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Xplore Articles related to Semiconductor Detectors

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Sensitivity booster for DOI-PET by utilizing Compton scattering events between detector blocks

2013 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (2013 NSS/MIC), 2013

In a conventional PET scanner, coincidence events are measured with the limited energy window for detection of photoelectric events in order to reject Compton scatter events that occur in a patient, but Compton scatter events caused in detector crystals are also rejected. Scatter events within the patient cause scatter coincidences, but inter crystal scattering (ICS) events have useful information for ...


The basics of experimental determination of the Fano factor in intrinsic semiconductors

2013 3rd International Conference on Advancements in Nuclear Instrumentation, Measurement Methods and their Applications (ANIMMA), 2013

Intrinsic semiconductors such as High Purity Germanium Detectors are exceptional X-ray and gamma-ray detectors because of their large sizes and small band gap. They are used for fundamental scientific researches, nuclear material safeguards and security, environmental protection, and human health and safety. The fundamental limit of the energy resolution of a semiconductor detector is determined by variance in the number ...


IEEE Standard Techniques for Determination of Germanium Semiconductor Detector Gamma-Ray Efficiency Using a Standard Marinelli (Reentrant) Beaker Geometry

ANSI/IEEE Std 680-1978, 1978

This standard for determination of gamma-ray efficiencies of germanium semiconductor detectors was developed in recognition of the increasing number of large-volume, low-activity samples being measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The standardized sample geometry and measurement techniques described, when used in conjunction with the relative efficiency measurement standard ANSI/IEEE Std 325-1971 (Reaff 1977), Test Procedures for Germanium Gamma-Ray Detectors, provide a meaningful ...


Experimental study of MOS electron injectors in silicon detectors

2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), 2015

This work is focused on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) injector devices for the calibration of the semiconductor detectors' response by means of the point injection of electron charge. The amount of injected charge depends on several parameters such as pulse amplitude, width and repetition rate, injector DC bias voltage and geometrical properties. We present a multi-parameter experimental study aimed at clarifying the ...


Multi-head gamma camera system with CdZnTe semiconductor detectors

2013 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (2013 NSS/MIC), 2013

The purpose of our research is to develop a new brain single photon emission CT (SPECT) system with a semiconductor detector. For the detector we adopted CdZnTe semiconductor modular detectors to improve the energy resolution and spatial resolution. The size of a module was 39 × 39 mm2 (16 × 16 pixels) and the thickness of the CdZnTe crystal was ...


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Educational Resources on Semiconductor Detectors

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Sensitivity booster for DOI-PET by utilizing Compton scattering events between detector blocks

    In a conventional PET scanner, coincidence events are measured with the limited energy window for detection of photoelectric events in order to reject Compton scatter events that occur in a patient, but Compton scatter events caused in detector crystals are also rejected. Scatter events within the patient cause scatter coincidences, but inter crystal scattering (ICS) events have useful information for determining an activity distribution. Some researchers have reported the feasibility of PET scanners based on a Compton camera for tracing ICS into the detector. However, these detectors require expensive semiconductor detectors for high-energy resolution. In the Anger- type block detector, single photons interacting with multiple detectors can be obtained for each interacting position and complete information can be gotten just as for photoelectric events in the single detector. ICS events in the single detector have been used to get coincidence, but single photons interacting with multiple detectors have not been used to get coincidence actively. In this work, we developed a new method to improve sensitivity using Compton kinetics in a DOI-PET scanner. The proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity using coincidence events of single photons interacting with multiple detectors, which are identified as the first interaction (FI). FI estimation accuracy can be improved to determine FI validity from the correlation between Compton scattering angles calculated on energy and coincidence LOR. We simulated animal PET scanner consisting of 42 detectors. Each detector block consisted of three types of scintillator crystals (LSO, GSO, GAGG). After the simulation, coincidence events are added as information for several DOI resolutions. From the simulation results, we concluded the proposed method promises to improve the sensitivity considerably as effective Z of the scintillator is low. Also, we showed that FI estimate accuracy is improved, as DOI resolution is high.

