1,036 resources related to Subsea
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Energy conversion and conditioning technologies, power electronics, adjustable speed drives and their applications, power electronics for smarter grid, energy efficiency,technologies for sustainable energy systems, converters and power supplies
The CDC is the premier conference dedicated to the advancement of the theory and practice of systems and control. The CDC annually brings together an international community of researchers and practitioners in the field of automatic control to discuss new research results, perspectives on future developments, and innovative applications relevant to decision making, automatic control, and related areas.
The PCIC provides an international forum for the exchange of electrical applications technology related to the petroleum and chemical industry. The PCIC annual conference is rotated across North American locations of industry strength to attract national and international participation. User, manufacturer, consultant, and contractor participation is encouraged to strengthen the conference technical base. Success of the PCIC is built upon high quality papers, individual recognition, valued standards activities, mentoring, tutorials, networking and conference sites that appeal to all.
The International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) is the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society’s biggest conference and one of the leading international forums for robotics researchers to present their work.
The Annual IEEE PES General Meeting will bring together over 2900 attendees for technical sessions, administrative sessions, super sessions, poster sessions, student programs, awards ceremonies, committee meetings, tutorials and more
Electrical insulation common to the design and construction of components and equipment for use in electric and electronic circuits and distribution systems at all frequencies.
Theory, concepts, and techniques of science and engineering as applied to sensing the earth, oceans, atmosphere, and space; and the processing, interpretation, and dissemination of this information.
This magazine publishes articles concerning technical subjects and professional activities that are within the scope of IAS and are of interest to society members. The information includes but is not limited to articles, product reviews, book reviews, new standards, education information, announcements of conferences, workshops, new publications, committee meetings and reports of IAS activities.
The development and application of electric systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; the encouragement of energy conservation; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices.
All aspects of optical guided-wave science, technology, and engineering in the areas of fiber and cable technologies; active and passive guided-wave componentry (light sources, detectors, repeaters, switches, fiber sensors, etc.); integrated optics and optoelectronics; systems and subsystems; new applications; and unique field trials.
OCEANS 2015 - MTS/IEEE Washington, 2015
Subsea infrastructure for Oil & Gas Production and Ocean Science Cabled Observatories has increased in complexity as we seek greater depths, longer step-out distances and longer performance life, now up to 30 years. The capability of the sensors being developed for long term health management and environmental monitoring is leading to a significant increase in both bandwidth for communications and ...
UKACC International Conference on Control 2010, 2010
For the Ormen Lange field, a 12 MW subsea gas compressor station pilot is being built. It will be run in a water filled pit on land for 2 years, and (if successful) deployed subsea at 1000 m depth along with 3 more identical stations. The paper describes the plant, the developed control system, the all electric actuators, the subsea ...
2017 5th International Conference on Enterprise Systems (ES), 2017
In this article, we visit the concept of 'articulation work' and its application in a sociotechnical system - subsea system. We analyze the teamwork in subsea operations and present that teamwork should be taken seriously in the assessment of subsea operations. We propose that teamwork is not about cooperation in a solo team; instead, teamwork in subsea operations cross the ...
PCIC Europe 2010, 2010
This publication describes the electrical system design, equipment and technology developed for the multi 12.5MW Ormen Lange Subsea Compression Station. This Subsea Station is supplied from shore with an umbilical length of 125km, and includes four compression trains, each having one 12.5MW VSD high speed 11000rpm compressor, one 400kW VSD Pump, UPS, and HV switchgear. The Station Pilot, consisting of ...
2014 IEEE Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference - Brasil (PCIC Brasil), 2014
In 2012, Brasil had a proved reserve of 15.3 billions of BOE (barrel of oil equivalent). The offshore reserve corresponds to more 94% of this amount. Petrobras, the Brasilian E&P company, leads the offshore production in ultra- deep water (deeper than 1500 m of water depth) worldwide. The current offshore production in ultra-deep waters deploys a Floating Production Unit (FPU), ...
Subsea infrastructure for Oil & Gas Production and Ocean Science Cabled Observatories has increased in complexity as we seek greater depths, longer step-out distances and longer performance life, now up to 30 years. The capability of the sensors being developed for long term health management and environmental monitoring is leading to a significant increase in both bandwidth for communications and adaptive technology necessary for expansion into new systems and technologies for data transmission and communication conversions. This has in turn presented new challenges for controlling design, deployment and operational risk to support evolving communications and monitoring networks. As the methods and means of communication from systems and subsea equipment continue to evolve, new and unique product technologies are needed to provide effective solutions. Identified as Active Flying Leads (AFL), this new technology allows for the integration of subsea qualified connection systems to be used in communicating between various pieces of equipment. In some cases, communication protocols are converted using the AFL to avoid protocol conversion somewhere else in the system. This paper cites various case studies and the solutions that were developed to solve issues that are directly applicable to the Ocean Science and Offshore Energy markets.
