IEEE Organizations related to Butler Matrices

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2020 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and North American Radio Science Meeting

The joint meeting is intended to provide an international forum for the exchange of information on state of the art research in the area of antennas and propagation, electromagnetic engineering and radio science


2020 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS)

RWW2020 will be an international conference covering all aspects of radio and wireless. RWW2020's multidisciplinary events will bring together innovations that are happening across the broad wireless spectrum. RWS2020, this conference application, acts as the main conference for the entire RWW of events that includes the following conferences: PAWR2020, SiRF2020, WiSNet2020, and TWiOS2020 (IEEE Topical Conference on RF/microwave Power Amplifiers, IEEE Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems, IEEE Topical Conference on Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks, and IEEE Topical Workshop on the Internet of Space IoS, respectively). In addition to traditional podium presentations and poster sessions, tracks for IEEE Distinguished Lectures, Sunday half-day workshops, Monday panels, and a demo session are planned. A RWW2020 plenary talk are a parallel IoT Summit are planned. A student competition is also planned.

  • 2019 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS)

    This is a conference with a focus on wireless components, applications, and systems that impact both our current and future life style. The conference's main niche is to bring together technologists, circuit designers, system designers, and entrepreneurs at a single event. It was and is the place where these worlds meet, where new processes and systems can be benchmarked against the needs of circuit designers at the bleeding edge of RF systems, where today's design compromises can trigger tomorrow's advanced technologies. Where dreams can become a reality. RWS is the cornerstone conference for Radio Wireless Week.

  • 2018 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS)

    This is a set of five conferences with a focus on wireless components, applications, and systems that effect both now and our future life style. These conferences main niche is to bring together technologists, circuit designers, system designers, and entrepreneurs at a single event. It was and is the place where these worlds meet, where new processes and systems can be benchmarked against the needs of circuit designers at the bleeding edge of RF systems, where today’s design compromises can trigger tomorrow’s advanced technologies. Where dreams can become a reality.

  • 2017 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS)

    This is a set of five conferences with a focus on wireless components, applications, and systems that effect both now and our future life style. These conferences main niche is to bring together technologists, circuit designers, system designers, and entrepreneurs at a single event. It was and is the place where these worlds meet, where new processes and systems can be benchmarked against the needs of circuit designers at the bleeding edge of RF systems, where today’s design compromises can trigger tomorrow’s advanced technologies. Where dreams can become a reality.

  • 2016 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS)

    This is a set of five conferences with a focus on wireless components, applications, and systems that effect both now and our future life style. These conferences main niche is to bring together technologists, circuit designers, system designers, and entrepreneurs at a single event. It was and is the place where these worlds meet, where new processes and systems can be bench-marked against the needs of circuit designers at the bleeding edge of RF systems, where today

  • 2015 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS)

    This is a set of five conferences with a focus on wireless components, applications, and systems that effect both now and our future life style. These conferences main niche is to bring together technologists, circuit designers, system designers, and entrepreneurs at a single event. It was and is the place where these worlds meet, where new processes and systems can be benchmarked against the needs of circuit designers at the bleeding edge of RF systems, where today

  • 2014 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS)

    RWS focuses on the intersection between radio systems and wireless technology, which creates a unique forum for engineers to discuss hardware design and system performance of the state -of-the-art wireless systems. Includes an expanded program on the latest information on wireless communications and networking, and associated enabling technologies as new services and applications emerge.

  • 2013 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS)

    RWS focuses on the intersection between radio systems and wireless technology, which creates a unique forum for engineers to discuss hardware design and system performance of the state-of-the-art wireless systems. Includes an expanded program on the latest information on wireless communications and networking, and associated enabling technologies as new services and applications emerge.

  • 2012 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS)

    RWS focuses on the intersection between radio systems and wireless technology, which creates a unique forum for engineers to discuss hardware design and system performance of the state-of-the-art wireless systems. Includes an expanded program on the latest information on wireless communications and networking, and associated enabling technologies as new services and applications emerge.

  • 2011 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS)

    All aspects of components and systems related to radio and wireless networks.

  • 2010 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS)

    RWS focuses on the intersection between radio systems and wireless technology, which creates a unique forum for engineers to discuss various aspects of wireless communication systems and the state-of-the-art in both fields by exploring the connections between hardware design and system performance.

