Conferences related to Underground Cables

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2020 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)

The International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) is the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society’s biggest conference and one of the leading international forums for robotics researchers to present their work.


2020 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM)

The Annual IEEE PES General Meeting will bring together over 2900 attendees for technical sessions, administrative sessions, super sessions, poster sessions, student programs, awards ceremonies, committee meetings, tutorials and more


2020 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition (T&D)

Bi-Annual IEEE PES T&D conference. Largest T&D conference in North America.


2020 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and North American Radio Science Meeting

The joint meeting is intended to provide an international forum for the exchange of information on state of the art research in the area of antennas and propagation, electromagnetic engineering and radio science


2019 IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference (EIC)

Electrical Materials, Equipment, Testing, Nanotechnologies, Power Systems, Motors, Generators, Transformers, Switchgear



Periodicals related to Underground Cables

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Communications, IEEE Transactions on

Telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation, including radio; wire; aerial, underground, coaxial, and submarine cables; waveguides, communication satellites, and lasers; in marine, aeronautical, space and fixed station services; repeaters, radio relaying, signal storage, and regeneration; telecommunication error detection and correction; multiplexing and carrier techniques; communication switching systems; data communications; and communication theory. In addition to the above, ...


Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, IEEE Transactions on

Electrical insulation common to the design and construction of components and equipment for use in electric and electronic circuits and distribution systems at all frequencies.


Electrical Insulation Magazine, IEEE

The magazine covers theory, analysis, design (computer-aided design), and practical implementation of circuits, and the application of circuit theoretic techniques to systems and to signal processing. Content is written for the spectrum of activities from basic scientific theory to industrial applications.



Most published Xplore authors for Underground Cables

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Xplore Articles related to Underground Cables

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Ground Transient Resistance of Underground Cables

IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2016

During transients involving multiconductor lines, the importance of the ground finite conductivity is well known and various techniques and expressions have been presented in literature for the inclusion of its contribution into the per unit length parameters. The direct time domain approach based on the introduction of the transient parameters and on the numerical solution of the telegrapher's equations demonstrated ...


Review of field acceptance hipot & PD testing of medium voltage underground cables

2017 IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference (EIC), 2017

There are some well-defined guides and standards regarding factory testing of medium voltage shielded cables in laboratories provided by IEEE, IEC, ANSI/ICEA, and CSA. These guides cover AC withstand and PD testing of XLPE and EPR cables and accessories, such as 50/60Hz AC Hipot and PD tests which are routinely conducted on every reel of cable produced at the factory. ...


MV underground cables: Effects of soil thermal resistivity on anomalous working temperatures

2017 AEIT International Annual Conference, 2017

One of the parameters that has to be considered in designing underground cables is the thermal resistivity of the soil along their routes. In fact, the ampacity of the MV underground cables having different types of insulation is normally evaluated through the application of the IEC Standard 60287-x “Electric cables - Calculation of the current rating”. This series of IEC ...


Detection and classification of incipient faults in underground cables in distribution systems

2009 Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2009

The incipient faults in underground cables are largely caused by voids in cable insulations or defects in splices or other accessories. This type of fault would repeatedly occur and subsequently develop to a permanent fault sooner or later after its first occurrence. Based on the methodology of wavelet analysis, a method is presented to detect and classify the incipient faults ...


New approach of thermal field and Ampacity of Underground cables using adaptive hp-FEM

IEEE PES T&D 2010, 2010

In this paper, we present the new approach to the thermal fields and Ampacity of underground cables in steady state using the adaptive Higher-Order Finite Element Method (hp-FEM). Where, the Delaunay algorithm based on the distance function is used for creating the adaptive mesh in the domain surrounding cables. In particular, for increasing the accuracy of solution, the higher- order ...



Educational Resources on Underground Cables

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Ground Transient Resistance of Underground Cables

    During transients involving multiconductor lines, the importance of the ground finite conductivity is well known and various techniques and expressions have been presented in literature for the inclusion of its contribution into the per unit length parameters. The direct time domain approach based on the introduction of the transient parameters and on the numerical solution of the telegrapher's equations demonstrated to be accurate and efficient for the analysis of typical transients. In this letter, the expressions for the ground transient resistance for underground cables, based on the closed-form inverse Laplace transform of the classical Pollaczek expressions (valid for the low- frequency-range), are presented and discussed.

