Conferences related to Hot Electron

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2023 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Conference (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted full papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and poster sessions,will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE.


2021 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference (PPC)

The Pulsed Power Conference is held on a biannual basis and serves as the principal forum forthe exchange of information on pulsed power technology and engineering.


2021 IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC)

Photovoltaic materials, devices, systems and related science and technology


2020 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM)

the IEEE/IEDM has been the world's main forum for reporting breakthroughs in technology, design, manufacturing, physics and the modeling of semiconductors and other electronic devices. Topics range from deep submicron CMOS transistors and memories to novel displays and imagers, from compound semiconductor materials to nanotechnology devices and architectures, from micromachined devices to smart -power technologies, etc.


2020 IEEE 70th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)

ECTC is the premier international conference sponsored by the IEEE Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Society. ECTC paper comprise a wide spectrum of topics, including 3D packaging, electronic components, materials, assembly, interconnections, device and system packaging, optoelectronics, reliability, and simulation.



Periodicals related to Hot Electron

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Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on

The theory, design and application of Control Systems. It shall encompass components, and the integration of these components, as are necessary for the construction of such systems. The word `systems' as used herein shall be interpreted to include physical, biological, organizational and other entities and combinations thereof, which can be represented through a mathematical symbolism. The Field of Interest: shall ...


Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Methods, algorithms, and human-machine interfaces for physical and logical design, including: planning, synthesis, partitioning, modeling, simulation, layout, verification, testing, and documentation of integrated-circuit and systems designs of all complexities. Practical applications of aids resulting in producible analog, digital, optical, or microwave integrated circuits are emphasized.


Device and Materials Reliability, IEEE Transactions on

Provides leading edge information that is critical to the creation of reliable electronic devices and materials, and a focus for interdisciplinary communication in the state of the art of reliability of electronic devices, and the materials used in their manufacture. It focuses on the reliability of electronic, optical, and magnetic devices, and microsystems; the materials and processes used in the ...


Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, IEEE Transactions on

Electrical insulation common to the design and construction of components and equipment for use in electric and electronic circuits and distribution systems at all frequencies.



Most published Xplore authors for Hot Electron

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Xplore Articles related to Hot Electron

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Enhanced Band-to-Band-Tunneling-Induced Hot-Electron Injection in p-Channel Flash by Band-gap Offset Modification

IEEE Electron Device Letters, 2006

A novel p-channel flash device with a SiGe layer is proposed, which is based on the analysis made with the simulator MEDICI, to enhance the band-to-band- tunneling current and improve the programming speed. The programming biases of the p-channel flash device can be reduced with an equal programming speed. Simulation results show that more than one hundred times enhancement in ...


Common Emitter Current and Voltage Gain in III-Nitride Tunneling Hot Electron Transistors

IEEE Electron Device Letters, 2015

Common-emitter operation was demonstrated in an N-polar tunneling hot electron transistor. Under collector-emitter bias of 7 V, small signal current gain ~1.3, and voltage gain ~4 were simultaneously obtained for transistors with 27.5-nm base. This is the first report of a III-nitride hot electron transistor with small signal current gain and intrinsic voltage gain both greater than unity. The result ...


Experimental Demonstration of III-Nitride Hot-Electron Transistor With GaN Base

IEEE Electron Device Letters, 2011

In this letter, we demonstrate for the first time a III-nitride hot-electron transistor using an AlGaN (24%) emitter, 10-nm GaN base, and an AlGaN (8%) collector. Individual isotype heterojunctions were characterized by <i>I</i>- <i>V</i> measurements. For the device biased in a common base configuration, a common base transfer ratio of 0.97-0.98 was measured. The hot-electron distribution was obtained by plotting ...