For the Ormen Lange field, a 12 MW subsea gas compressor station pilot is being built. It will be run in a water filled pit on land for 2 years, and (if successful) deployed subsea at 1000 m depth along with 3 more identical stations. The paper describes the plant, the developed control system, the all electric actuators, the subsea power distribution and the system for condition monitoring. The pilot comprises several novel parts for subsea applications, e.g. magnetic bearings for the compressor, all electric valve actuators of different types, a subsea HV Circuit Breaker module, subsea VSDs and subsea UPS modules. The control and safety system are split into completely separated subsystems, and in addition there is a separate system for condition monitoring which collects appr. 1 million data items per second for the 2 years of trial run (giving 100 TBytes of data after 2 years operation). The condition monitoring data is used for design verification, trouble shooting, and monitoring gradual deterioration of the equipment. For the final subsea station, the aim is to use the CM data for planning maintenance in advance Condition Based Maintenance.
In this article, we visit the concept of 'articulation work' and its application in a sociotechnical system - subsea system. We analyze the teamwork in subsea operations and present that teamwork should be taken seriously in the assessment of subsea operations. We propose that teamwork is not about cooperation in a solo team; instead, teamwork in subsea operations cross the borders between teams. Moreover, a team needs to react on cooperation and be responsible for their decision-making process when subsea systems are in use. We conclude that sociotechnical systems need more attention on its development and assessment to support teamwork. Such a contribution adds literature for better understanding the Internet of things (IoT) from a social and practical perspective for the maritime domain, teamwork in particular.
This publication describes the electrical system design, equipment and technology developed for the multi 12.5MW Ormen Lange Subsea Compression Station. This Subsea Station is supplied from shore with an umbilical length of 125km, and includes four compression trains, each having one 12.5MW VSD high speed 11000rpm compressor, one 400kW VSD Pump, UPS, and HV switchgear. The Station Pilot, consisting of one full scale train, will be installed in a test pit at Nyhamna within the Ormen Lange terminal by beginning 2011. All equipment are now designed and manufactured, and are about to be assembled into subsea modules in Norway.
In 2012, Brasil had a proved reserve of 15.3 billions of BOE (barrel of oil equivalent). The offshore reserve corresponds to more 94% of this amount. Petrobras, the Brasilian E&P company, leads the offshore production in ultra- deep water (deeper than 1500 m of water depth) worldwide. The current offshore production in ultra-deep waters deploys a Floating Production Unit (FPU), and some subsea equipments, such as, wet Christmas trees, manifolds, separation & booster systems, risers and pipelines. However, on board of the FPU, there are several other systems, namely, power generators, separators, gas treatment system, water treatment system, artificial lift system, injection system, etc. A future paradigm shift in the offshore petroleum production shall be the installation of all necessary systems on the sea floor. This article addresses to two challenges that raise with this new integrated operations with subsea oilfield production: the “remote operation and monitoring”, and the “power generation and distribution”. Remote operation and monitoring come from the need to transfer the process operators to shore and optimize the number of operators, to improve the processes availability by reducing the operator response time to a specific task, to provide continuous and predictive monitoring of vital processes, among other factors. Within the context of integrated operations, a remote operating center provides a broad and integrated overview of several processes in the asset, by using modern supervisory software (3D and 4D), database, remote sensoring, among others technologies. Part of this article also provides a comparative discussion between some technologies used in the implementation of remote operation and monitoring. Due to the substantial amount of electrical power required by subsea process units and their relatively long life cycle, typical aspects related to power generation and distribution have been changing. Alternatives, which were not cost effective before, are considered as new trends in the development of new process units due to political aspects and advances in the technology involved. Subsea high-voltage power distribution systems have become an alternative to supply the total load of subsea process units. According to this approach, electrical power distribution is located near the load center, as on shore installations. Normally, such installations are supplied from shore through long power umbilicals, as the supply of individual loads is not economically interesting. The advances in the use of renewable sources have also promoted new alternatives in power generation. These approaches become more interesting due to the possibility of installing large power generation plants using renewable sources on shallow water and transmitting the power to a set of subsea process units. Thus, new alternatives arise, such as the possibility of power transmission in high voltage direct current systems (HVDC), avoiding common problems faced in power transfer capacity using high voltage alternate current systems (HVAC), as large amount of reactive power needed to compensate cable's capacitance. This paper discusses these issues aroused due to power supply of subsea process units.
