Network Security

Wireless network security basics: Challenges, solutions, advantages and disadvantages, and future developments

You’re likely using a wireless network or your cell phone service’s data package to read this article on the internet. Is your connection secure? Have you taken all of the steps necessary to protect your data and technology?

Continue reading to learn about the basics of wireless network security and ways to ensure that your connection is secure for your data and devices. This article covers an overview of wireless network security challenges, common solutions to those challenges, advantages and disadvantages of wireless network security, and future security developments.

A brief overview of wireless network security challenges

Essentially, demand for and technological advancements in wireless Internet of Things (IoT) devices, especially those powering smart homes and cities, are driving notable growth in the number of wireless network systems. Such growth poses new security challenges alongside legacy ones. Let’s look at the latter first.

Legacy wireless network security challenges

Security is a chief concern for wireless network systems because threats can exploit them remotely. (In contrast, wired network systems are vulnerable to threats only when they have physical access to wired devices.) Some common threats to wireless network systems include the following:

  • Rogue access points: Rogue access points are devices operating on a local area network (LAN) that network administrators don’t authorize. Both sanctioned network users and intruders can deploy rogue access points to gain free and unrestrained wireless access to a network. The latter often do so to commit denial-of-service (DoS) attacks and data theft.
  • Denial-of-service attacks: A DoS attack prevents sanctioned users from accessing a network’s resources, devices, or information systems by flooding the network with traffic until it crashes. Fixing DoS attacks can cost affected organizations significant amounts of time and money.
  • Passive capturing: Passive capturing, also called “eavesdropping,” refers to capturing data from a LAN without affecting its resources. This threat is hard to detect—think of it as a form of malicious reconnaissance. A hacker capturing packets from a network is an example of passive capturing.

Wireless network security challenges in an IoT-driven world

The demand for a greater ease of network access grows proportionally alongside the number of wireless network systems available. Unfortunately, as ease of access grows, so, too, does a network’s “attack surface.” This is a network’s mosaic of pathways, or “attack vectors,” hackers can use to access the system. And wireless IoT devices, as well as the wireless technologies such as Bluetooth and Zigbee that connect them, present many of these security weak points.

In fact, recent research from Hewlett Packard (HP) found that IoT devices, particularly those in the networks of smart homes, were prone to serious security vulnerabilities. The report focused on findings from an examination of ten of the most popular IoT devices in common niches. Its most alarming finds were the following:

  • A storage of personal information existed on 90 percent of examined devices. This storage was on the devices themselves, their mobile apps, or the cloud.
  • Weak credentials and persistent cross-site scripting (XSS) were among a range of vulnerabilities for six out of ten devices that provided user interfaces.
  • Failure to capture passwords of sufficient complexity and length was an issue for 80 percent of devices with cloud and mobile app components.
  • Attackers could identify valid user accounts through account enumeration in 70 percent of devices with cloud and mobile app components.
  • Finally, unencrypted network service was an issue for 70 percent of devices.

HP’s findings summarized five key flaws with popular IoT devices:

  1. Privacy concerns: Users are vulnerable to privacy concerns when they give personal information—addresses, health information, credit card numbers, and so on—to wireless devices. This is especially true when devices are operating cloud services and mobile apps while transmitting unencrypted data.
  2. Insufficient authentication and authorization: Insecure password recovery mechanisms, poorly protected credentials, and weak passwords are all security flaws. Attackers can take advantage of these flaws to access devices and penetrate their networks.
  3. Insecure web interface: Persistent XSS, weak default credentials, and poor session management are chief web interface concerns. HP found that many surveyed devices could enable attackers to figure out valid user accounts by exploiting password reset features among other mechanisms.
  4. Lack of transparent encryption: Sensitive data transmission is commonplace among home, business, and community IoT devices. This transmission necessitates transport encryption. Alarmingly, HP’s research found that many devices failed to encrypt network services transmitting data via the internet and local networks.
  5. Insecure software and firmware: At least 60 percent of the devices HP surveyed neither encrypted update downloads nor protected update files themselves. During their device testing, HP detected that “some downloads were intercepted, extracted, and mounted as a file system in Linux, where the software could be viewed or modified.”

