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Solubility enhancement of biomass tar in water — Benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene as model compound

4th IET Clean Energy and Technology Conference (CEAT 2016), 2016

The essential purpose of this study was to improve the solubility of tar model compounds - benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene in water by using three different surfactants namely Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate (SDBS), Sodium Deoxycholate (SDO), and Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate (ALS). The entire samples in the experiment would be designed and tested for 24 hours based on Taguchi's L9Orthogonal Array ...


Enhanced Dispersibility of MoS2Nanoparticles in Poly-α-Olephines Lubricant Through Surface Modification

2017 International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference (IRSEC), 2017

Molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles attract considerable attention as solid lubricants and oil-additives thanks to their excellent lubricating properties. As additive, MoS2permits an excellent enhancement of oil wear and friction parameters. However, the major problem that limits its use as additive is its agglomeration that gives rise to the loss of the individual properties of nanoparticles. In this contribution, and with the ...


Variation in electrical conductivity of air-curable copper pates composed of a phenolic-based binder during soaking in several environments

2018 International Conference on Electronics Packaging and iMAPS All Asia Conference (ICEP-IAAC), 2018

Phenolic resin based electrically conductive pastes containing copper micro- fillers were prepared using several carboxylic acids (formic, acetic and oleic acids) as the surfactant. These pastes successfully exhibited relatively low electrical resistivities (10-3-10-4Ωcm) after curing in air. Electrical integrity of the samples during exposure to a humid environment was quite different depending on the surfactant. Although the electrical resistivity significantly ...


Active or Passive On-Demand Droplet Merging in a Microfluidic Valve-Based Trap*

2018 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2018

A microfluidic valve-based trap enabling controlled capture, release, and temporary immobilization of droplets together with on-demand merging of selected droplets is presented in this paper. The microfluidic trap technology can merge droplets passively or in active manner via a pneumatically actuated membrane. A microchip is developed with two functional units of droplet generator and merging mechanism to implement the passive ...


Effects of different types of surfactants on AC breakdown voltage of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil based CuO nanofluids

2018 IEEE PES Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), 2018

In this paper, the effects of different types of surfactants on AC breakdown voltage of Refined, Bleached and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) olein in the presence of Copper (II) Oxide (CuO) nanoparticle were investigated. The AC breakdown voltage measurement was carried out based on ASTM D 1816 at gap distances of 1 mm. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) as anionic surfactant, ...


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  • Solubility enhancement of biomass tar in water — Benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene as model compound

    The essential purpose of this study was to improve the solubility of tar model compounds - benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene in water by using three different surfactants namely Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate (SDBS), Sodium Deoxycholate (SDO), and Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate (ALS). The entire samples in the experiment would be designed and tested for 24 hours based on Taguchi's L9Orthogonal Array with optimization analysis were done by using Signal-to- Noise (S/N) ratio of `Larger-Is-Better' criterion. The parameters involved include agitation speed, solvent temperature and solvent concentration at 100 rpm, 200rpm, 300 rpm, 20°C, 30°C, 40° rpm and 333 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm respectively. Based on the result, the solvent concentration (ppm) at 1000 ppm was the dominant factor that affect solubility of tar the most while the solvent temperature (°C) was ranked at second place with the optimum result being observed at temperature of 20°C. On the other hand, the agitation speed (rpm) is the least factor affecting the rate of solubility which occurred at 300 rpm. Finally, the best surfactant that exhibit an optimum performance, capable of enhancing the rate of benzene solubility is to be SDBS which has the lowest CMC value of 1.6 mM.

  • Enhanced Dispersibility of MoS2Nanoparticles in Poly-α-Olephines Lubricant Through Surface Modification

    Molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles attract considerable attention as solid lubricants and oil-additives thanks to their excellent lubricating properties. As additive, MoS2permits an excellent enhancement of oil wear and friction parameters. However, the major problem that limits its use as additive is its agglomeration that gives rise to the loss of the individual properties of nanoparticles. In this contribution, and with the aim to improve the dispensability of MoS2nanoparticles, a chemical surface modification of MoS2nanoparticles using alkyl-silane group based dispersants in Poly-a-olefin base oils (PAO4, PAO8) was studied. The agglomeration phenomena was investigated via DLS technique by measuring the nanoparticles size distribution in oil suspensions while the nanoparticles sedimentation vs. time was studied by a visual control.

  • Variation in electrical conductivity of air-curable copper pates composed of a phenolic-based binder during soaking in several environments

    Phenolic resin based electrically conductive pastes containing copper micro- fillers were prepared using several carboxylic acids (formic, acetic and oleic acids) as the surfactant. These pastes successfully exhibited relatively low electrical resistivities (10-3-10-4Ωcm) after curing in air. Electrical integrity of the samples during exposure to a humid environment was quite different depending on the surfactant. Although the electrical resistivity significantly increased during exposure to 85 °C/85 %RH when oleic acid was used as surfactant, introduction of formic and acetic acids was found to be effective to suppress the increase in electrical resistivity. To improve reliability of copper-filled conductive pastes, interfacial chemistry between the binder and fillers is required to be controlled by using appropriate surfactants.

  • Active or Passive On-Demand Droplet Merging in a Microfluidic Valve-Based Trap*

    A microfluidic valve-based trap enabling controlled capture, release, and temporary immobilization of droplets together with on-demand merging of selected droplets is presented in this paper. The microfluidic trap technology can merge droplets passively or in active manner via a pneumatically actuated membrane. A microchip is developed with two functional units of droplet generator and merging mechanism to implement the passive or active merging performance of the microfluidic valve-based trap using a low and high surfactant concentrated continuous oil-phase.

