Combat Casualty Care
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The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE
WSC is the premier international forum for disseminating recent advances in the field of system simulation. In addition to a technical program of unsurpassed scope and quality, WSC provides the central meeting for practitioners, researchers, and vendors.
Advancing our understanding of how the brain works has emerged as the leading research focus area for the coming decade. Such advancement is expected to have a marked impact in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of neural and mental disorders. Critical innovations in neuroimaging, nanosensors, multi-scale modeling, and large-scale data analytics for multimodal brain data are needed to bridge the gap between molecules and mind. The conference aims to bring together researchers from all disciplines at the intersection of neuroscience, cognitive science, psychology, nanotechnology, radiology, chemistry, biology, computer science, and data sciences.
The conference will be a forum for in-depth discussion to promote novel methodologies and cutting-edge solutions to meet the emerging challenges in the biomedical and the pharmaceutical fields.
IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control was the number-three journal in acoustics in 2002, according to the annual Journal Citation Report (2002 edition) published by the Institute for Scientific Information. This publication focuses on the theory, design, and application on generation, transmission, and detection of bulk and surface mechanical waves; fundamental studies in physical acoustics; design of sonic ...
Proceedings of the 2012 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC), 2012
Serious game techniques permit rapid development of cost effective educational software but face two apparently conflicting objectives: efficiently teaching extremely complex subject matter (such as emergency medical care for a severely wounded, dying casualty) yet enhancing learning motivation by emphasizing game entertainment value. Our development strategy for a battlefield first aid training game for the German Federal Armed Forces resolves ...
Proceedings of 18th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1996
Significant progress in the manufacturing of photovoltaic HgCdTe and InSb, Schottky barrier PtSi, uncooled ferroelectrics and microbolometers, and quantum well infrared detector technologies has occurred over the last 5 years, enabling system developers to obtain high quality staring infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) at a reasonable cost. Recently developed portable IR imagers using 256/spl times/256 and 320/spl times/240 staring IRFPAs ...
Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 'Magnificent Milestones and Emerging Opportunities in Medical Engineering' (Cat. No.97CH36136), 1997
The Army Research Laboratory has developed an acoustic sensor pad technology that is useful for combat casualty care and soldier performance monitoring. Heartbeats, breaths, motion, and other physiological sounds relating to injured and uninjured soldiers can be detected, transmitted, and analyzed for diagnostic purposes. The acoustic sensor pad is a fluid-filled bladder with a hydrophone that couples well to the ...
2016 IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics (BHI), 2016
In this study we explored the possibility of detecting blood loss in patients with hemorrhage symptoms (N=14) from photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals collected with pulse oximeters (PO) at forehead, ear and finger sites. We used variable frequency complex demodulation (VFCDM) technique to estimate amplitude modulations in heart rate frequency range (AMHR) of PPG signals. We determined the trend of these AMHR ...
2009 International Conference on Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Engineering, 2009
Pyridostigmine is a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The objective of the present analysis was to characterise the population pharmacokinetics / pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of pyridostigmine given as pyridostigmine bromide. Fifty healthy Chinese males received 7 doses of 30 mg of pyridostigmine bromide each every 8 hours orally. Plasma concentrations of pyridostigmine and red blood cell (RBC) AChE activity were determined ...
ITEC 2014: Next Generation Combat Vehicle Electrical Power Architecture Development
Defense Department's Crusher Field Demonstration
Developing Point-of-Care Technologies
EMBC 2011 -Keynote -The Impact of Information Technology on Health Care Delivery - John Glaser, PhD
Care Innovations: Toxics In Electronics (com legendas em portugues)
GHTC 2012 - Improving Access to Quality Care Panel
Care Innovations: WEEE and RoHs(e-waste) (com legendas em portugues)
Ted Berger: Far Futures Panel - Technologies for Increasing Human Memory - TTM 2018
Keynote: Wei Lu - ETAP Beijing 2016
Roy Schoenberg AMA EMBS Individualized Healthcare
Engineering in Medicine and Biology: Segment 3
Care Innovations: Green Engineering (com legendas em portugues)
Care Innovations: Responsibility For Being Green (com legendas em portugues)
Life Sciences - Olaf Such, Philips Healthcare interview
ICCE 2014: Point-Of-Care Healthcare Technologies
Biomedical Engineering at the Mayo Clinic
Fog: Frontiers of Innovation - Mung Chiang, Fog World Congress 2017
Bill Heetderks: Expect Technology to Reduce the Cost of Health Care
IEEE Life Sciences: Martin Kohn Interview
Serious game techniques permit rapid development of cost effective educational software but face two apparently conflicting objectives: efficiently teaching extremely complex subject matter (such as emergency medical care for a severely wounded, dying casualty) yet enhancing learning motivation by emphasizing game entertainment value. Our development strategy for a battlefield first aid training game for the German Federal Armed Forces resolves this contradiction by relying on separate development teams working in parallel, a pedagogical expert team concentrating on deciding how and in which form the medical principles are to be taught, and a game developer team best able to package that subject-matter in an attractive game with a motivating storyboard and an appealing graphics environment. After an overview of existing battlefield first aid training games and of the essential battlefield first aid procedures to be implemented and simulated, this paper presents concrete elements of our dual-team game development and modeling choices.