Common Emitter Current Gain &gt;1 in III-N Hot Electron Transistors With 7-nm GaN/InGaN Base

IEEE Electron Device Letters, 2015

Current gain is demonstrated in III-N hot electron transistors (HETs) for the first time using base current controlled common emitter characteristics. The emitter and collector barriers (ØBE and ØBC) are implemented using AlN and In0.1Ga0.9N layers as polarization-dipoles, respectively. The entire structure is grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Current gain is observed when the base thickness is reduced from ...


Submicrometer Process and RF Operation of InAs Quantum Hot-Electron Transistors

IEEE Electron Device Letters, 2012

The fabrication process of a hot-electron unipolar transistor with vertical transport based on InAs material is reported. Devices with an emitter width of 0.3 μm are fabricated and characterized. This submicrometer geometry allowed suppressing parasitic resistances and achieving high-current densities required for high-frequency operation. For the first time, for a hot-electron transistor, RF performances were achieved at room temperature. Cutoff ...



Educational Resources on Hot Electron

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Enhanced Band-to-Band-Tunneling-Induced Hot-Electron Injection in p-Channel Flash by Band-gap Offset Modification

    A novel p-channel flash device with a SiGe layer is proposed, which is based on the analysis made with the simulator MEDICI, to enhance the band-to-band- tunneling current and improve the programming speed. The programming biases of the p-channel flash device can be reduced with an equal programming speed. Simulation results show that more than one hundred times enhancement in the programming speed or 35% reduction of the drain voltage can be achieved in the proposed p-channel flash device with a 40% Ge content in the surface SiGe layer. In addition, a Si-cap layer is inserted between the SiGe and the tunneling oxide to obtain a high-quality interface and to optimize the cell structure

  • Common Emitter Current and Voltage Gain in III-Nitride Tunneling Hot Electron Transistors

    Common-emitter operation was demonstrated in an N-polar tunneling hot electron transistor. Under collector-emitter bias of 7 V, small signal current gain ~1.3, and voltage gain ~4 were simultaneously obtained for transistors with 27.5-nm base. This is the first report of a III-nitride hot electron transistor with small signal current gain and intrinsic voltage gain both greater than unity. The result shows such III-nitride vertical transistors are promising for the next generation of high-frequency amplifiers.

  • Experimental Demonstration of III-Nitride Hot-Electron Transistor With GaN Base

    In this letter, we demonstrate for the first time a III-nitride hot-electron transistor using an AlGaN (24%) emitter, 10-nm GaN base, and an AlGaN (8%) collector. Individual isotype heterojunctions were characterized by <i>I</i>- <i>V</i> measurements. For the device biased in a common base configuration, a common base transfer ratio of 0.97-0.98 was measured. The hot-electron distribution was obtained by plotting the differential of the collector current with respect to the applied base-collector voltage and demonstrated a Maxwellian shape suggesting near-ballistic transport through the 10-nm base.

  • Common Emitter Current Gain &gt;1 in III-N Hot Electron Transistors With 7-nm GaN/InGaN Base

    Current gain is demonstrated in III-N hot electron transistors (HETs) for the first time using base current controlled common emitter characteristics. The emitter and collector barriers (ØBE and ØBC) are implemented using AlN and In0.1Ga0.9N layers as polarization-dipoles, respectively. The entire structure is grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Current gain is observed when the base thickness is reduced from 13 to 7 nm. Ohmic contacts to the base 2-D electron gas (2DEG) are achieved using a BCl3/SF6etch to remove the emitter and selectively stop on the AlN. Subsequent metallization results in a tunnel contact from the metal to the base 2DEG across the thin AlN layer. This dual purpose served by the AlN layer is shown to be critical for achieving scaled base and current gain in III-N HETs.

  • Submicrometer Process and RF Operation of InAs Quantum Hot-Electron Transistors

    The fabrication process of a hot-electron unipolar transistor with vertical transport based on InAs material is reported. Devices with an emitter width of 0.3 μm are fabricated and characterized. This submicrometer geometry allowed suppressing parasitic resistances and achieving high-current densities required for high-frequency operation. For the first time, for a hot-electron transistor, RF performances were achieved at room temperature. Cutoff frequencies of ft= 75 GHz and fmax= 88 GHz were obtained on devices transferred on an insulating substrate.