Energizing large transformers often cannot be done direct-on-line due to the negative effects of the inrush current. The typical schemes used in the past are energization via a high impedance, or via a tertiary winding connected to an auxiliary AC power source. These schemes require additional equipment resulting in increased foot print and complexity. For offshore and subsea installations, the increase in foot print often greatly exceeds the cost of the additional equipment. This paper presents an alternative solution allowing direct-on-line energization of large transformers, both topsides and subsea. Different solutions for subsea auxiliary AC power supplies not requiring high- voltage circuit-breakers are presented. For offshore and subsea power systems, the circuitbreakers supplying power to the transformers are standard 3.3 kV to 36 kV class devices having a 3-pole operating mechanism. The solution presented allows circuitbreakers to be switched such that the closing of the poles occurs at the point on the voltage waveform where the resulting inrush current is the least. For subsea power distribution systems, the auxiliary power required for the subsea control equipment is provided by a high-voltage DC auxiliary power link from the shore station and the control and communication link is via optical fiber. The solutions presented use standard proven technology and can be integrated within the subsea modules required for supplying power to the loads. This keeps the number of penetrators and subsea connector systems to a minimum. The importance of redundancy and maintenance in obtaining and keeping the required system availability are discussed.
Production control system communication protocols used in subsea fields are primarily proprietary to the subsea vendor. Due to the proprietary nature of this communication system, the operators encounter many challenges including obsolescence management, knowledge management and conformity assessment. This paper presents an investigation of the option of using open standard protocols for subsea production control communication system. The features, functionality and standardization of existing communication protocols used in subsea control system are analyzed and compared with open standard protocols such as DNP3 (Distributed Network Protocol) and IEC60870-5-101 and their variants used with Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). The features of open standard protocols were also analyzed along with the possibility of its use in subsea production control system communication. The analysis showed that the open standard protocol DNP3 and DNP3 over TCP/IP could provide significant advantages over proprietary protocols as the specifications of DNP3 are publicly available and controlled by non-profit user group. DNP3 supports unsolicited response messages, time stamping, peer- to-peer communication and its implementation can be verified by external bodies. Furthermore, DNP3 allows the operator to integrate multiple vendors' products on a single subsea network and allows the integration of slower network with faster network without losing the data throughput.
A growing trend in efforts to build more effective and efficient subsea chokes, completion and work-over control systems, and marine well containment systems in oil and gas deep water fields is to replace hydraulics with electrical drives. Electrical drives have advantages such as faster, smoother, and more precise valve control, including real-time feedback on valve position and performance. However, such electrical driven valves require higher peak electrical power to operate than one can effectively supply via a cable when the valve is thousands of meters below the surface of the sea. Local batteries deployed subsea near the valves and subsea control modules can serve the peak power needs, or even backup power needs. But heretofore the classic sealed lead acid battery technology of 1900 is too heavy, too big, and does not last long enough to make these solutions as practical or efficient as desired. The subsea Oil and Gas deep water field equipment industry needs battery solutions that deliver more electrical capacity at less weight and smaller size than old technology sealed lead acid (“SLA”). They want to tap what battery industry expert Cerina Mikolajczak from Tesla Motors calls the “awesome Lithium-Ion technology” advantage , such as four times (4X) the energy density of SLA, yet the batteries need to be safe, reliable, and easy to use in subsea deployment. Also, achieving configurable size and capacity flexibility, long lasting subsea operating life, subsea pressure tolerance, and pre-certified testing for subsea oil and gas standards and international shipping standards are very important. Further, saving project execution time and cost by avoiding custom battery development is preferred. So this is not just an ordinary battery at all.
For the developing research and exploring of deep-sea mineral and biological resources, subsea observatory is quite an effective method for long-time automatic data or image collection of subsea environment and creatures. But building an observatory network underwater is complicated and the power/optical signal transmission between subsea nodes requires extension cables. In this paper, a new kind of passive cable laying system which is attached to 4500m Deep-Sea ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) is proposed for optical fiber laying operations for subsea cabled observatory. With full- mechanic cable tension management device, the tension of optical fiber could remain constant during laying operation, and the system requires no close-loop control for cable releasing speed. And because of long-distance operation, flotation adjustment is also an important issue for consideration. A buoyancy variation control system solves the problem by non-continuously adjustment for the weight of cable released from the bobbin.
This paper discusses the design and implementation of an extremely reliable system to remotely monitor and control the subsea blowout preventer (BOP) stack by using triple modular redundancy technique. The system hardware architecture including surface component and subsea component are proposed. The control logics, human machine interface (HMI) graphical design and redundant databases are development by using off-the-shelf software. An experiment of subsea BOP control is performed in the laboratory. The results show that the system can give correct alarms when mistakes occur, and all subsea BOP functions can be performed correctly.
No standards are currently tagged "Subsea"