PET/CT Multimodality Medical Imaging
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The International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), sponsored by the IEEE SignalProcessing Society, is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances andresearch results in the fields of theoretical, experimental, and applied image and videoprocessing. ICIP 2019, the 26th in the series that has been held annually since 1994, bringstogether leading engineers and scientists in image and video processing from around the world.
This conference is the annual premier meeting on the use of instrumentation in the Nuclear and Medical fields. The meeting has a very long history of providing an exciting venue for scientists to present their latest advances, exchange ideas, renew existing collaboration and form new ones. The NSS portion of the conference is an ideal forum for scientists and engineers in the field of Nuclear Science, radiation instrumentation, software engineering and data acquisition. The MIC is one of the most informative venues on the state-of-the art use of physics, engineering, and mathematics in Nuclear Medicine and related imaging modalities, such as CT and increasingly so MRI, through the development of hybrid devices
The objectives of IST 2017 are to explore physical, engineering, molecular, biochemical andimaging principles. It is important that these principles focus on the advancement andgeneration of new knowledge related to the design, development, and applications of a range ofimaging and spectroscopy technologies, devices, instruments, systems, and techniques.
CISP is a premier international forum for scientists and researchers to present the state of the art of image and signal processing. Specific topics include Image restoration, Pattern recognition, Remote sensing, filters, Signal modeling, etc.
wireless communications, electromagnetics
Imaging methods applied to living organisms with emphasis on innovative approaches that use emerging technologies supported by rigorous physical and mathematical analysis and quantitative evaluation of performance.
All aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.
IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control was the number-three journal in acoustics in 2002, according to the annual Journal Citation Report (2002 edition) published by the Institute for Scientific Information. This publication focuses on the theory, design, and application on generation, transmission, and detection of bulk and surface mechanical waves; fundamental studies in physical acoustics; design of sonic ...
Specific topics include, but are not limited to: a) visualization techniques and methodologies; b) visualization systems and software; c) volume visulaization; d) flow visualization; e) information visualization; f) multivariate visualization; g) modeling and surfaces; h) rendering techniques and methodologies; i) graphics systems and software; j) animation and simulation; k) user interfaces; l) virtual reality; m) visual programming and program visualization; ...
2006 ITI 4th International Conference on Information & Communications Technology, 2006
The rapid evolution of digital imaging techniques and the increasing number of multidimensional and multimodality studies constitute a challenge for digital imaging workstations and image analysis programs. While Web-based solutions have emerged as simple ways for wide distribution of images they often lack the necessary tools for advanced image processing and 3D visualization. The increases in performance of personal computers ...
2015 4th International Conference on Instrumentation, Communications, Information Technology, and Biomedical Engineering (ICICI-BME), 2015
Cardiovascular disease is the most common killer worldwide. The technology advancement has successfully postponed someone obtaining cardiovascular disease and increased healthy life expectancy. Cardiovascular diseases are mostly affected by unhealthy life style, heredity or aging. The abnormalities of anatomy and physiology in cardiovascular system such as blood vessel blockage, valve defect, and abnormal heart muscle are typical characteristics of cardiovascular ...
IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, 2015
Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is a search technique based on the similarity of visual features and has demonstrated potential benefits for medical diagnosis, education, and research. However, clinical adoption of CBIR is partially hindered by the difference between the computed image similarity and the user's search intent, the semantic gap, with the end result that relevant images with outlier features ...
2013 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (2013 NSS/MIC), 2013
This work deals with the use of a probabilistic quad-tree graph (Hidden Markov Tree, HMT) to provide fast computation, improved robustness and an effective interpretational framework for image analysis and processing in oncology. Thanks to two efficient aspects (multi observation and multi resolution) of HMT and Bayesian inference, we exploited joint statistical dependencies between hidden states to handle the entire ...
2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 2008
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating inflammatory disease which results in 9 million physician visits and 250,000 hospitalizations per year. New molecularly-targeted pharmaceuticals are available to treat this disease, but clinical examination and conventional imaging do not accurately distinguish long-term responders from non-responders to these expensive therapies. We hypothesize that longitudinal information gained from high resolution MRI, CT and PET ...