  • 2009 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS)

    This symposium highlights the state of the art of hardware and systems of radio and wireless

  • 2008 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS)

  • 2007 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS)

  • 2006 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS)

  • 2004 IEEE Radio and Wireless Conference - (RAWCON 2004)

  • 2003 IEEE Radio and Wireless Conference - (RAWCON 2003)

  • 2002 IEEE Radio and Wireless Conference - (RAWCON 2002)

  • 2001 IEEE Radio and Wireless Conference - (RAWCON 2001)

  • 2000 IEEE Radio and Wireless Conference - (RAWCON 2000)

  • 1999 IEEE Radio and Wireless Conference - (RAWCON '99)

  • 1998 IEEE Radio and Wireless Conference - (RAWCON '98)


2020 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS)

The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2036 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2036

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2031 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2031

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2029 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2029

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2026 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2026

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2025 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2025

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conferencecovering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies;encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including thelatest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulationand more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions,panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2024 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2024

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2023 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2023

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2022 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2022

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2021 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2021

    The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the premier conference covering basic technologies, to passives and actives components to system over a wide range of frequencies including VHF, UHF, RF, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical. The conference will encompass the latest in RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation, wireless systems, RFID and related topics.

  • 2019 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2019

    Comprehensive symposium on microwave theory and techniques including active and passive circuit components, theory and microwave systems.

  • 2018 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2018

    Microwave theory and techniques, RF/microwave/millimeter-wave/terahertz circuit design and fabrication technology, radio/wireless communication.

  • 2017 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2017

    The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the premier conference covering basic technologies, to passives and actives components to system over a wide range of frequencies including VHF, UHF, RF, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical. The conference will encompass the latest in RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation, wireless systems, RFID and related topics.

  • 2016 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2016

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2015 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2015

    The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the premier conference covering basic technologies, to passives and actives components to system over a wide range of frequencies including VHF, UHF, RF, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical. The conference will encompass the latest in RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation, wireless systems, RFID and related topics. The IMS includes technical sessions, both oral and interactive, worksh

  • 2014 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2014

    IMS2014 will cover developments in microwave technology from nano devices to system applications. Technical paper sessions, interactive forums, plenary and panel sessions, workshops, short courses, industrial exhibits, and a wide array of other technical activities will be offered.

  • 2013 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2013

    The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the premier conference covering basic technologies, to passives and actives components to system over a wide range of frequencies including VHF, UHF, RF, microwave, millimeter -wave, terahertz, and optical. The conference will encompass the latest in RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation, wireless systems, RFID and related topics.The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2012 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2012

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2011 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2011

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2010 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2010

    Reports of research and development at the state-of-the-art of the theory and techniques related to the technology and applications of devices, components, circuits, modules and systems in the RF, microwave, millimeter-wave, submillimeter-wave and Terahertz ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  • 2009 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2009

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2008 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2008

  • 2007 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2007

  • 2006 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2006

  • 2005 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2005

  • 2004 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2004

  • 2003 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2003

  • 2002 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2002

  • 2001 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2001

  • 2000 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2000

  • 1999 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT '99

  • 1998 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT '98

  • 1997 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT '97

  • 1996 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT '96


2019 12th German Microwave Conference (GeMiC)

GeMiC 2019 is a scientific conference aiming to bring together academic and industrial researchers from Germany and from abroad, to discuss research progress and prospects in the area of microwave and millimeter-wave theory and techniques.

  • 2018 German Microwave Conference (GeMiC)

    Microwaves, Microwave Systems, Radar, Communications

  • 2016 German Microwave Conference (GeMiC )

    microwaves, microwave systems, radar, communications

  • 2015 German Microwave Conference (GeMiC)

    Microwaves, Microwave Systems, Radar, Communications

  • 2012 German Microwave Conference (GeMiC 2012)

    The conference presents, through its keynote addresses, presentations, workshops, and forums unique opportunities to exchange scientific and technical information and to establish and foster collaboration in microwave and antenna research.

  • 2011 German Microwave Conference (GeMiC 2011)

    -Active/Passive Microwave Devices/Circuits -Metamaterial Structures and Applications -Emerging Technologies -Antennas, Antenna Arrays, and Reconfigurable Antennas -Radar, Imaging, and Localization -RFIDs and Microwave Sensors -Ultrawideband and Microwave Systems -Microwave Measurement Techniques -Electromagnetics, EMC, and Simulation Techniques -Propagation/Channel Modeling -Linear/Nonlinear Modeling

  • 2010 German Microwave Conference (GeMiC 2010)

    Passive Components and Modules, Active Devices and Circuits, RF-MEMS and Tuneable Components, Antennas and Antenna Arrays, Radar, Sensors, and Imaging, Microwave Systems and UWB, Millimetre- and Submillimetre-Waves, Electromagnetics and Numerical Techniques, Propagation and Channel Modeling, EMC, Linear and Nonlinear Modeling, Measurement Techniques

  • 2009 German Microwave Conference (GeMiC 2009)

    passive Circuit componentsm active components, RF-mems, EMC, Measurement techniques, antennas, radar, sensors, imaging, mocrowave systems, education in mocrowave engineering


2019 13th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP)

The conference provides an overview of the state of the art developments and innovations in Antennas, Propagation, and Measurements, highlighting the latest requirements for future applications.