  • Review of field acceptance hipot & PD testing of medium voltage underground cables

    There are some well-defined guides and standards regarding factory testing of medium voltage shielded cables in laboratories provided by IEEE, IEC, ANSI/ICEA, and CSA. These guides cover AC withstand and PD testing of XLPE and EPR cables and accessories, such as 50/60Hz AC Hipot and PD tests which are routinely conducted on every reel of cable produced at the factory. All terminations, splices, and separable connectors are tested with more or less the same test method using different test levels and timing. There is, however, limited literature and guidance available to clarify the requirements of onsite Hipot & PD testing. IEEE 400.2 has recommendations regarding VLF Hipot testing. IEEE 400.3 provides a general guide for onsite PD testing of underground cables, but does not cover specifics such as the Hipot level, timing, acceptable PD levels, PDIV, and PDEV for each different voltage class. It is critical that owners and test crew understand the different available options for AC Hipot and PD testing of new and aged underground cables. This paper reviews and compares available literature and guides related to offline Hipot and PD testing including both VLF and 50/60 Hz AC for Polymeric Cables. The objective is to help end users, asset managers, consultants, and service companies to choose the correct test method, parameters and procedures.

  • MV underground cables: Effects of soil thermal resistivity on anomalous working temperatures

    One of the parameters that has to be considered in designing underground cables is the thermal resistivity of the soil along their routes. In fact, the ampacity of the MV underground cables having different types of insulation is normally evaluated through the application of the IEC Standard 60287-x “Electric cables - Calculation of the current rating”. This series of IEC Standard is formed of three parts as in the following: part 1: Formulae of ratings and power losses; part 2: Formulae for thermal resistance; part 3: Sections on operating conditions. In Italy, the current capacity of the same MV cables is established by the Italian Standard CEI-UNEL 35027 (2009) “Power cables with rated voltages from 1 kV to 30 kV - Steady state current ratings: cables laid in air and in ground”, which are based on the above mentioned IEC Standard. These thermal ampacities of the underground cables are function of ambient temperature and the thermal resistivity of the soil. The soil thermal resistivity is a parameter not easy to evaluate and for this reason, several times, only typical values are assumed just in function of the kind of the interested terrain (organic, loam, quartz sand, etc.). This assumption ignores the fact that the thermal resistivity varies continuously day by day especially in function of humidity soil content, being strongly dependent from this parameter. This paper describes as important differences of thermal resistivity may be present in consequence of seasonal variation in moisture content of the soil. It is also shown as such variations may cause important anomalous increases of cable maximum working temperature, which may be assumed to be at the origin of unexpected failures especially in correspondence of MV cable joints. In fact, the joints are, still today, the weakest points of the underground cables where the breakdown easily occurs due to poor workmanship, moisture ingress and thermal degradation. This thermal degradation may be also due to circulation of fault current in the metallic sheaths.

  • Detection and classification of incipient faults in underground cables in distribution systems

    The incipient faults in underground cables are largely caused by voids in cable insulations or defects in splices or other accessories. This type of fault would repeatedly occur and subsequently develop to a permanent fault sooner or later after its first occurrence. Based on the methodology of wavelet analysis, a method is presented to detect and classify the incipient faults in underground cables at the distribution voltage level. The proposed method is designed to be possibly applied in real systems. Therefore, different fault conditions and system configurations are examined, and other transients caused by permanent fault, capacitor switching, load changing, etc., can also be discriminated.

  • New approach of thermal field and Ampacity of Underground cables using adaptive hp-FEM

    In this paper, we present the new approach to the thermal fields and Ampacity of underground cables in steady state using the adaptive Higher-Order Finite Element Method (hp-FEM). Where, the Delaunay algorithm based on the distance function is used for creating the adaptive mesh in the domain surrounding cables. In particular, for increasing the accuracy of solution, the higher- order elements (up to 7<sup>th</sup> order) are applied in our procedure. The advantages of the coupled Delaunay mesh and higher-order elements are to obtain the higher accurate solution and can decrease the CPU time. The proposed method has tested to two practical models of single- and double- circuit buried cables in the homogenous soil. The numerical results of this work were compared to the ones that obtained by Boundary Element (BEM), Finite Difference Methods (FDM) and the data of cable manufacturer.

  • Comparison of earth return approaches on modeling of underground cables

    This paper investigates the differences that occur in the propagation characteristics of underground cables, calculated using two individual earth return approaches. The first approach assumes that the influence of the imperfect earth is taken into account only on the cable impedances, using the well known Pollaczek-Sunde earth return impedance formula, while in the second model new formulas for the earth return impedance as well as for the earth return admittance are used. From the comparison of the propagation characteristics of a single insulated cable obtained by the two approaches a critical frequency is proposed, showing a frequency limit for the use of the approximate formulation of Pollaczek-Sunde. Finally, the paper discusses the results of transient responses caclulated in the frequency domain for different cases.

