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Afterglow artifacts correction for ultra-fast tomography acquisition by synchrotron radiation

2016 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop (NSS/MIC/RTSD), 2016

The availability of synchrotron-generated high-flux and high-energy x-rays has significantly reduced the acquisition time a tomographic scan which allows following dynamic processes in 4D (3D space + time). In the ultra-fast endstation usually a scintillator is used to convert X-ray to visible photons that can be detected by the camera. However, this conversion is not ideal and the scintillator decays ...


Improvement of spatial resolution of time-resolved MA-PMT camera for imaging of TRU elements

2016 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop (NSS/MIC/RTSD), 2016

The use of alpha autoradiography is ineffective for measuring plutonium (Pu) spots in a transuranic element containing alpha-radiator minor actinides. Therefore, the KURRI-LINAC team, Kyoto University has developed a non- destructive imaging system with pulsed neutron transmission spectroscopy. The system uses a high-efficiency bundle-type scintillator and a 16 × 16 ch multi- anode photo-multiplier tube (MA-PMT) and Li-Time-Analyzer-12e (LiTA12e) processor ...


A VLSI charge preamplifier for particle identification with CsI(Tl) scintillators coupled with photodiodes

2016 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop (NSS/MIC/RTSD), 2016

In the framework of the development of the FARCOS (Femtoscopy Array for Correlation and Spectroscopy) telescopes, we developed a CMOS frontend in C35B4C3 AMS technology for the readout of the photodiode current in CsI(Tl)-based calorimeters. The preamplifier features a continuous-reset feedback and an input PMOS transistor. The designed input dynamic range is 90 MeV Silicon equivalent. The compensation capacitor at ...


Scintillator Characterization Measurements for Neutron Imaging in Inertial Confinement Fusion

2017 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), 2017

The Los Alamos National Laboratory Advanced Imaging team is currently in the process of designing a novel neutron imaging system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The team has been providing 2D neutron imaging of the burning fusion fuel at NIF for years, revealing possible multi-dimensional asymmetries in the fuel shape of the inertial confinement fusion reactions, and therefore calling ...


Characterization of Stilbene Scintillation Detectors with Light Guide Coupling and Silicon Photomultiplier Readout

2017 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), 2017

We experimentally investigated the low energy pulse shape discrimination (PSD) capabilities of four cubic stilbene crystals with 6 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, and 20 mm sides. We used a 6 × 6 mm2silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for readout, and coupled the crystals both with and without light guides, optimizing light guide wrapping for PSD. We compared the crystals's figure of ...


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  • Afterglow artifacts correction for ultra-fast tomography acquisition by synchrotron radiation

    The availability of synchrotron-generated high-flux and high-energy x-rays has significantly reduced the acquisition time a tomographic scan which allows following dynamic processes in 4D (3D space + time). In the ultra-fast endstation usually a scintillator is used to convert X-ray to visible photons that can be detected by the camera. However, this conversion is not ideal and the scintillator decays exponentially with afterglow. Afterglow can cause resolution degradation and artifacts (such as ring and band) especially with high rotation speed. Performing many ultra-fast scans at the TOMCAT beamline with different acquisition rate, we demonstrate how the acquisition time effects on the projection data and reconstructed images. Based on the acquired dataset and exploited realistic model for afterglow, we propose a correction method to remove afterglow from the projections which improves the reconstruction visually and quantitatively.

  • Improvement of spatial resolution of time-resolved MA-PMT camera for imaging of TRU elements

    The use of alpha autoradiography is ineffective for measuring plutonium (Pu) spots in a transuranic element containing alpha-radiator minor actinides. Therefore, the KURRI-LINAC team, Kyoto University has developed a non- destructive imaging system with pulsed neutron transmission spectroscopy. The system uses a high-efficiency bundle-type scintillator and a 16 × 16 ch multi- anode photo-multiplier tube (MA-PMT) and Li-Time-Analyzer-12e (LiTA12e) processor as detector. The spatial resolution of this system was improved by 3 mm of MA-PMT to 1 mm of the scintillator by the center-of-gravity calculation of the LiTA12e system. However, a 1-mm spatial resolution is insufficient to detect the Pu spot of one of the TRU elements using the program. Therefore, we are developing a super-resolution technique with sub-pixel shifted images for the transmission images. The calculated reconstructed image, based on the use of four sub-pixel shifted X-ray transfer images, was obtained by simulation. This result suggests the spatial resolution of the imaging system will be improved by installing stepping motors in the platform of a measurement object.