2011 IEEE Medal for Innovations in Healthcare Technology - Harrison H. Barrett
Harrison H. Barrett
ISEC 2013 Special Gordon Donaldson Session: Remembering Gordon Donaldson - 5 of 7 - SQUID Instrumentation for Early Cancer Diagnostics
Developing Point-of-Care Technologies
From THz imaging to millimeter-wave stimulation of neurons: Is there a killer application for high frequency RF in the medical community? (RFIC 2015 Keynote)
Ultrafast Lasers for Multi-photon Microscopy - Plenary Speaker: Jim Kafka - IPC 2018
IMS 2015: Robert H. Caverly - Aspects of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
How Facial Analysis Technology Can Help Children with Genetic Disorders - IEEE Region 4 Technical Presentation
Biomedical Engineering at the Mayo Clinic
IEEE Corporate Innovation Award - Pixar Animation Studios - 2018 IEEE Honors Ceremony
Dr. Scott Fish
Brooklyn 5G Summit: Going the Distance with CMOs: mm-Waves and Beyond
Surgical Robotics: Medical robotics and computer-integrated interventional medicine
ICASSP 2010 - Radar Imaging of Building Interiors
Utilizing Wireless Power and Communication in Medical Systems
Coming Soon: Brain Fuel 2017
IEEE Life Sciences: Wearable Medical Devices Advancing bioengineering
Communicating Science Visually
Episode 2 - Albert Theuwissen - Chip Chat Podcast
The rapid evolution of digital imaging techniques and the increasing number of multidimensional and multimodality studies constitute a challenge for digital imaging workstations and image analysis programs. While Web-based solutions have emerged as simple ways for wide distribution of images they often lack the necessary tools for advanced image processing and 3D visualization. The increases in performance of personal computers allow implementing complex image processing and visualization tools on standard off-the-shelf hardware. OSIRIX is a fully interactive image navigation and visualization software was designed for display and analysis of large sets of three dimensional medical images. The program is specifically designed to handle new generations of multi-modality imaging data combining anatomical and metabolic images such as PET/CT. It also provides dynamic display for time-varying images such as cardiac motion or metabolic functional studies. Designed by a team of radiologists it provides an intuitive and user friendly user interface tailored for physicians that are not familiar with complex image processing and manipulation techniques. The OSIRIX software package runs as an independent application and handles its own image study database that is updated automatically when new images are downloaded. Images can be pushed from the PACS using a DICOM interface and can also be "pulled" by a DICOM query-retrieve function of the program. Image files can also be manually copied from off-line media or from other network sources. The visualization software provides all the basic image manipulation functions of zoom, pan, intensity adjustment, filtering with an incredibly fast realtime performance. Additional functions such as multiplanar reformatting, slice thickness adjustment, volume rendering are also accessible in real-time. The software allows loading very large sets of data instantaneously and allows for unlimited number of image series to be displayed simultaneously with all function of image display including fast cine loops available to all displayed image sets. In the software architecture that we adopted the number of images that can be handled simultaneously does not depend on the amount of memory available on the computer. Most of the display functions being handled by the optimized hardware-software combination of OpenGL that takes advantage of the hardware capability of the video card it does not rely on the computer RAM memory for preloading images. OSIRIX architecture allows seamless integration of multiple workstations and archive servers through peer-to-peer technology allowing image data to be shared across the network without the need of a central database or archive. A server version of OSIRIX Core Data database also allows to access distributed archives servers in the same way. The convenience and high performance of the system allows multiple users to share data more efficiently and perform advanced image processing and analysis in a distributed environment. It is particularly suitable for large hospitals and academic environments where clinical conferences, interdisciplinary discussions and successive sessions of image processing are often part of complex workflow or patient management and decision making. OSIRIX software is distributed free of charge as an open-source software under GNU licensing scheme. The program and its source code can be downloaded from: http://homepage.mac.com/rossetantoine/osirix/ .