HP’s research illustrates only a small but crucial fraction of the security challenges that wireless networks face. The full scope of challenges would also apply to Bluetooth technologies, the Zigbee standard, and other wireless technologies and goes beyond the purview of this article. Visit the IEEE Xplore digital library—one of the world’s largest collections of technical literature in engineering, computer science, and related technologies—to learn more about wireless security as it applies to these technologies.

Common solutions to wireless network security challenges

On the whole, administrators can secure a wireless network using a few different methods.

Automated wireless network security

In 2018, the Wi-Fi Alliance started certifying devices that support a higher level of Wi-Fi protected access, known as Wi-Fi Protected Access 3 (WPA3). The new WPA3 standard replaces WPA2 and provides an additional layer of security.

Having the latest hardware, such as devices that support WPA3, as well as the latest software, is key to automated security networks. To establish such a system at home or work, individuals or administrators should upgrade to WPA3 if possible and consider using antivirus and ad-blocking software that updates automatically.

Firewalls

Using a firewall is the traditional way to safeguard a wireless network from intrusion. A firewall is a device that stands between a network and the internet. All traffic has to go through the firewall.

It surveys network data packet heads for information on source and destination internet protocol (IP) addresses and port numbers. The firewall then compares that information to directives laid out in a network’s security policy. If a firewall finds information in a data packet head that its network’s security policy flags, it will block the source of that packet from accessing the network.

Data encryption

Encryption is the most common and most effective method of wireless network security. Data is encoded and decoded at end points, usually a router or switch, before being sent through radio frequencies. Encrypted data prevents attackers from reading data in in-transit packets, should attackers penetrate a network.

Access restriction configuration and captive portals

Other common security methods involve configuring access restrictions in network access points or setting up an open but isolated wireless network that uses a captive portal to authorize access. The latter method is popular among commercial network providers.

WIDSs and WIPSs

Finally, network administrators can deploy wireless intrusion detection systems (WIDSs) and wireless intrusion prevention systems (WIPSs). A WIDS is designed to send out alerts to human operators when it encounters what it believes to be malicious data packets trying to access a network. WIDSs are facing obsolescence since they don’t stop threats in real time. In contrast, WIPSs read data packet signatures to stop traffic from sources they determine are malicious.

Advantages of wireless network security

Wireless networks and the technology that enable them support many aspects of life at home and at work. Practically every individual and organization passes sensitive data back and forth over wireless networks, knowingly or unknowingly, every day. So the main, and perhaps most obvious, advantage of wireless network security when we implement it correctly and effectively is that it can protect our data. Below are four other noteworthy advantages of securing a network.

  1. It prevents costly operational downturns in business. In 2018, the FBI released a report that stated cybercrime cost businesses over $2.7 billion that year. And a survey that Kaspersky published in 2017 found that a single distributed DoS attack cost business enterprises an average of $2 million each. Compare that to the average yearly cost of securing a business network at $20,000.
  2. It protects network resources. Never mind sensitive data—some attackers might go after networks themselves. Some malware attacks can cause considerable damage to network resources, rendering networks inoperable. Security techniques such as “sandboxing” and content disarm and reconstruction can prevent the damage malware can cause to a network.
  3. It enables better network monitoring. With a robust network security system in place, individuals and organizations can better track who’s using a network, prevent unauthorized users from accessing it, and flag suspicious behaviors. Packet analyzers, apps and services monitors, and/or off-network monitors are all monitoring technologies that make excellent additions to any robust security system.
  4. It frees individuals and organizations from criminal liability. Attackers committing cybercrimes are getting better and better at hiding their forensic signatures. If an attacker penetrates a network to use it to commit a cybercrime anonymously, investigators can trace the crime’s digital footprints to the organization’s or individual’s network IP address, not the attacker’s.

Disadvantages of wireless network security

Unfortunately, many wireless networks individuals use at home, at work, and out in the community remain insecure. And that’s not without reason. There are three chief reasons for this—in other words, three chief disadvantages to wireless network security.