  • A VLSI charge preamplifier for particle identification with CsI(Tl) scintillators coupled with photodiodes

    In the framework of the development of the FARCOS (Femtoscopy Array for Correlation and Spectroscopy) telescopes, we developed a CMOS frontend in C35B4C3 AMS technology for the readout of the photodiode current in CsI(Tl)-based calorimeters. The preamplifier features a continuous-reset feedback and an input PMOS transistor. The designed input dynamic range is 90 MeV Silicon equivalent. The compensation capacitor at the gain node guarantees adequate GBWPs without shape distortion and a phase margin greater than 60°. The measured integral-non-linearity over the whole dynamic range is below 0.4%. The preamplifer (intrinsic) rise-time (30%-80%) is of the order of 6-8 ns over the entire dynamic range and keeps below 12 ns when coupled with the photodiode.

  • Scintillator Characterization Measurements for Neutron Imaging in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Advanced Imaging team is currently in the process of designing a novel neutron imaging system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The team has been providing 2D neutron imaging of the burning fusion fuel at NIF for years, revealing possible multi-dimensional asymmetries in the fuel shape of the inertial confinement fusion reactions, and therefore calling for additional views along new lines of sight. The selection of an ideal scintillator material for a position-sensitive detector system is the key component for the new design. The new imaging system will require several technological challenges to be met: high spatial resolution, high light output, and fast scintillator response to capture a primary fusion neutron image as well as lower-energy down-scattered neutrons. A comprehensive study of advanced scintillator materials has been carried out at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center and the OMEGA Laser Facility in Rochester, NY. Neutron radiography using a fast-gated CCD camera system delivers resolution and light output measurements. We conclude the feasibility of a monolithic scintillator over a pixelated counterpart, and present the first resolution measurement of a deuterated plastic scintillator - a promising candidate for the new design.

  • Characterization of Stilbene Scintillation Detectors with Light Guide Coupling and Silicon Photomultiplier Readout

    We experimentally investigated the low energy pulse shape discrimination (PSD) capabilities of four cubic stilbene crystals with 6 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, and 20 mm sides. We used a 6 × 6 mm2silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for readout, and coupled the crystals both with and without light guides, optimizing light guide wrapping for PSD. We compared the crystals's figure of merit (FOM) dependence on light output. For the smaller three crystals, direct coupling provided better PSD (roughly 116% FOM of the guided at 100 - 150 keVee). For the 10 mm sided crystal the trend was reversed and the light guide became advantageous (105% FOM of the direct at 100 - 150 keVee).

  • Development of a dynamic micro RI imaging system for single cells

    Studies on cell regulation are attracting worldwide attention in order to realize regenerative medicine. Therefore, a nuclear medicine imaging method, which can use tracers having substantially the same composition as a target biomolecule, is required. Autoradiography is a high-resolution nuclear medicine imaging method. However, this method does not have a dynamical imaging capability due to the principle on which it is based. In this research, we develop a nuclear medicine imaging system for dynamic cell observation. Specifically, in order to prevent broadening of the scintillation position because of scintillation light spreading in the scintillator, β-rays are detected by a thin scintillator plate. A scientific CMOS camera with low readout noise and high resolution was used to detect scintillation light. The scintillator plate was a CsI crystal connected to an optical fiber array. The scintillation light generated from the scintillator plate was extracted through optical fibers. The imaging lenses adopted in this research were a high-speed imaging and a conversion lens.Imaging resolution was adjusted to 6.5 × 6.5 mm2/ pixel and exposure time was 10 s. In order to evaluate the imaging performance of the proposed system, we measured samples containing a radiopharmaceutical with a prototype system. In this measurement, two different activity18F-solutions were used as the imaging target. They were fixed with a uniform thickness of 0.4 mm. In the imaging results, we measured different image values depending on their activities. On the other hand, in the region of no18F-solutions, the image value was almost constant. The output had sufficient linearity for images with activity exceeding 0.05 Bq / pixel. Imaging results showed that our system has sufficient sensitivity for imaging uptake of18F by single cells.