Cardiovascular disease is the most common killer worldwide. The technology advancement has successfully postponed someone obtaining cardiovascular disease and increased healthy life expectancy. Cardiovascular diseases are mostly affected by unhealthy life style, heredity or aging. The abnormalities of anatomy and physiology in cardiovascular system such as blood vessel blockage, valve defect, and abnormal heart muscle are typical characteristics of cardiovascular diseases. These abnormalities are happened in the DNA, cell, tissue, organ or body system. The system carries blood containing nutrient and oxygen via pulmonary and systemic circulation controlled by nerve system, protected by immune system and regulated by hormone system. The management of cardiovascular diseases is very complex task. In the early stage of abnormalities, a high performance medical diagnosis instrument is required. This applies also in the detail diagnosis, surgical or intervention, as well as post treatment monitoring. One of the best diagnosis modalities is the medical imaging system. A number of medical imaging systems have been invented since many decades. Until now, however there are still limitations which need to be solved to achieve a safe imaging system with excellent resolution and speed for time and spatial dependent imaging. Ultrasound system has limited resolution due to size of crystal and frequency used. Image quality of X-Ray Computer Tomography is influenced by radiation dose. Although MRI is expected to be the best imaging modalities do to safety and capability in differentiation between soft tissues, this modality needs very high performance parallel computing and high tesla magnetic field. Other modalities have been also used clinically such as infrared and microwave. These have however limited resolution. In the last few years, some imaging modalities have been combined, such as PET-CT, PET-MRI, Ultrasound-CT, and Magneto- Acoustics. The combination is to obtain benefit mixtures of each modality. Besides, it is also well known, the acoustics, magnetic, electromagnetic as well as ionizing radiation can be used for therapy of certain abnormalities such as cancer and cardiovascular plaque. The combination between therapy and diagnosis imaging is a new direction in the imaging. Based on the latest development of imaging system, it can be predicted that the future imaging system is very market dependent. There are two directions of future imaging development. First is a safe, low cost and fast imaging system for early detection and prevention. Second direction is a high resolution, and real time imaging system with therapeutic effect for detail diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Both imaging systems require the advancement in the area of nanotechnology, information technology and medical technology. New imaging transducers and detectors which able to produce high resolution images and cost effective are the target in the nanotechnology development. This includes the investigation of new sensors material and processing technique. High-Q polymer, controllable radioactive and high temperature superconductive materials are future key of imaging transducers. Nanotechnology contributes also to high speed image processing. Combination between nano, medical and information technologies will enable real time automatic detection of abnormalities. It is predicted in 20 years, low cost, safe and fast imaging system will replace the current stethoscope. By 2050, high resolution and real time multimodalities imaging in combination with intervention system will be used as the best treatment system to manage cardiovascular diseases.
Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is a search technique based on the similarity of visual features and has demonstrated potential benefits for medical diagnosis, education, and research. However, clinical adoption of CBIR is partially hindered by the difference between the computed image similarity and the user's search intent, the semantic gap, with the end result that relevant images with outlier features may not be retrieved. Furthermore, most CBIR algorithms do not provide intuitive explanations as to why the retrieved images were considered similar to the query (e.g., which subset of features were similar), hence, it is difficult for users to verify if relevant images, with a small subset of outlier features, were missed. Users, therefore, resort to examining irrelevant images and there are limited opportunities to discover these “missed” images. In this paper, we propose a new approach to medical CBIR by enabling a guided visual exploration of the search space through a tool, called visual analytics for medical image retrieval (VAMIR). The visual analytics approach facilitates interactive exploration of the entire dataset using the query image as a point-of-reference. We conducted a user study and several case studies to demonstrate the capabilities of VAMIR in the retrieval of computed tomography images and multimodality positron emission tomography and computed tomography images.