Significant progress in the manufacturing of photovoltaic HgCdTe and InSb, Schottky barrier PtSi, uncooled ferroelectrics and microbolometers, and quantum well infrared detector technologies has occurred over the last 5 years, enabling system developers to obtain high quality staring infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) at a reasonable cost. Recently developed portable IR imagers using 256/spl times/256 and 320/spl times/240 staring IRFPAs have achieved thermal sensitivity unmatched by systems typically used for medical studies in the past. Cooled staring systems weighing less than 3 pounds have demonstrated thermal sensitivity below 0.020 degrees C, more than a factor of 10 improvement over comparably packaged first generation serially scanned systems. The use of high quantum efficiency (QE) staring IRFPAs offers design flexibility and performance tradeoffs that until recently were impractical. Portable cooled staring systems operating in the short (1-2.5 micron), medium (3-5 micron), and long (8-12 micron) wavelength IR spectral bands provide excellent image quality at nominal video frame rates. Staring systems can be tailored to maintain sensitivity at high frame rates and over narrow spectral bandwidths. The medical benefits associated with high sensitivity thermal imaging, calibrated radiometric imaging, wavelength and time resolved spectrometry, and realtime sensor fusion have not been fully explored. An uncooled head mounted thermal imager (HMTI) weighing 1.25 pounds is being developed by the US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate to assist in combat casualty care and confined environment search and rescue.
The Army Research Laboratory has developed an acoustic sensor pad technology that is useful for combat casualty care and soldier performance monitoring. Heartbeats, breaths, motion, and other physiological sounds relating to injured and uninjured soldiers can be detected, transmitted, and analyzed for diagnostic purposes. The acoustic sensor pad is a fluid-filled bladder with a hydrophone that couples well to the soldier's torso. Since the human body is mostly water, the pad acts as a fluid extension of the body to form an acoustical conduit to a sensitive hydrophone within the pad that detects body sounds. The sensing pad can be a hand-held version for the field medic or doctor, or a torso-sized pad incorporated into casualty transport hardware such as litters or gurneys. Acoustic analysis of the sensor-pad output can provide amplitude, phase, frequency, duration, rate, and correlative information that may be useful for medical diagnosis, patient care, and research. Data collected with prototype devices show excellent signal-to-noise ratios for heart and breath sounds; such devices could be used in the field to detect conditions such as irregular heartbeats, cardiac distress, obstructed airways, sucking chest wounds, fluid in the lungs, or other respiratory and circulatory emergencies. Joint time-frequency Fourier analysis of sensor output shows that human cardiopulmonary function contains infrasonic (sounds below 20 Hz) signals, which cannot be beard with human ears, but may be useful for medical diagnostics. If soldiers were equipped with small monitoring sensor pads with transmit capability to carry in contact with the torso, squad performance level could be assessed, or those missing in action could be medically interrogated from a remote location for heart and breathing sounds. The technology can also be used to monitor operators of vehicles or aircraft, and initiate appropriate safety actions in the event of sudden incapacitation resulting from weapons fire, heart attack, or blackout.
In this study we explored the possibility of detecting blood loss in patients with hemorrhage symptoms (N=14) from photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals collected with pulse oximeters (PO) at forehead, ear and finger sites. We used variable frequency complex demodulation (VFCDM) technique to estimate amplitude modulations in heart rate frequency range (AMHR) of PPG signals. We determined the trend of these AMHR values over time, and used it to classify each patient's recording. The obtained results were compared to the clinical classifications made by physicians at the UMass Medical Center, which were considered as references. The accuracy of our algorithm was about 79%. These are the preliminary results of an ongoing study, and we foresee that this device and technique can be applied in battlefield and combat casualty care.