  • Hot electron transistors controlled by insulated gate with 70 NM-wide emitter

    The emitter width of the hot electron transistor controlled by an insulated gate was reduced to 70 nm by an improved fabrication process. In a previous study, the observed output conductance was twofold higher than transconductance. In this study, the output conductance was reduced from 115 mS/mm to 20 mS/mm by the improved fabrication process and a clear current modulation was also confirmed.

  • Vertical hot-electron graphene-base transistors as resonant plasmonic terahertz detectors

    We evaluate the operation of vertical hot-electron graphene-base transistors (HET-GBTs) as detectors of terahertz (THz) radiation using the developed device model. The model accounts for the carrier statistics, tunneling injection from the emitter, electron propagation across the barrier layer with partial capture into the graphene-layer (GL) base, and the self-consistent plasma oscillations of the electric potential and the hole density in the GL- base. The calculated responsivity of the HET-GBT THz detectors as a function of the signal frequency exhibits sharp resonant maxima in the THz range of frequencies associated with the excitation of plasma oscillations. The positions of these maxima are controlled by the applied bias voltages. The HET-GBTs can compete with and even surpass other plasmonic THz detectors.

  • Exploratory corrugated infrared hot-electron transistor arrays

    An infrared hot-electron transistor (IHET) corrugated array with a common base configuration was investigated and fabricated. The IHET structure provides a maximum factor of six in improvement in the photocurrent to dark current ratio, and hence it improved the array S/N ratio by the same factor. The study also showed that there is no electrical cross-talk among individual detectors, even though they share the same emitter and base contacts. It thus paves the way to high density sensitive focal plane arrays.

  • <formula formulatype="inline"><tex Notation="TeX">$\hbox{HfO}_{2}$</tex></formula> Gate Breakdown and Channel Hot Electron Effect on MOSFET Third-Order Intermodulation

    The effect of n-channel hot electron and p-channel gate oxide breakdown (BD) on the third-order intermodulation of HfO2 MOS transistors has been studied. Both reliability physics mechanisms result in a similar shift of the intermodulation intercept point characteristics versus the absolute value of gate-source voltage. However, the device VIP3 in the subthreshold region is sensitive to BD leakage current and BD location effect. The third-order input intercept point as function of stress time was evaluated experimentally and compared with the analytical model predictions. A good agreement between the model predictions and experimental data is obtained.

  • Design Space of III-N Hot Electron Transistors Using AlGaN and InGaN Polarization-Dipole Barriers

    Transistor operation by common emitter (CE) current modulation is shown for the first time in III-N hot electron transistors (HETs). The emitter and collector barriers (φBEand φBC) are implemented using Al0.45Ga0.55N and In0.1Ga0.9N layers as polarization dipoles, respectively. CE modulation is achieved by increasing the E-B barrier height beyond the B-C barrier height by increasing the Al0.45Ga0.55N thickness (t). Similar CE performance is seen in the identical HET structures grown on both bulk GaN and sapphire. A maximum α of ~0.3 is achieved using a GaN base thickness of 10 nm. The InGaN dipole used as the collector barrier is shown to be instrumental in enabling ohmic base contacts, low base sheet resistance, and low collector leakage, simultaneously.



Standards related to Hot Electron

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IEEE Application Guide for Distributed Digital Control and Monitoring for Power Plants


Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz - Amendment: Specifies Ceiling Limits for Induced and Contact Current, Clarifies Distinctions between Localized Exposure and Spatial Peak Power Density

This amendment specifies ceiling values for induced and contact current, clarifies the distinctions between “localized exposure” and “spatial peak power density,” and corrects other known technical and editorial errors.