This work deals with the use of a probabilistic quad-tree graph (Hidden Markov Tree, HMT) to provide fast computation, improved robustness and an effective interpretational framework for image analysis and processing in oncology. Thanks to two efficient aspects (multi observation and multi resolution) of HMT and Bayesian inference, we exploited joint statistical dependencies between hidden states to handle the entire data stack. This new flexible framework was applied first to mono modal PET image denoising taking into consideration simultaneously the Wavelets and Contourlets transforms through multi observation capability of the model. Secondly, the developed approach was tested for multi modality image segmentation in order to take advantage of the high resolution of the morphological computed tomography (CT) image and the high contrast of the functional positron emission tomography (PET) image. On the one hand, denoising performed through the wavelet-contourlet combined multi observation HMT led to the best trade-off between denoising and quantitative bias compared to wavelet or contourlet only denoising. On the other hand, PET/CT segmentation led to a reliable tumor segmentation taking advantage of both PET and CT complementary information regarding tissues of interest. Future work will investigate the potential of the HMT for PET/MR and multi tracer PET image analysis. Moreover, we will investigate the added value of Pairwise Markov Tree (PMT) models and evidence theory within this context.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating inflammatory disease which results in 9 million physician visits and 250,000 hospitalizations per year. New molecularly-targeted pharmaceuticals are available to treat this disease, but clinical examination and conventional imaging do not accurately distinguish long-term responders from non-responders to these expensive therapies. We hypothesize that longitudinal information gained from high resolution MRI, CT and PET imaging of wrists of RA patients receiving therapy will be synergistic and thus, in combination will lead to the development of new imaging metrics that will help clinicians match clinical response with active joint disease. These metrics could potentially be used to separate responders to therapy from non-responders at early time points in the course of the disease. To test this hypothesis, we aim to use a unique high resolution extremity PET/CT scanner built by UC Davis researchers and a knee coil in a 1.5T MRI whole-body scanner. A multimodality wrist restraint system (WRS) has been designed and fabricated, and is used to immobilize the wrist during and between scans. Phantom experiments have been carried out for the scanners in the presence of the WRS. No apparent image degradation due to the WRS was observed. Images from the three modalities have been rigidly registered using a fiducial marker-based approach. A repositioning study was carried out in healthy volunteers using the MRI scanner. Results from this study examining repositioning error in wrist bones look promising. Instrumentation development has been completed and proof-of-principle scans have been carried out. A clinical trial in 10 patients for monitoring response in RA has been approved by IRB and recruiting has begun in early November.
In radiotherapy treatment planning of cancer patients, the collection of multiple images of different and yet complementary information is rapidly becoming the norm. Beside CT data sets, PET and/or MRI or MRS images are also being used to aid in the definition of the target volume for treatment optimization. We are investigating methods to integrate available information for joint target registration and segmentation of multi-modality images as perceived by the human observer. Towards this goal, we are exploring multi- valued level set deformable models in conjunction with human perception models for simultaneous delineation of multi-modality images consisting of combinations of PET, CT, or MR datasets. Information from multimodality image sets is integrated based on a logical model to define the final target volume. The methods were demonstrated qualitatively on patient cases of lung cancer with PET/CT and a prostate patient case with CT and MR. We used a series of phantom data of CT, PET, and MR for quantification analysis. Phantom studies suggest 90% segmentation accuracy and less than 2% volume error when integrating all of the three modalities. This is compared with 74% accuracy and 4.4% volume error when using CT-based systems. These results indicate that this semi-automated multimodality-based definition of the biophysical target would provide a feasible and accurate framework for integrating complementary imaging information from different modalities and potentially a useful tool for optimizing of cancer patients radiotherapy plans.
Multimodality imaging techniques (PET/CT and PET/MR) offer the opportunity of integrating functional and anatomical information to improve clinical diagnostic accuracy. High-resolution PET images can be obtained by exploiting structural information within- and post-image reconstruction. Although PET/CT is more utilised than PET/MR in routine clinical practice, the majority of multimodal technologies are validated either on simulations or clinically acquired PET/MR data. This work describes a PET/CT phantom experiment that provides realistic data for the validation of anatomy-based algorithms in a clinical setting. We performed a PET/CT phantom acquisition combining PET radiotracer concentration and CT Contrast Media (CM) to obtain images with contrast levels similar to clinical [18F]Fluoride bone scans. We performed three acquisitions to cover a wider range of possible clinical situations and evaluate the performance of image enhancement algorithms. On the one hand the CT was used as a prior to regularized the PET image reconstruction, on the other it was integrated with the functional data into a post reconstruction resolution recovery algorithm. Through the analysis of the CT acquisition we described the correlation between CM concentration and CT image contrast. We also quantified a 10-20% difference on the recovered PET radioactivity due to an incorrect attenuation correction. Furthermore, we were able to quantify the accuracy of the true activity estimation when integrating anatomical and functional information. Specifically, the improvement was of 9% when CT images were used as prior within the reconstruction and of 12% when used for resolution recovery in post reconstruction. This experimental procedure aimed to obtain PET/CT contrast similar to that of a patient acquisition. The results reported can be used to reproduce experiments mimicking a wider range of clinical studies and provide a solid ground truth for the validation of image enhancement algorithms based on the integration of anatomical and functional images.
