Explosive Pulsed Power
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The Pulsed Power Conference is held on a biannual basis and serves as the principal forum forthe exchange of information on pulsed power technology and engineering.
Technical presentations will range from the fundamental physics of electron emission and modulated electron beams to the design and operation of devices at UHF to THz frequencies, theory and computational tool development, active and passive components, systems, and supporting technologies.System developers will find that IVEC provides a unique snapshot of the current state-of-the-art in vacuum electron devices. These devices continue to provide unmatched power and performance for advanced electromagnetic systems, particularly in the challenging frequency regimes of millimeter-wave and THz electronics.Plenary talks will provide insights into the history, the broad spectrum of fundamental physics, the scientific issues, and the technological applications driving the current directions in vacuum electronics research.
IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS) is an annual conference coordinated by the Plasma Science and Application Committee (PSAC) of the IEEE Nuclear & Plasma Sciences Society.
This conference provides an exchange of technical topics in the fields of Solid State Modulators and Switches, Breakdown and Insulation, Compact Pulsed Power Systems, High Voltage Design, High Power Microwaves, Biological Applications, Analytical Methods and Modeling, and Accelerators.
The MG-XVI conference will take place between September 25-29, 2018 at the UTokyo Kashiwa Campus, near Tokyo, Japan. The MG XVI conference will serve as a platform for scientists to exchange information and ideas among the members of the international scientific community in the domain of generation and application of ultra-high magnetic fields, high-energy and high-current pulsed power physics and technology, magnetic-flux compression technologies for the production of multi-megagauss fields, high magnetic field applications in basic and applied research in solid-state physics, atomic physics and chemistry, high energy density physics and for other related and novel technical applications. The MG XVI conference encourages opportunities for a strong interaction and networking among experienced and young scientists, engineers, and students involved in this extremely interesting and unique research area.
Electrical insulation common to the design and construction of components and equipment for use in electric and electronic circuits and distribution systems at all frequencies.
The magazine covers theory, analysis, design (computer-aided design), and practical implementation of circuits, and the application of circuit theoretic techniques to systems and to signal processing. Content is written for the spectrum of activities from basic scientific theory to industrial applications.
The development and application of electric systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; the encouragement of energy conservation; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices.
Measurements and instrumentation utilizing electrical and electronic techniques.
Science and technology related to the basic physics and engineering of magnetism, magnetic materials, applied magnetics, magnetic devices, and magnetic data storage. The Transactions publishes scholarly articles of archival value as well as tutorial expositions and critical reviews of classical subjects and topics of current interest.
2012 14th International Conference on Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Related Topics (MEGAGAUSS), 2012
LLNL has developed a family of advanced magnetic flux compression generators (FCGs) used to perform high energy density physics experiments and material science studies. In recent years we have performed these experiments at explosive test sites in New Mexico and Nevada. In 2011, we re-established an explosive pulsed power test facility closer to Livermore. LLNL's Site 300 is a U.S. ...
2007 IEEE 34th International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS), 2007
A new concept for a compact autonomous completely explosive pulsed power system is presented. The concept utilizes tire physical effects of transverse shock wave demagnetization of Nd<sub>2</sub>Fe<sub>14</sub>B high-energy hard ferromagnets and magnetic flux compression. A series of compact pulsed power systems was designed, built and tested. The developed systems contain two stages. The first stage is a transverse shock wave ...
2006 IEEE International Conference on Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Related Topics, 2006
A new design idea for a compact, autonomous, completely explosive pulsed power system is proposed. The system is based on the shock wave ferromagnetic generator (FMG) as a primary power source and a loop magnetic flux compression generator (LFCG) as a pulsed power amplifier. The FMG primary power source utilizes the effect of transverse shock wave demagnetization of Nd2Fe14B high- ...
2006 IEEE International Conference on Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Related Topics, 2006
The design and performance of a compact autonomous completely explosive pulsed power system based on two physical effects, the transverse shock wave demagnetization of Nd2Fe14B high-energy hard ferromagnets and magnetic flux compression, are presented. A transverse shock wave ferromagnetic generator (FMG) served as a seed source, and a compact helical magnetic flux compression generator (FCG) was used as a pulsed ...
Digest of Technical Papers. 11th IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference (Cat. No.97CH36127), 1997
We are developing a high explosive pulsed power system concept that we call Ranchero. Ranchero systems consist of series-parallel combinations of simultaneously initiated coaxial magnetic flux compression generators, and are intended to operate in the range from 50 MA to a few hundred MA currents. One example of a Ranchero system is shown. The coaxial modules lend themselves to extracting ...