Pyridostigmine is a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The objective of the present analysis was to characterise the population pharmacokinetics / pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of pyridostigmine given as pyridostigmine bromide. Fifty healthy Chinese males received 7 doses of 30 mg of pyridostigmine bromide each every 8 hours orally. Plasma concentrations of pyridostigmine and red blood cell (RBC) AChE activity were determined at various times within 8 hours after the first and the seventh doses. The resulting PK data were fit to a single compartment open model with first order absorption and elimination. The PD was modelled using an inhibitory E<sub>max</sub> model. The potential influence of demographic and biological covariates on the model parameters was investigated. Modelling was performed using NONMEM VI. The apparent clearance and volume of distribution as well as absorption rate constant of plasma pyridostigmine were estimated to be 136 L/hr, 130 L and 0.68 1/hr respectively. The maximum RBC AChE activity decrease (E<sub>max</sub>) and plasma pyridostigmine concentration producing 50% of this reduction (EC<sub>50</sub>) were estimated to be 9.32 AChE units per gram haemoglobin and 51.9 ng/ml respectively. None of the tested covariates explained any additional variability in either PK or PD. Dosing simulations suggested that 30 mg repeated every 6 hours might be needed to achieve steady- state trough percentage inhibition above the recommended 10% in healthy Chinese male adults.
Ascertaining the medical status of soldiers deployed in the battlefield is essential for medical and strategic decision-making. The diagnostic and treatment methods used in the battlefield are currently suboptimal due to limited field resources and communication mechanisms. The system described herein is designed to remotely assess the medical status of deployed soldiers to augment resources of the medic, promoting more efficient and timely treatment of battlefield injuries. Key components of this combat casualty care system are an intelligent mobile agent information management network, a sensor capable of collecting pertinent physiological data, an assessment and alert algorithm, an ad hoc wireless routing system, and a user interface. The focus of this paper is on the development and preliminary evaluation of our medical model and assessment algorithms, which were implemented using hard- coded rules and a fuzzy logic approach. We discuss results of our initial simulations, the limitations of our medical model, and present a strategy for testing and improving different implementations of our model.
Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) principles save lives on the battlefield but tend to stress established military medical training structures because of the need to train the entire force, thereby encouraging new large-scale computer-based training methods such as serious games. Since improper training would cause avoidable casualty deaths, important experimental efforts have been made to ensure the validity and reliability of these new methods and of their components. This survey of validation efforts attempts to identify best practice, challenges and limitations for proper design and rigorous validation of TCCC serious games and their virtual casualty pathophysiological simulation components, guided by the hippocratical requirement that new TCCC training methods must be more effective and reliable than traditional ones, in order for their large-scale use to be ethically acceptable (first, do no harm). TCCC serious game validation solutions are then deduced to guide our own TCCC serious game demonstrator design.
The current methods of training medical personnel to provide combat casualty care have several important shortcomings. One of these shortcomings is in limb trauma management, where live animals are used to gain experience treating war wounds. We propose an alternative approach by creating a three-dimensional computer model of the human body that can be used within a virtual environment to learn trauma management techniques. As a first step, we have developed a computer model that represents the anatomy and physiology of a normal and injured lower limb. When visualized and manipulated in a virtual environment, this computer model will reduce the need for animals in the training of trauma management and potentially provide a superior training experience.
The impedance plethysmography (IP) has long been used to monitor respiration. The IP signal is also suitable for portable monitoring of respiration due to its simplicity. However, this signal is very susceptible to motion artifact (MA). As a result, MA reduction is an indispensable part of portable acquisition of the IP signal. Often, the amplitude of the MA is much larger than the amplitude of the respiratory component in the IP signal. This study proposes a novel filtering method to remove the high-amplitude MA's from the IP signal. The proposed method combines the idea of ε-tube loss function and an autoregressive exogenous model to estimate the MA while leaving the periodic respiratory component of the IP signal intact. Also, a regularization method is used to find the best filter coefficients that maximize the regularity of the output signal. The results indicate that the proposed method can effectively remove the MA, outperforming the popular MA reduction methods. Several different performance measures are used for the comparison and the differences are found to be statistically significant.
The use of a head mounted infrared imaging system for battlefield combat casualty care in total darkness without illuminating the wounded or the medic could greatly increase their survival rate. The head mounted unit will allow the visualization of the wounds in order to institute triage. The visualization of the wounds will allow treatment on the battlefield and allow evacuation of the more severely wounded first. The visualization of the blood vascular system in the skin and subcutaneous tissue will enable the medic to establish an intravenous route for blood, fluid, and drug therapy. The use of the unit will enable the medic to find the unconscious wounded on the battlefield so that treatment can be instituted. The survival rate of the wounded on the battlefield is significantly increased when treatment of the wounded are initiated within the first hour after the wound occurs. This head mounted infrared imaging system will allow for earlier treatment to be initiated in total darkness as well as in environments where smoke occludes visibility. Since the unit can be used without illuminating the wounded or the medic they will not become targets for the enemy which greater increases their safety.
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