  1. There’s a lack of general knowledge of network security. Many wireless network users at home have a poor or no understanding of why network security is important and how it works. Admittedly, network security is a complex topic for the average person. Some of those who invest in smart-home products and everyday IoT devices either simply don’t think about security or don’t have the time to invest in learning about it.
  2. It takes effort to develop and implement. Some organizations have to transform operational processes to facilitate new security systems for their wireless networks. Organizations using older WPA standards need to upgrade to newer ones. They might need to restrict or disable dynamic host configuration protocols (DHCPs). And disabling DHCPs requires manual IP address assigning for all network devices. They might need to install a web application firewall (WAF) or update router firmware, and so on.
  3. It can be expensive to develop and implement. Implementation comes at a cost, not only for installation labor but also for new and upgraded components. Data encryption, for example, uses additional processing power, so end points need the technology that can support this requirement.

Future developments in wireless network security

Spyware, viruses, and other malicious software from attackers and hackers are becoming increasingly sophisticated. Thankfully, developments in wireless network security are progressing to meet new security needs.

What are the expected advancements in wireless network security?

One of the newer ways to secure data when using a wireless network is through multipath avoidance routing. This security measure avoids routing information through areas that are not secure, such as compromised nodes or malicious countries.

The greatest anticipated advancements in the wireless network security industry, however, are tied to the expansion of 5G.

5G is the fifth-generation technology standard for mobile networks. It promises higher speeds, increased reliability, and more network capacity. With 5G, cell phone providers can have more users using their system without it slowing down. This provides users with a better, more consistent experience.

The impact of 5G on business and the public will likely be huge. 5G is expected to have a $13.2 trillion global economic impact, creating more than 22.3 million new jobs, as goods and services evolve to work on a 5G network.

What is driving trends in wireless network security?

Innovations in technology and growing network infrastructure are driving trends in wireless network security.

As technology becomes increasingly powerful and society becomes increasingly dependent on mobile devices, wireless security becomes increasingly important. Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of Wi-Fi networks and Wi-Fi security is imperative for the workplace and private sector.

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Conferences related to Network Security

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2020 IEEE 17th Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC)

IEEE CCNC 2020 will present the latest developments and technical solutions in the areas of home networking, consumer networking, enabling technologies (such as middleware) and novel applications and services. The conference will include a peer-reviewed program of technical sessions, special sessions, business application sessions, tutorials, and demonstration sessions.


2020 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition (T&D)

Bi-Annual IEEE PES T&D conference. Largest T&D conference in North America.


ICASSP 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP)

The ICASSP meeting is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference focused on signal processing and its applications. The conference will feature world-class speakers, tutorials, exhibits, and over 50 lecture and poster sessions.


IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications

IEEE INFOCOM solicits research papers describing significant and innovative researchcontributions to the field of computer and data communication networks. We invite submissionson a wide range of research topics, spanning both theoretical and systems research.


GLOBECOM 2020 - 2020 IEEE Global Communications Conference

IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) is one of the IEEE Communications Society’s two flagship conferences dedicated to driving innovation in nearly every aspect of communications. Each year, more than 2,900 scientific researchers and their management submit proposals for program sessions to be held at the annual conference. After extensive peer review, the best of the proposals are selected for the conference program, which includes technical papers, tutorials, workshops and industry sessions designed specifically to advance technologies, systems and infrastructure that are continuing to reshape the world and provide all users with access to an unprecedented spectrum of high-speed, seamless and cost-effective global telecommunications services.



Periodicals related to Network Security

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Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on

The theory, design and application of Control Systems. It shall encompass components, and the integration of these components, as are necessary for the construction of such systems. The word `systems' as used herein shall be interpreted to include physical, biological, organizational and other entities and combinations thereof, which can be represented through a mathematical symbolism. The Field of Interest: shall ...


Communications Letters, IEEE

Covers topics in the scope of IEEE Transactions on Communications but in the form of very brief publication (maximum of 6column lengths, including all diagrams and tables.)


Communications Magazine, IEEE

IEEE Communications Magazine was the number three most-cited journal in telecommunications and the number eighteen cited journal in electrical and electronics engineering in 2004, according to the annual Journal Citation Report (2004 edition) published by the Institute for Scientific Information. Read more at http://www.ieee.org/products/citations.html. This magazine covers all areas of communications such as lightwave telecommunications, high-speed data communications, personal communications ...


Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE

Each tutorial reviews currents communications topics in network management and computer and wireless communications. Available tutorials, which are 2.5 to 5 hours in length contains the original visuals and voice-over by the presenter. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials features two distinct types of articles: original articles and reprints. The original articles are exclusively written for IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials ...