  • The basics of experimental determination of the Fano factor in intrinsic semiconductors

    Intrinsic semiconductors such as High Purity Germanium Detectors are exceptional X-ray and gamma-ray detectors because of their large sizes and small band gap. They are used for fundamental scientific researches, nuclear material safeguards and security, environmental protection, and human health and safety. The fundamental limit of the energy resolution of a semiconductor detector is determined by variance in the number of electron-hole pairs produced by X-rays in detector volume. The principal characteristic of material for using as semiconductor detector is the Fano factor that determines the fluctuation in the number of electron-hole pairs. Now, all existing methods of experimental determination of the Fano factor in semiconductors are based on the subtraction of electronic noise from the signal variance. In this work, I propose the method of experimental determination of the Fano factor in a planar semiconductor detector based on dependences of the mean amplitude and the energy resolution on the electric field. It was shown that inverse electric field expansion of these dependences allow determining the Fano factor, electron mobility lifetime product, and relative variance of electron lifetime due to inhomogeneous charge transport in semiconductor material. The important advantage of the proposed method is independence on detector electronic noise.

  • IEEE Standard Techniques for Determination of Germanium Semiconductor Detector Gamma-Ray Efficiency Using a Standard Marinelli (Reentrant) Beaker Geometry

    This standard for determination of gamma-ray efficiencies of germanium semiconductor detectors was developed in recognition of the increasing number of large-volume, low-activity samples being measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The standardized sample geometry and measurement techniques described, when used in conjunction with the relative efficiency measurement standard ANSI/IEEE Std 325-1971 (Reaff 1977), Test Procedures for Germanium Gamma-Ray Detectors, provide a meaningful assessment of detector performance. It is recognized that many Marinelli beaker geometries are in use. However, the object of this standard is to specify a single configuration for the sole purpose of characterizing detector performance.

  • Experimental study of MOS electron injectors in silicon detectors

    This work is focused on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) injector devices for the calibration of the semiconductor detectors' response by means of the point injection of electron charge. The amount of injected charge depends on several parameters such as pulse amplitude, width and repetition rate, injector DC bias voltage and geometrical properties. We present a multi-parameter experimental study aimed at clarifying the MOS injector physical mechanism and the inter-relationships among the relevant parameters. MOS injectors of different geometries have been inserted in a multi-linear silicon drift detector prototype for evaluation purpose. The set of obtained experimental results allows the development of a suitable model for better understanding and for the optimization of the injector design.

  • Multi-head gamma camera system with CdZnTe semiconductor detectors

    The purpose of our research is to develop a new brain single photon emission CT (SPECT) system with a semiconductor detector. For the detector we adopted CdZnTe semiconductor modular detectors to improve the energy resolution and spatial resolution. The size of a module was 39 × 39 mm2 (16 × 16 pixels) and the thickness of the CdZnTe crystal was 5 mm. With this modular detector we made three detector units each consisting of ten CdZnTe modules. In each detector unit we set 5 × 2 (=10) detector modules, and thus the maximum active field became 195 × 78 mm2. And to increase the sensitivity we used a multi- pinhole collimator with a hole size of 2 mmφ and the thickness of 1 cm. These pinholes were located on the surface of the hexagonal gantry around the object to be reconstructed. In this paper we evaluated the performance of our proposed system with several phantoms (a cold channel phantom, hot rod phantom and brain phantom). The results obtained with the experiments confirmed the validity of the proposed brain SPECT system.