  • On-line incipient faults detection in underground cables based on single-end sheath currents

    Incipient faults in underground cables would repeatedly occur until they evolve into permanent faults. Detection of incipient faults can determine the status of cable insulation and provide an early warning before the breakdown of underground cables. The characteristics of traveling waves of incipient faults are analyzed in the modal domain, and the theoretical analysis shows that the sum of sheath currents can be used to detect incipient faults. Both the over-current and the wavelet transform modulus maximum of the sum of single-end sheath currents are examined to detect an incipient fault. After an incipient fault is detected, the faulty phase is selected according to the root-mean-squares of three phases. A cable system model is built in PSCAD/EMTDC, and simulation results show that the detection algorithm can accurately detect incipient faults under different fault conditions.

  • A Bayesian Approach for Fault Location in Medium Voltage Grids With Underground Cables

    This paper proposes a statistical approach for section-based fault location in medium voltage (MV) grids with underground cables, using Bayesian inference. The proposed approach considers several important uncertainties in the MV grid, including measurement errors, fault breakdown resistance, and the inaccuracies of zero-sequence parameters. The approach first obtains the prior distribution of the fault position from the component failure database, the readings of the transmitted fault indicators, and the relevant digging activity record. With the estimated prefault grid status and the measured transient voltages/currents, the posterior distribution is then calculated based on Bayes' theorem. To solve the problem numerically, the Monte Carlo integration is applied and a two-step calculation procedure is proposed. Simulations are performed on a typical European MV feeder to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. The distribution grid operators can use the calculated posterior distribution to rank the possible faulted sections and to facilitate the restoration process, which can reduce the interruption duration of power supply.

  • Modelling of Underground Cables : Sensitivity Analysis on the Precision of Parameters

    This report presents new concept for modelling of high-voltage and extra-high voltage transmission systems, which provide higher accuracy for modelling of underground cables. The growing worldwide demand for electricity influences the transmission system in a way that requires the upgrade and construction of new transmission lines. Also, the high degree of urbanization, the growth of the cities and the social discontent with living nearby overhead lines leads to gradual transition from overhead lines to underground cables at all voltage levels. This paper presents the discrepancies between the real-world situation and the mathematical model due to the specific operation, construction and environment of the cable lines.

  • Effects of electric fields generated by direct lightning strikes on ground to underground cables

    The initial electric field distribution in soil is fundamental to the prediction of lightning caused breakdown to underground cables. The effect of electric fields due to direct lightning strikes on ground to underground cables were showed in the form of the safety depth of buried cables, the impacting current to cables and the overvoltage dropped XLPE insulator cable. The electric field distribution is calculated in homogeneous soils and direct buried cables. The lightning strike current magnitude impacted to cable is evaluated using equivalent circuit model that used characteristic impedance of cable in soil instead of underground cable and soil resistance instead of soil ionized. ATP/EMTP is used to model and simulation for analysis the overvoltage between core and sheath by used the cable data in 22 kV and 33 kV distribution systems PEA, Thailand. The result shows that the safety depth of underground cable installation from lightning flash point, the lightning current magnitude that insulation puncture and the numbers of cables damage.



Standards related to Underground Cables

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IEEE Guide for Detection, Mitigation, and Control of Concentric Neutral Corrosion in Medium-Voltage Underground Cables

The primary focus of this guide is unjacketed, underground distribution cable installed direct buried or in conduit. The causes of corrosion in cable concentric neutral wires and straps and the methods available to detect this corrosion are described. The purpose of the concentric neutral and consequences of significant loss of the concentric neutral are discussed. Recommendations are made for the ...


IEEE Guide for Determining Fault Location on AC Transmission and Distribution Lines

This guide outlines the techniques and application considerations for determining the location of a fault on ac transmission and distribution lines. This document reviews traditional approaches and the primary measurement techniques used in modern devices: one-terminal and two-terminal impedance-based methods and traveling wave methods. Application considerations include: two- and three-terminal lines, series-compensated lines, parallel lines, untransposed lines, underground cables, fault ...


IEEE Guide for Soil Thermal Resistivity Measurements


IEEE Guide for the Properties of Identifiable Jackets for Underground Power Cables and Ducts

Identification markings of underground power cables and ducts. Included are various methods of identifying underground power cables and ducts and the visual, chemical and mechanical prop[erties of the identification materials and/or methods, and their impact on the properties of the overall jacket or conduit and installation practices


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