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Xplore Articles related to Butler Matrices

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Multiple‐Beam Antennas

Phased Array Antennas, None

This chapter contains sections titled:IntroductionBeamformersLow Sidelobes and Beam InterpolationBeam OrthogonalityAcknowledgmentsReferences


Highlights of the “Advanced radar studies” session at the Lille, France, URSI general assembly

Radio Science, 1997

At the URSI General Assembly in Lille, France, in August 1996, one of the sessionsw as titled “Advanced radar studies of the ionosphere and the middle atmosphere.” All the talks in the session were invited. At the end of the session, there was a brief “panel”(two people) discussionin, which B. Reinisch and I gave our impressions of what we had ...


Direct N-QAM multiport modulators utilizing butler matrices

2016 21st International Conference on Microwave, Radar and Wireless Communications (MIKON), 2016

In this paper, we present novel N-QAM multiport modulators utilizing a standard Butler matrix and a set of switchable terminations. The presented theoretical investigation reveals, that using a 4 × 4 Butler matrix one can design a 16-QAM modulator, whereas utilizing an 8 × 8 Butler matrix 64- and 256-QAM modulators can be realized. The presented theory has been verified ...


Implimentation of 4×4 butler matrix using silver-nono instant inkjet printing technology

2017 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Electro-Technology for National Development (NIGERCON), 2017

Butler Matrix (BM) beamforming network using silver-nano printing technology is presented in this paper. It employed a 3dB coupler, phase shifters and a crossover. Closed form design equations are derived based transmission line theory. To validate the design procedure, the device is fabricated using an instant inkjet printing technology. The results obtained shows good return losses better than-19dB at all ...


Wideband switched beam patch antenna array

2013 IEEE Applied Electromagnetics Conference (AEMC), 2013

In this paper a switched beam 4×1 linear antenna array is presented with a 4×4 butler matrix feed. For wideband operation aperture coupled antenna elements are used in the array whereas wideband hybrid couplers and cross couplers are used in the butler matrix feed. Design and simulation was carried out in IE3D® software, considering a Rogers RO3006 substrate. The array ...


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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Multiple‐Beam Antennas

    This chapter contains sections titled:IntroductionBeamformersLow Sidelobes and Beam InterpolationBeam OrthogonalityAcknowledgmentsReferences

  • Highlights of the “Advanced radar studies” session at the Lille, France, URSI general assembly

    At the URSI General Assembly in Lille, France, in August 1996, one of the sessionsw as titled “Advanced radar studies of the ionosphere and the middle atmosphere.” All the talks in the session were invited. At the end of the session, there was a brief “panel”(two people) discussionin, which B. Reinisch and I gave our impressions of what we had just heard in the previous 4 hours or so. What follows here is based on my scribbledn otes and consists of thoughts on things that I happened to find particularly interesting, new to me, controversial, whatever. This is in no sense meant to be a balanced summary of the session. Some of the talks given have been developed into papers in this issue of Radio Science, but some have not.

  • Direct N-QAM multiport modulators utilizing butler matrices

    In this paper, we present novel N-QAM multiport modulators utilizing a standard Butler matrix and a set of switchable terminations. The presented theoretical investigation reveals, that using a 4 × 4 Butler matrix one can design a 16-QAM modulator, whereas utilizing an 8 × 8 Butler matrix 64- and 256-QAM modulators can be realized. The presented theory has been verified by measurements of the developed multiport modulators, proving the developed concept.

  • Implimentation of 4×4 butler matrix using silver-nono instant inkjet printing technology

    Butler Matrix (BM) beamforming network using silver-nano printing technology is presented in this paper. It employed a 3dB coupler, phase shifters and a crossover. Closed form design equations are derived based transmission line theory. To validate the design procedure, the device is fabricated using an instant inkjet printing technology. The results obtained shows good return losses better than-19dB at all the input ports with an average deviation in the transmission coefficients less than 1dB. However, the device exhibited a phase imbalance of less than 0.9° at the center frequency.

  • Wideband switched beam patch antenna array

    In this paper a switched beam 4×1 linear antenna array is presented with a 4×4 butler matrix feed. For wideband operation aperture coupled antenna elements are used in the array whereas wideband hybrid couplers and cross couplers are used in the butler matrix feed. Design and simulation was carried out in IE3D® software, considering a Rogers RO3006 substrate. The array is designed to cover LTE bands at 2.3 & 2.6 GHz as well as the 2.4 GHz ISM band. The performance parameters from simulation are presented and analyzed. A total of 1:1.43 VSWR, bandwidth of 520 MHz is obtained with gain of 11 dB, directivity of ~12.5 dBi and efficiency greater than 70%. The radiation beam directions in azimuth are obtained at +15°, -15°, +45° and -45° for respective input port.