Micro-Apps 2013: Nuances in Creation of Pulsed Waveforms
High Magnetic Field Science and its Application in the US - ASC-2014 Plenary series - 10 of 13 - Friday 2014/8/15
The Full Spectrum: Wireless Power Roundup
APEC Speaker Highlights: Robert White, Chief Engineer, Embedded Power
William F. Tinney
Experience the Power of APEC
APEC 2011-PSMA Power Technology Roadmap 2011 Summary
APEC Exhibitor Showcase - Texas Instruments Power Management
Micro-Apps 2013: Environment Simulation for Counter-IED Jammer Test
APEC 2011-GaN Based Power Devices in Power Electronics
Micro-Apps 2013: Power Added Efficiency (PAE) Analysis with 8990B Peak Power Analyzer
APEC Speaker Highlights - Doug Hopkins, University of Buffalo, Power Electronics/Smart-Grid
IEEE 125th Anniversary Media Event: Wireless Power
2011 IEEE Medal in Power Engineering - William F. Tinney
APEC 2015: KeyTalks - Power Technology Trends
Wind Power: The Technology
APEC 2012 - Dr. Vlatko Vlatkovic Plenary
Geothermal Energy in the Military
LLNL has developed a family of advanced magnetic flux compression generators (FCGs) used to perform high energy density physics experiments and material science studies. In recent years we have performed these experiments at explosive test sites in New Mexico and Nevada. In 2011, we re-established an explosive pulsed power test facility closer to Livermore. LLNL's Site 300 is a U.S. DOE-NNSA experimental test site situated on 7000 acres in rural foothills approximately 15 miles southeast of Livermore. It was established in 1955 as a non-nuclear explosives test facility to support LLNL's national security mission. On this site there are numerous facilities for fabricating, storing, assembling, and testing explosive devices. Site 300 is also home to some of DOE's premier facilities for hydrodynamic testing, with sophisticated diagnostics such as high-speed imaging, flash X-ray radiography, and other advanced diagnostics for performing unique experiments such as shock physics experiments, which examine how materials behave under high pressure and temperature. We have converted and upgraded one particular firing bunker at Site 300 (known as Bunker 851) to provide the necessary infrastructure to support high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) experiments. In doing so, we were able to incorporate our established practices for handling grounding, shielding, and isolation of auxiliary systems and diagnostics, in order to effectively manage the large voltages produced by FCGs, and minimize unwanted coupling to diagnostic data. This paper will discuss some of the key attributes of the Bunker 851 facility, including the specialized firesets and isolated initiation systems for multistage explosive systems, a detonator- switched seed bank that operates while isolated from earth and building ground, a fiber-optic based timing, triggering and control system, an EMI Faraday cage that completely encloses diagnostic sensors, cabling and high- resolution digitizers, optical fiber-based velocimetry and current sensor systems, and a flash X-ray radiography system. The photos and experimental results from recent FCG experiments will also be shown and discussed.
A new concept for a compact autonomous completely explosive pulsed power system is presented. The concept utilizes tire physical effects of transverse shock wave demagnetization of Nd<sub>2</sub>Fe<sub>14</sub>B high-energy hard ferromagnets and magnetic flux compression. A series of compact pulsed power systems was designed, built and tested. The developed systems contain two stages. The first stage is a transverse shock wave ferromagnetic generator (FMG) served as a primary power source (seed source). The second stage is a compact helical magnetic flux compression generator (FCG) serving as a pulsed power amplifier. Experimental data are presented for explosive and electrical operation of completely explosive FMG-FCG systems. Analytical consideration of the FMG-FCG seeding process was performed and is presented, as is a model for digital simulation of operation of completely explosive pulsed power FMG-FCG svstems.
A new design idea for a compact, autonomous, completely explosive pulsed power system is proposed. The system is based on the shock wave ferromagnetic generator (FMG) as a primary power source and a loop magnetic flux compression generator (LFCG) as a pulsed power amplifier. The FMG primary power source utilizes the effect of transverse shock wave demagnetization of Nd2Fe14B high- energy hard ferromagnets to produce the seed current. Results are presented of an experimental study and digital simulation of operation of the FMG-LFCG system.
The design and performance of a compact autonomous completely explosive pulsed power system based on two physical effects, the transverse shock wave demagnetization of Nd2Fe14B high-energy hard ferromagnets and magnetic flux compression, are presented. A transverse shock wave ferromagnetic generator (FMG) served as a seed source, and a compact helical magnetic flux compression generator (FCG) was used as a pulsed power amplifier. Results of a theoretical and experimental study demonstrated reliable operation of the proposed FMG-FCG system. The methodology for analytical calculation of seed current amplitude is developed.
We are developing a high explosive pulsed power system concept that we call Ranchero. Ranchero systems consist of series-parallel combinations of simultaneously initiated coaxial magnetic flux compression generators, and are intended to operate in the range from 50 MA to a few hundred MA currents. One example of a Ranchero system is shown. The coaxial modules lend themselves to extracting the current output either from one end or along the generator midplane. In this paper we concentrate on the system that we will use for our first imploding liner tests, a single module with end output. The module is 1.4 m long and expands the armature by a factor of two to reach the 30 cm OD stator. Our first heavy liner implosion experiments will be conducted in the range of 40-50 MA currents. Electrical tests, to date, have employed high explosive (HE) charges 43 cm long. We have performed tests and related 1D MHD calculations at the 45-MA current level with small loads. From these results, we determine that we can deliver currents of approximately 50 MA to loads of 8 nH.