Communications, IEEE Transactions on

Telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation, including radio; wire; aerial, underground, coaxial, and submarine cables; waveguides, communication satellites, and lasers; in marine, aeronautical, space and fixed station services; repeaters, radio relaying, signal storage, and regeneration; telecommunication error detection and correction; multiplexing and carrier techniques; communication switching systems; data communications; and communication theory. In addition to the above, ...



Most published Xplore authors for Network Security

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Xplore Articles related to Network Security

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An attack graph based network security evaluation model for hierarchical network

2010 IEEE International Conference on Information Theory and Information Security, 2010

To evaluate the security situation of hierarchical network, a novel evaluation algorithm based on the method of constructing a security risk function is proposed. The proposed algorithm is the aggregation of qualitative evaluation and quantitative evaluation. We quantify the asset loss (AL) and the threat value of each attack step (TVA) basing on attack graph, and adjust the loss of ...


IEEE Draft Standard for Ubiquitous Green Community Control Network: Security

IEEE P1888.3/D4.0, April 2013, 2013

This standard describes enhanced security management function forthe protocol defined in IEEE 1888 Ubiquitous Green Community ControlNetwork Protocol, specifies security requirements, defines system security architecture, gives a standardized description of authentication, authorization, along with security procedures and protocols. This standard can avoid unintended data disclosure to the public and unauthorized access to resources, while providing enhanced integrity and confidentiality of ...


IEEE Approved Draft Standard for Ubiquitous Green Community Control Network: Security

IEEE P1888.3/D6.0, July 2013, 2013

This standard describes enhanced security management function for the protocol defined in IEEE 1888 Ubiquitous Green Community Control Network Protocol, specifies security requirements, defines system security architecture, gives a standardized description of authentication, authorization, along with security procedures and protocols. This standard can avoid unintended data disclosure to the public and unauthorized access to resources, while providing enhanced integrity and ...


IEEE Draft Standard for Ubiquitous Green Community Control Network: Security

IEEE P1888.3/D5.0, June 2013, 2013

This standard describes enhanced security management function forthe protocol defined in IEEE 1888 Ubiquitous Green Community ControlNetwork Protocol, specifies security requirements, defines system security architecture, gives a standardized description of authentication, authorization, along with security procedures and protocols. This standard can avoid unintended data disclosure to the public and unauthorized access to resources, while providing enhanced integrity and confidentiality of ...


The Evaluation Model for Network Security

2014 Fourth International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies, 2014

After analyzing and quantifying the network information security elements: confidentiality, integrity and availability, this paper defines the network security confidentiality vector, the network security integrity vector and the network security availability vector, and also builds the hierarchical indicator system of network security evaluation. Based on the positive and negative ideal comparison standards, the evaluation indicator elements are processed in the ...



Educational Resources on Network Security

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IEEE.tv Videos

Eric Vyncke: Internet of Things and Security: Different than Network Security? - WF-IoT 2015
IEEE 5G Podcast with the Experts: 5G Security Part 1: Foundational Security Capabilities
IEEE 5G Podcast with the Experts - 5G Security Part 1: Foundational Security Capabilities
NIKSUN World Wide Security & Mobility Conference 2011-D Raychaudhuri
Don't Get Hooked: Safe Strategies on the Net
Defense Machines: Towards Autonomous Network Security Systems - Aman Singh - ICRC 2018
Security for SDN/NFV and 5G Networks - Ashutosh Dutta - India Mobile Congress, 2018
Tutorial 2: 5G Security & Privacy - NetSoft 2020 Conference
Bill Woodward presents NEEDLES: 2016 End to End Trust and Security Workshop for the Internet of Things
Panelist Yuval Elovici - ETAP Forum Tel Aviv 2016
Evolution of Cyber-Physical Security - Jonathan Smith - IEEE Sarnoff Symposium, 2019
Security in SDN/NFV and 5G Network: Opportunities and Challenges - IEEE Future Networks Initiative
Regular Expression Matching with Memristor TCAMs - Cat Graves - ICRC 2018
IEEE Summit on Internet Governance 2014: Panel II - Security vs. Privacy
802.1: Higher Layer LAN Protocols
Transportation Electrification: The State of IEEE 802LAN MAN Standards in Vehicular Network
Panel Presentation: Yaniv Giat - ETAP Tel Aviv 2015
Deep Graph Learning: Techniques and Applications - Haifeng Chen - IEEE Sarnoff Symposium, 2019
Internet of Things Panelist - Jeffrey Voas: 2016 Technology Time Machine
Protecting Internet Traffic: Security Challenges and Solutions – IEEE Internet Initiative Webinar