  • IDeF-X HDBD:low-noise ASIC for Spectro-imaging with semiconductor detectors

    IDeF-X HDBD is the new version of a family of integrated circuits dedicated to the readout of semiconductor detectors. It is a 32-channel Application Specific Integrated Circuit designed to read charges ranging from -40 to 40 fC. The circuit was optimized for small detector capacitances (<1pF) and low leakage current (<1nA). The chip allows to reach an Equivalent Noise Charge floor (ENC) of 17 el.rms. It has a self-triggering capability allowing multiple types of readout either only hit channels, selected channels or all channels. Each channel is based on a scaled charge sensitive amplifier follower by a CR-RC² filter and a peak detector with a pile-up rejection system allowing memorizing only the first arriving charge. Each channel has a power consumption of 850 µW. Gain and shaping time are tunable. This circuit has been designed with radiation mitigation techniques allowing it to handle a dose up to 300 krad and a Single Event Latchup (SEL) threshold of 65 MeV.cm²/mg suitable for space applications. This ASIC can read either Cadmium Telluride or Silicon detectors for instance for imaging-spectroscopy applications.

  • Readout interface for strip detectors with spectrometry applications

    In the present paper a preliminary design and implementation of a readout interface for strip detectors, using Applied Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) is discussed. Key issues are the parameters and features of the main constituent parts of the system: strip detectors, ASICs and driving electronics, as well as the preliminary test-results. The readout interface is intended to be used as a means to investigate the scope of strip detectors employed as spectroscopes in the area of experimental physics and their dynamic properties.

  • Theoretical approach to the energy resolution of semiconductor detectors

    There is a number of processes in semiconductor detectors that lead to peak broadening. In many papers, semi-empirical approach is used to take into account the contribution of one or another factor to the signal variance of a semiconductor detector. The correct formula for the signal variance cannot be semiempirical at the researcher's option. It must result strictly from the exact mathematical description of the particle registration by a detector. In this work, using the theory of branching cascade processes the general expression for the energy resolution of semiconductor detectors was derived. It was shown that the general formula encloses all specific contributions of the peak broadening published in literature and has additional contributions to the energy resolution fluctuations of the electron and hole lifetimes caused by nonuniformity of the trap density, and fluctuations of the electronic gain.

  • Charge Summing in Spectroscopic X-Ray Detectors With High-Z Sensors

    The spectroscopic performance of photon counting detectors is limited by the effects of charge sharing between neighboring pixels and the emission of characteristic X-rays. For these reasons, an event can be either missed or counted more than once. These effects become more and more of a concern when pixel pitches are reduced, and for the technology available so far, this meant that there would always be a trade-off between a high spatial and a high spectral resolution. In this work, we present first measurements obtained with the new Medipix3RX ASIC, which features a network of charge summing circuits establishing a communication between pixels which helps to mitigate these effects. Combined with cadmium telluride sensors, we show that this new technology is successful at improving a detector's spectroscopic capabilities even at pixel pitches as small as 55 μm. At this pitch, we measure an energy response function similar to that observed for a pixel pitch of 165 μm in the absence of a charge summing circuitry. This amounts to an effective reduction of the pixel area by at least one order of magnitude at a comparable energy response. Additionally, we present synchrotron measurements at high X-ray fluxes, where significant pulse pile-up occurs, and provide first experimental evidence for a net benefit when balancing spectroscopic performance and high flux tolerance in charge summing mode.

  • High Performance Heterostructure Low Barrier Diodes for Sub-THz Detection

    Heterostructure low barrier diodes (HLBD) based on lattice-matched AlGaInAs triangular barrier have been designed, fabricated, and characterized for zero- bias millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave detection. Detectors with different barrier height and various active areas have been measured in order to determine the best structure for low-level radiometric detection. Unmatched responsivity of 1500-2000 V/W have been measured around 100 GHz with a video resistance of 400 to 800 Ω. Thanks to these low-impedances high-matched responsivity of 6000 and 5200 V/W have been demonstrated around 90 and 180 GHz, respectively, with a bandwidth of 25 GHz. Avery low noise equivalent power of about 0.6 and 0.7 pW/,/Hz have been deduced at 90 and 180 GHz, respectively. We show also that the dynamic range of these detectors is more than six decades. This performance makes the HLBD an interesting device for low-level sub-THz detection applications.



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