We are developing a new high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system based on the 1.4 m long Ranchero generator which was developed in 1999 for driving solid density z-pinch loads. The new application requires approximately 40 MA to implode similar liners, but the liners cannot tolerate the 65 ¿s, 3 MA current pulse associated with delivering the initial magnetic flux to the 200 nH generator. To circumvent this problem, we have designed a system with an internal start switch and four explosively formed fuse (EFF) opening switches. The integral start switch is installed between the output glide plane and the armature. It functions in the same manner as a standard input crowbar switch when armature motion begins, but initially isolates the load. The circuit is completed during the flux loading phase using post hole convolutes. Each convolute attaches the inner (coaxial) output transmission line to the outside of the outer coax through a penetration of the outer coaxial line. The attachment is made with the conductor of an EFF at each location. The EFFs conduct 0.75 MA each, and are actuated just after the internal start switch connects to the load. EFFs operating at these parameters have been tested in the past. The post hole convolutes must withstand as much as 80 kV at peak dI/dt during the Ranchero load current pulse. We describe the design of this new HEPP system in detail, and give the experimental results available at conference time. In addition, we discuss the work we are doing to test the upper current limits of a single standard size Ranchero module. Calculations have suggested that the generator could function at up to ~120 MA, the rule of thumb we follow (1 MA/cm) suggests 90 MA, and simple flux compression calculations, along with the ~4 MA seed current available from our capacitor bank, suggests 118 MA is the currently available upper limit.
The study of an explosive pulsed power source based on inductive energy storage technology is presented in this paper. The power source consists of a capacitor bank used as the primary energy source, an explosive magnetic flux compression generator (MFCG), and an inductive energy storage power conditioning system with a low resistor load. A pulse voltage of over 400 kV with more than 200 ns duration and less than 50 ns rising time is obtained on a 10 load in experiment
Accurate, ultra-high pressure isentropic equation of state (EOS) data, are required for a variety of applications and materials. Asay (1999) reported a new method to obtain these data using pulsed magnetic loading on the Sandia Z-machine. Fast rising current pulses (risetimes from 100 to 300 ns) at current densities exceeding many MA/cm, create continuous magnetic loading up to a few Mbar. As part of a collaborative effort between the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the authors are adapting their high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) methods to obtain isentropic EOS data with the Asay technique. This year, they plan to obtain isentropic EOS data for copper and tantalum at pressures up to /spl sim/2 Mbar; eventually we hope to reach several tens of Mbar. They describe the design of the HEPP systems and show their attempts to obtain EOS data to date.
Summary form only given. We are developing an explosive pulsed power system for the purpose of driving cylindrical solid liner implosions. A Ranchero module is a simultaneously initiated coaxial magnetic flux compression generator with an OD of 30 centimeters and an initial inductance of /spl sim/195 nH. Ultimately, we expect to perform experiments at current levels of 70-90 MA, but our near term goal is to conduct experiments in the range of 25 to 50 MA for the purpose of powering implosions of interest to the Atlas program. Development of the full-length module is progressing, and experiments to date have utilized a one-third length explosive system. We have performed experiments with: i) 1.8 MA initial current and 45 MA final current into a 1 nH static load; and 2) 4.6 MA initial current and 40 MA final current into a 5 nH static load. These experiments are described, along with expectations for liner experiments that can be conducted in anticipation of the needs of the Atlas machine when it is commissioned.
Summary form only given. An extensive study of the one-dimensional isentropic compression experiment (ICE), performed with High Explosive Pulsed Power (HEPP), has been completed. The study has demonstrated that accurate, high pressure, isentropic equations of state (EOS) data may be obtained with this technique. The physics of electromagnetic loading in the ICE technique is presented. It is shown that the HEPP-ICE load configuration is capable of producing magnetic pressures that are uniform to 1 part in 1000 over the central 87% of the sample faces, and that HEPP-ICE provides exact matching of the pressures between opposing samples. This magnetic uniformity and matching are necessary for the highest accuracy isentropic EOS data. Isentropic EOS data have been obtained with a prototype HEPP-ICE system, and the results for tungsten and copper demonstrate the inaccuracy of the technique, which may be as low as 0.2% in pressure. Moreover, some interesting structure was observed in the elastic to plastic failure of tungsten, and this differs from published shock data. It is shown that a large-scale HEPP-ICE system (now being designed) is capable of producing shock-free loading up to 2.2 TPa in 10-mm thick tungsten samples. The study also shows that HEPP-ICE is well suited to the production of high accuracy, high-pressure, shock-free EOS data because of the long risetime currents that can be attained with it; risetimes in excess of 2 mus are possible in comparison to 500 ns on other machines.
This project provides recommended practices for the prediction and practical determination of safe distances from radio and radar transmitting antennas when using electric initiators to remotely detonate an explosive charge. Specifically, this document includes mathematical formulas, tables, and charts that allow the user to determine safe distances from RF transmitters with spectrum bands from 0.5 MHz to 300 GHz, including ...