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • An attack graph based network security evaluation model for hierarchical network

    To evaluate the security situation of hierarchical network, a novel evaluation algorithm based on the method of constructing a security risk function is proposed. The proposed algorithm is the aggregation of qualitative evaluation and quantitative evaluation. We quantify the asset loss (AL) and the threat value of each attack step (TVA) basing on attack graph, and adjust the loss of assets that are of the same type and have different uses with coefficient of asset importance (CAI). Then, we construct a risk evaluation function which is based on the above three parameters. Thus, the assessment score gotten through the evaluation function can comprehensively reflect the risk value including loss, threat of an attack step, and importance of the suffering entity. Finally, we get the risk value by fusing all subnets' risk value in one area, and divide the risk value into 4 security levels. Seen from the case study, the model solves the security evaluation problem for hierarchical network simply and efficiently.

  • IEEE Draft Standard for Ubiquitous Green Community Control Network: Security

    This standard describes enhanced security management function forthe protocol defined in IEEE 1888 Ubiquitous Green Community ControlNetwork Protocol, specifies security requirements, defines system security architecture, gives a standardized description of authentication, authorization, along with security procedures and protocols. This standard can avoid unintended data disclosure to the public and unauthorized access to resources, while providing enhanced integrity and confidentiality of transmitted data in the ubiquitous green community control network.

  • IEEE Approved Draft Standard for Ubiquitous Green Community Control Network: Security

    This standard describes enhanced security management function for the protocol defined in IEEE 1888 Ubiquitous Green Community Control Network Protocol, specifies security requirements, defines system security architecture, gives a standardized description of authentication, authorization, along with security procedures and protocols. This standard can avoid unintended data disclosure to the public and unauthorized access to resources, while providing enhanced integrity and confidentiality of transmitted data in the ubiquitous green community control network.

  • IEEE Draft Standard for Ubiquitous Green Community Control Network: Security

    This standard describes enhanced security management function forthe protocol defined in IEEE 1888 Ubiquitous Green Community ControlNetwork Protocol, specifies security requirements, defines system security architecture, gives a standardized description of authentication, authorization, along with security procedures and protocols. This standard can avoid unintended data disclosure to the public and unauthorized access to resources, while providing enhanced integrity and confidentiality of transmitted data in the ubiquitous green community control network.

  • The Evaluation Model for Network Security

    After analyzing and quantifying the network information security elements: confidentiality, integrity and availability, this paper defines the network security confidentiality vector, the network security integrity vector and the network security availability vector, and also builds the hierarchical indicator system of network security evaluation. Based on the positive and negative ideal comparison standards, the evaluation indicator elements are processed in the dimensionless grey method, and a qualitative-quantitative evaluation model with multilayer linear weight for the network security is put forward. Finally, the feasibility and validity of the model are verified by analyzing some practical examples.

  • A study on attacker agent in virtual machine-based network security learning system

    Education of network security has attracted a lot of attentions due to increasing unauthorized access, lack of engineers who have network security skills, and so on. Although practice using actual computer networks is highly important for network security education, it requires costs to prepare a computer network for practice. We have proposed a network security learning system by constructing a virtual network on one PC so that low-cost, easy and safe practice can be accomplished. In this paper, we introduce an attacker agent that automatically attacks servers in a fixed pattern for supporting practical learning of defense techniques safely on a virtual network.

  • Dynamically validate network security based on adaptive control theory

    Network suffers from various types of security threats which are dynamic, and traditional static methods are difficult to effectively validate network security. A network security validation model based on adaptive control theory (NSVMAC) is proposed to validate network security in dynamic network environment. The Markov decision process is adopted to model the adaptive control of NSVMAC model, which is solved based on reinforcement learning method, and the adaptive optimization algorithm based on Q-Learning is proposed. The adaptability of NSVMAC model is analyzed in experiments, and confirms the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  • The network security situation predicting technology based on the small-world echo state network

    Network security model is a complex nonlinear system, and the network security situation value possesses the chaotic characters. The predictability of these situation values is of great significance for network security management. This paper proposes a novel prediction method, which is based on the echo state networks (ESNs) with small-world property. We can utilize this method to predict the network security situation after training and testing the acquired historical attack records. Verified by simulation results, the method has a higher prediction accuracy and speed compared with the conventional ESNs. Therefore it can reflect the network security situation in the future timely and accurately. We believe that this achievement will provide some practical guides for network administrators to supervise the network status.