  • Effects of different types of surfactants on AC breakdown voltage of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil based CuO nanofluids

    In this paper, the effects of different types of surfactants on AC breakdown voltage of Refined, Bleached and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) olein in the presence of Copper (II) Oxide (CuO) nanoparticle were investigated. The AC breakdown voltage measurement was carried out based on ASTM D 1816 at gap distances of 1 mm. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) as anionic surfactant, oleic acid (OA) as non-ionic surfactant and Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) as cationic surfactants were used to investigate the influence of different concentrations surfactants on the AC breakdown performance of RBDPO. The concentrations were varied at 25%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 75% of volume percentage based concentration of 0.05% CuO. The results showed an enhancement of AC breakdown voltage under presence of SDS, OA and CTAB until 50% volume of concentration.

  • Dielectric Properties of Mineral Oil-based Nanofluids using Zinc Oxide Nano-composites for Power Transformer Application

    This research paper describes and analyzes various experiments designed to investigate the dielectric properties (at a series of pre-determined test temperatures and % moisture content) of mineral oil-based nanofluids produced by the incorporation of zinc oxide (ZnO) powder (of mean diameter less than 100nm) into a standard mineral oil, with the surfactant sorbitan mono-oleate (Span 80) added to modify the surface of the nanoparticles in all but the control sample. Five different nanofluid test samples (one control sample and four modified samples) based on the standard mineral oil were produced for testing: 1) a control sample containing no Span 80 and no ZnO, 2) a modified sample with Span 80, and ZnO volume fraction of 0.01 %, 3) a modified sample without Span 80, and ZnO volume fraction of 0.01 %, 4) a modified sample with Span 80, and ZnO volume fraction of 0.03%, and 5) a modified sample without Span 80, and ZnO volume fraction of 0.03 %. In addition, the five liquid samples above were tested to determine AC breakdown voltage at seven different temperatures in the range of 35°C to 90°C. The test circuit was set up in accordance with IEC 60156 using a sphere-sphere electrode configuration with gap spacing of 2.5 mm. Several significant results were obtained from the investigation. Firstly, ZnO nanoparticles had a positive effect on all the test solutions in which they were used. Second, a positive relationship was confirmed between breakdown voltages, temperature rise. Third, a negative correlation was established between higher concentration of ZnO nanoparticles and breakdown voltage. Fourth, the use of surfactant proved to have both positive and negative effects on breakdown voltages.

  • Variations in Electrical Conductivity of Phenolic-based Adhesives Containing Copper Particles Treated with a Carboxylic Acid during Environmental Test

    Variations in electrical resistivity of copper-filled phenolic-based electrically conductive adhesives were examined during exposure to 85 °C/85 %RH and 85 °C (<;1%RH) environments. The copper fillers were treated with several amounts of oleic acid prior to preparation of the adhesives. Increase in electrical resistivity was accelerated in the humid environment. However, the surface treatment using appropriate amount of oleic acid was found to be effective to improve electrical reliability of the adhesives.

  • Investigation of Fast Growth GaAs-based Solar Cell on Reusable Substrate by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    GaAs solar cells can be grown with a fast growth rate without sacrificing the device performance. This paper investigates the effect of fast growth rate with metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on GaAs single-junction solar cell crystal quality and device performance. The minority carrier lifetime of the samples grown with a fast growth rate (~56 μm/hr) was investigated. The growth parameters including growth temperature, V/III, and doping densities were varied to study the lifetime degradation mechanisms in the GaAs solar cell. In addition, Bi, as a surfactant, was used during the fast growth to improve the surface roughness compared to the standard growth methods with the growth rate of ~14 μm/hr. An epitaxial lift-off process was also designed to investigate the GaAs epitaxial quality on reused substrate. The goal of this work was to achieve a high quality GaAs solar cell with a fast growth on a reused GaAs substrate.

  • Porous Polymers as a Substrate for Terahertz Spectroscopy

    A macroporous polymer prepared by radical polymerization of high internal phase emulsions (HIPE) is evaluated as a substrate for THz spectroscopy of aqueous solutions. The synthesis, microstructure and THz properties of these polymerized HIPEs (polyHIPEs) are discussed. Their performance is evaluated by measuring the insecticide methomyl in an aqueous solution with a THz Network Analyzer and THz-TDS.

  • Ultra Low Resistivity and High Electrical Stability Silo-Ag ECAs Produced from Curing Chemistry Optimization for Flexible Electronics

    Highly conductive and both mechanically and electrically stable polymer-based adhesive composites are now more extensively used in die attachment, flip-chip interconnections, surface mount interconnections, and are especially important to flexible and wearable electronics. To enhance conductivity, most researches devoted to filler surface engineering and largely neglected network development of polymer matrix. While ultra low resistivity has been achieved, most of these electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs) display poor electrical stability under reversed mechanical deformation. For practical implications to wearable electronic applications, the performance stability of ECA under reversed deformation under relatively small strains of human movement is of critical significance. We investigate the effect of polymer matrix stoichiometry during curing on the conductivity and electrical stability of silver-poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) ECA composites. Characterization of crosslinking density reveals a competition between crosslinking reaction and surfactant reduction with silver flake sintering during curing, leading to a tradeoff relationship between stretchability and electrical conductivity. By tuning the crosslinking functional group ratio, the best combination of ultra- low resistivity of 1.33×10^-4 Ω·cm and high stability of 22.2% increase in resistivity after 100 cycles of tensile 0-25% tensile straining is achieved at an intermediate hydride-to-vinyl group ratio of 1:2.



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