  • Transparent Branch-Line Coupler Using Micro-Metal Mesh Conductive Film

    This letter presents the design of a novel transparent 3 dB Branch-Line Coupler (BLC) using a proprietary self-assembling nano-particle technology based Micro-metal Mesh (MM) conductive film. The transparent MM conductive film has a sheet resistance of 0.7 Ω/sq and a visible-light transmission (VBLT) of 75%, resulting in good conductivity and high transparency, respectively. The proposed transparent BLC is mounted on a 2 mm-thick soda- lime glass substrate of dielectric 5.7 and designed to operate at 2.45 GHz. A layer of MM film on the back of the glass serves as a ground. The transparent BLC delivered measured coupling and transmission values of 3.9 and 4.3 dB, respectively. The transparent BLC can be used as a building block for realizing a transparent Butler Matrix (BM) Beam Forming Network (BFN) for Inter/Intra-Vehicle Wireless Communication (IIVWC) in Intelligent Transport System (ITS). Besides being transparent, the proposed BLC has a measured fractional bandwidth of 38.8% and 0.25 mm profile excluding the glass substrate. These advantages greatly enhance the BLC's potential to be used also as a BM building component that can be mounted onto the glass surfaces of buildings for future 5G indoor wireless communications where beam forming is required.

  • A phased array antenna system employing frequency-upconverted local signals with phase difference

    This paper proposes a novel configuration for a phased array antenna system (PAS) that achieves ultra-broadband transmission using millimeter waves. Since it is expected to employ an unprecedented number of antennas, the PAS is required to be compact and cost effective. Generally, the PAS employs phase shifters that are applied to the IF or RF transmission signal lines for beam forming. However, the phase shifter limits the bandwidth of the transmission signal due to the required accuracy of the phase adjustment. A PAS employing phase-controlled RF carriers is a promising configuration for broadband transmission. In the proposed configuration, RF carriers are generated by frequency upconverting the phase-controlled local signals with a lower frequency. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed configuration, a two- branch PAS transmitter with phase-controlled RF carriers is configured and tested. Measurement results show that the phase-controlled local signals that have a frequency lower than that of the RF carriers can be used to control the phase difference between the transmitted RF signals.

  • Orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes for 2-D beam-steering of circular arrays

    In the context of increasing the data-transmission capacity of next-generation wireless links using multi-input multi-output (MIMO) techniques involving antenna arrays, the concept of so-called orbital angular momentum (OAM) states or modes has attracted considerable attention. It is a concept borrowed from physics and optics, applied to much longer RF wavelengths, with the inevitable consequences of generally larger physical dimensions, so that the MIMO capacity is not achieved in a line of sight exceeding the Rayleigh distance from the antenna. However, it is recognized that OAM modes are readily generated by circular arrays with linear phase excitations, and are really the axial patterns of what were known as phase-modes used for steering beams or nulls of circular arrays in the azimuth dimension in past applications. Here the phase-modes of a circular array are used to steer its beam in both the azimuth and elevation dimensions, using 3 or 4 phase-shifters and 3 simple hybrids for an arbitrary number of array elements. The beam-steering is effected in the far field, in polar coordinates all around the array axis, and radially over 1 or 2 beam-widths. The radial range can be extended by combining higher-order phase-modes. Such OAM-based beam-steering means are particularly suited to backhaul links for small cells using mm-wave antennas in future 5G wireless networks. Because RF phase-shifters are expensive and do not scale well at millimeter wavelengths, their numbers must be minimized to fit them in the antenna structure and to keep down costs. The steering range is adequate to compensate for motion of small-cell mounting platforms which are typically nonrigid street fixtures such as sign- and lamp-posts.

  • A 220–245 GHz switched beam Butler Matrix in 0.13 µm SiGe BiCMOS technology

    This paper presents a 220-245 GHz 4 way Butler Matrix chip in 0.13μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The chip features four 230 GHz amplifiers with almost 9 dB of gain. A SP4T switch is integrated to select between the four outputs of the beamforming network. Finally, an amplifier used to compensate the losses of the SP4T is integrated. The chip exhibits 0 dB of insertion gain and draws 104 mA from 3.3 V supply mainly consumed by the amplifiers. The entire chip occupies 1.5 × 2.4 mm2.

  • Design of compact 4×4 X-band Butler with lump element based on IPD technology

    A X-band 4×4 Butler Matrix in IPD (Integrated Passive Device) technology is presented. Coupler and the phase shifter constituted by lumped circuits are utilized for Butler miniaturization. The compact chip area of implemented IPD Butler only occupies 2.12×2.07 mm2 including all test pads. The result show the isolation of >12dB, the average loss of 3dB and the phase errors are within 5° at 9.5-10.5GHz.



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