB method and include potential barrier lowering due to image charge. We calculate gate currents for pure oxide gate dielectric, and for nitrided devices we use our modified model to calculate the same for different biases and gate lengths. As evident from our results, nitridation of gate dielectric leads to a reduction in gate leakage current by several orders of magnitude, albeit with about 20% reduction in mobility. Nitridation of gate dielectric has been an important tool in our quest for nanoscale devices. In this work we have proposed a physical model for nitrided gate devices that will go a long way in accurately predicting nanoscale device performances.

  • Initiation of internal discharges in a liquid-nitrogen-filled cavity

    Discharge initiation phenomena in a liquid-nitrogen-filled cavity were investigated using “a.c. impulse” voltage. It was found that the discharge magnitude in the beginning half cycle of the voltage is generally different from that in the next half cycle time. This phenomenon is discussed in terms of discharge processes and the quantity of discharge-formed bubbles. Overvoltage characteristic of the discharge magnitude was also found in a liquid-nitrogen-filled cavity as in a gaseous-nitrogen-filled cavity.

  • Mixed model for silt-laden solid-liquid two-phase flows

    The kinetic theory of molecular gases was used to derive the governing equations for dense solid-liqud two-phase flows from a microscopic flow characteristics viewpoint by multiplying the Boltzrrann equation for each phase by property parameters and integrating over the velocity space. The particle collision term was derived from microscopic terms by corrparison with dilute two-phase flow but with consideration of the collisions between particles for dense two-phase flow conditions and by assuming that the particle-phase velocity distribution obeys the Maxwell equations. Appropriate terms from the dilute two-phase governing equations were combined with the dense particle coliision term to develop the governing equations for dense solid-liquid turbulent flows. The SIMPLEC algorithm and a staggered grid system were used to solve the discretized two-phase governing equations with a Reynd ds averaged turbulence model. Dense solid-l iquid turbulent two-phase flows were simulated for flow in a duct. The simulation results agree well with experirrental data.

  • Study of Warm-Electron Injection in Double-Gate SONOS by Full-Band Monte Carlo Simulation

    In this letter, we investigate warm-electron injection in a double-gate SONOS memory by means of 2-D full-band Monte Carlo simulations of the Boltzmann transport equation. Electrons are accelerated in the channel by a drain-to- source voltage <i>V</i> <sub>DS</sub> smaller than 3 V, so that programming occurs via electrons tunneling through a potential barrier whose height has been effectively reduced by the accumulated kinetic energy. Particle energy distribution at the semiconductor/oxide interface is studied for different bias conditions and different positions along the channel. The gate current is calculated with a continuum-based postprocessing method as a function of the particle distribution obtained from Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation results show that the gate current increases by several orders of magnitude with increasing drain bias, and warm-electron injection can be an interesting option for programming when short-channel effects prohibit the application of larger drain bias.

  • Modelling of Gate Currents in MOSFETs Operating at Low Drain Voltages

    A hybrid Monte Carloliterative technique has been used to solve the Boltzmann transport equation including electron-electron interactions. A simple parabolic energy dispersion and a full band structure are separately used to calculate the electron-electron scattering rate. The technique is used to model gate currents in MOSFETs operating at low drain voltages. It found that electron-electron scattering near the drain of the device can quantitatively account for experimental observations ofgate current at low drain voltages.

  • Numerical Modeling Of Energy Transport Effects In AlGaAs/GaAs Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

    A new numerical model for AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) is proposed in which the transport of electron energy is included using "hydrodynamic" equations derived from the Boltzmann equation. This model can analyze nonequilibrium transport effects such as velocity overshoot, in contrast to the conventional static model. It is shown that the importance of energy transport effects arises from the fact that the average electron energy deviates largely from the field-determined one. The velocity overshoot can occur in a graded-gap base and a collector depletion region, resulting in a much higher cutoff frequency than that predicted by the conventional model.



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