The presented work is an investigation of the performance of currently used scintillators in PET and animal PET systems, under conditions met in radiation therapy and PET/CT imaging. The results of this study could be useful in designing a common detector system where both the CT and PET photons and/or megavoltage cone beam CT (MV CBCT) photons could be detected. The short decay time of the Ce3+ doped single crystal scintillators favors their use in combined PET/CT detectors. To this aim cerium (Ce+3) doped crystal samples of GSO, LSO, LYSO, LuYAP and YAP scintillators were examined under a wide energy range (from 70 keV to 4.5 MeV). Evaluation was performed by determining i) the luminescence efficiency (emitted light energy flux over incident x-ray or gamma -ray energy flux) in the energy range employed in X-ray CT, in Nuclear Medicine (70 keV up to 662 keV) and in radiotherapy (6 MV and 18 MV), ii) the spectral matching factor (expressing the spectral compatibility to optical photon detectors) and (iii) The effective efficiency (combination of luminescence efficiency with spectral compatibility). Maximum luminescence efficiency values were observed at about 70 keV for YAP:Ce and LuYAP:Ce and at 140 keV for LSO:Ce, LYSO:Ce and GSO:Ce. The highest luminescence efficiency of all the scintillators examined was observed for LSO:Ce. Finally the light emission performance of LSO:Ce and LYSO:Ce scintillation materials was found adequate for use in a single detector multimodality scanner.
Simple and robust techniques are lacking to assess performance of flow quantification using dynamic imaging. We therefore developed a method to qualify flow quantification technologies using a physical compartment exchange phantom and image analysis tool. We validate and demonstrate utility of this method using dynamic PET and SPECT. Dynamic image sequences were acquired on two PET/CT and a cardiac dedicated SPECT (with and without attenuation and scatter corrections) systems. A two-compartment exchange model was fit to image derived time-activity curves to quantify flow rates. Flowmeter measured flow rates (20-300 mL/min) were set prior to imaging and were used as reference truth to which image derived flow rates were compared. Both PET cameras had excellent agreement with truth (r<sup>2</sup>> 0.94). High-end PET had no significant bias (p > 0.05) while lower-end PET had minimal slope bias (wash-in and wash-out slopes were 1.02 and 1.01) but no significant reduction in precision relative to high-end PET (<;15% vs. <;14% limits of agreement, p > 0.3). SPECT (without scatter and attenuation corrections) slope biases were noted (0.85 and 1.32) and attributed to camera saturation in early time frames. Analysis of wash-out rates from non-saturated, late time frames resulted in excellent agreement with truth (r<sup>2</sup>= 0.98, slope = 0.97). Attenuation and scatter corrections did not significantly impact SPECT performance. The proposed phantom, software and quality assurance paradigm can be used to qualify imaging instrumentation and protocols for quantification of kinetic rate parameters using dynamic imaging.
Imaging has long been a vital component of clinical medicine and, increasingly, of biomedical research in small-animals. Clinical and laboratory imaging modalities can be divided into two general categories, structural (or anatomical) and functional (or physiological). The latter, in particular, has spawned what has come to be known as "molecular imaging". Image registration and fusion have rapidly emerged as invaluable components of both clinical and small-animal imaging and has lead to the development and marketing of a variety of multi-modality, e.g. PET-CT, devices which provide registered and fused three-dimensional image sets. This paper briefly reviews the basics of image registration and fusion and available clinical and small-animal multi- modality instrumentation
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