  • Comparison of columnar and pixelated scintillators for small field of view hybrid gamma camera imaging

    For intraoperative medical imaging, the development of small field of view (SFOV) hybrid gamma cameras is an expanding area of research. The performance characteristics of a new innovation combining both gamma and optical imaging in a co-aligned configuration, the Hybrid Gamma Camera (HGC) have been evaluated and compared. In this study the HGC was fitted with either 1500 μm thick columnar CsI:TI or 1500 μm thick pixelated GOS scintillators. The columnar CsI:TI scintillator has an intrinsic spatial resolution of 230 μm compared to 1090 μm for the pixelated GOS scintillator. The sensitivity at 140.5 keV of the CsI:TI was 40 %, however, for the GOS it was 54 %. The intrinsic spatial uniformity was comparable for both CsI:TI and GOS scintillators. There was a significant difference between the CsI:TI and GOS scintillators for count rate capability which was lower when using a GOS scintillator.

  • A SiPM-Based Detection Module for 2” LaBr3:Ce Readout for Nuclear Physics Applications

    We present a SiPM-based gamma-ray detection module, which allows to read large LaBr3:Ce cylindrical crystals (diameter > 1”), typically adopted in nuclear physics experiments, with spectroscopic performances similar to those achievable with PMTs. High-Density SiPM technology for Near UltraViolet and blue light detection (NUV-HD, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Italy) were used. These SiPMs show high Photo Detection Efficiency (PDE = 45% at 380 nm) and low Dark Count Rate (DCR <; 100 kHz/mm2). The photodetector prototype has a modular structure based on an array of 5 × 6 SiPMs, each one having an active area of 6 × 6 mm2and 30 μm microcells. This array was used for 1” scintillator readout and it was assembled in 2 × 2 planar format for the 2” scintillator readout. The spectroscopic measurements presented in this work were performed with 2” × 2” LaBr3:Ce irradiated with57C,133Ba,137Cs and60Co calibration sources. An energy resolution of 3.19 ± 0.01% was achieved at 662 keV with 2” LaBr3:Ce. The same crystal was tested with a Super Bialkali PMT (Hamamatsu R6233-100) showing a similar energy resolution of 3.07 ± 0.03% at 662 keV. Therefore, these results support the equivalence between SiPM and PMT for high-resolution spectroscopy.

  • Petiroc2A: Characterization and Experimental Results

    Petiroc2A is a 32-channel SiPM readout ASIC, which has been designed for applications requiring precise timing and energy measurement such as time-of- flight positron emission tomography. In this work, experimental results of Petiroc2A are presented.Time and charge measurements for Petiroc2A have been performed at CERN with various SiPM models from FBK, Hamamatsu and Sensl. Scintillators used for the tests are mostly LSO:Ce,Ca crystals with dimensions ranging from 2x2x3mm3 up to 3x3x20mm3. Petiroc2A yields a single-photon time resolution (SPTR) of 90.7 ps FWHM when tested with FBK NUV 1x1mm2 SiPM. Meanwhile, the obtained coincidence time resolution (CTR) values when tested with FBK NUV-HD 4x4mm2 SiPM and 2x2x3mm3 LSO:Ce,Ca are 85.5 ps FWHM when measured externally and 127.3 ps FWHM when measured using the ASIC internal TDC. Using longer scintillators, 3x3x20mm3 LSO:Ce,Ca, and Hamamatsu S13360-3050PE SiPM with negative output, Petiroc2A yields a CTR value of 222.5 ps FWHM when measured with internal TDC. Using the same configuration outputting positive SiPM signal, Petiroc2A measured a nearly similar CTR, 225.3 ps FWHM. Similar setup yields, an energy resolution of 12.9% for 511 keV photon after correction when measured internally by Petiroc2A.

  • Higher Orders of Punctuation

    With respect to the punctuation of qualifiers, a comma (or a pair of commas) is used to set off certain types of qualifiers, namely, nonrestrictive qualifiers. Some situations - such as when one nonrestrictive qualifier is nested within another nonrestrictive qualifier - a higher order of punctuation may be necessary to avoid confusion. There, a dash was used for this purpose. This chapter explores other higher orders of punctuation. There is no need to formulate a rule with respect to the correspondence between type of punctuation and order of punctuation. However, good technical writing maintains a consistency of use within a given document. The chapter presents some examples that illustrate the use of a higher order of punctuation to set off an interior nonrestrictive qualifier that contains a list. For completeness, it presents examples where dashes and/or parentheses may be used as the first order of punctuation, rather than commas.



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