  • Expert-Aware Approach: A New Approach to Improve Network Security Visualization Tool

    Nowadays, many computers have been infected with the computer anomalies or viruses. The availability of network security visualization tools greatly facilitate to detect, perceive and defend computer users from being affected by these anomalies. Many of the network security visualization tools are designed particularly for users with advanced network security awareness even though the tools are indispensable by various types of computer users. We proposed an expert-aware approach to designing a system which formulated with a large amount of network data or high-dimensional data and adaptive for different types of users. In the preliminary phase, we proposed and implemented initial pre-expertise classification system which provides a default setting for the expert-aware network security visualization tool. The tool will learn from continual user feedbacks in order to statistically satisfy the needs of majority tool users. The expert-aware approach looks at the users' expertise level in network security and adapts the visualization views that are best suitable for the user. Initial results of the implementation of the system show that it is capable of representing several of network security data not only on two-dimensional space on a computer but also beyond that space. Systems features, such as system effectiveness and efficiency of data visualization have been improved. Our experiments in a network lab suggest that the tool can be further improved as the tool for distribution to a wide range of computer user.

  • Quantitative models of imperfect deception in network security using signaling games with evidence [IEEE CNS 17 Poster]

    Deception plays a critical role in many interactions in communication and network security. Game-theoretic models called “cheap talk signaling games” capture the dynamic and information-asymmetric nature of deceptive interactions. But signaling games inherently model undetectable deception. In this paper, we investigate a model of signaling games in which the receiver can detect deception with some probability. This model nests traditional signaling games and complete information Stackelberg games as special cases. We present the pure strategy perfect Bayesian Nash equilibria of the game. Then we illustrate these analytical results with an application to active network defense. The presence of evidence forces majority-truthful behavior and eliminates some pure strategy equilibria. It always benefits the deceived player, but surprisingly sometimes also benefits the deceiving player.



Standards related to Network Security

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IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks - Secure Device Identity

This standard specifies unique per-device identifiers (DevID) and the management and cryptographic binding of a device to its identifiers, the relationship between an initially installed identity and subsequent locally significant identities, and interfaces and methods for use of DevIDs with existing and new provisioning and authentication protocols.


IEEE Standard Specification for Password-Based Public-Key Cryptographic Techniques

This standard covers specifications of common public-key cryptographic techniques for performing password-based authentication and key establishment, supplemental to the techniques described in IEEE Std 1363™-2000 and IEEE Std 1363a™-2004.1 It includes specifications of primitives and schemes designed to utilize passwords and other low-grade secrets as a basis for securing electronic transactions, including schemes for password-authenticated key agreement and password-authenticated key ...


IEEE Standard Specification for Public Key Cryptographic Techniques Based on Hard Problems over Lattices

Specifications of common public-key cryptographic techniques based on hard problems over lattices supplemental to those considered in IEEE 1363 and IEEE P1363a, including mathematical primitives for secret value (key) derivation, public-key encryption, identification and digital signatures, and cryptographic schemes based on those primitives. Specifications of related cryptographic parameters, public keys and private keys. Class of computer and communications systems is ...


IEEE Standard Specifications for Public-Key Cryptography

Specifications of common public-key cryptographic techniques, including mathematical primitives for secret value (key) derivation, public-key encryption, and digital signatures, and cryptographic schemes based on those primitives. Specifications of related cryptographic parameters, public keys and private keys.


IEEE Standard Specifications for Public-Key Cryptography - Amendment 1: Additional Techniques

Specifications of common public-key cryptographic techniques supplemental to those considered in IEEE Std 1363-2000, including mathematical primitives for secret value (key) derivation, public-key encryption, digital signatures, and identification, and cryptographic schemes based on those primitives. Specifications of related cryptographic parameters, public keys and private keys. Class of computer and communications systems is not restricted.