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Xplore Articles related to Snake Robots

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An Analysis about the Problem of SLAM in Tunnel-like Environment with Serpentine Locomotion and Its Solution

2018 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO), 2018

The SLAM only utilizing exteroceptive sensors is an important technology for the study of snake robots. Since the information from the model of the moving object is not needed, this kind of SLAM is also can be applied to the real snakes to observe their habits. This kind of SLAM has an issue in a tunnel- like environment without enough ...


Head-Trajectory-Tracking Control of a Snake Robot and Its Robustness Under Actuator Failure

IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, None

This brief considers the problem of trajectory tracking of a planar snake robot without a lateral constraint. The reference trajectory of the head position and the orientation of link 1 are given, and torque control is determined to reduce tracking errors. The performance of the controller was tested in a number of simulations. The robustness during actuator failure was also ...


Snake robot: Basic mechanical design, simulation and realization

2008 3rd IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, 2008

The paper is deals with mechanical construction, basic design, simulation of designed structure and final realization of combined snake robot. This robot can be used for various applications. Universality of the solution is assigned by special construction of designed robot. This construction is consisting of independent segments design. Each of designed segments can realize not only linear movement but curving ...


Analysis of airdrop and safe landing of the multi-joint snake robot

2017 9th International Conference on Modelling, Identification and Control (ICMIC), 2017

The snake robot is a multi-joint and link-type robot, and its joints are the weakest parts of the whole body. In order to deliver the snake robot designed with cross-type universal joint to the target area quickly and safely, the stability control of the falling speed of the airdrop snake robot and landing impact on the joints are mainly studied ...


Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU) Based Motion Tracking for Biomorphic Hyper-Redundant Snake Robot

2017 IEEE 7th Annual International Conference on CYBER Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems (CYBER), 2017

A 3D printed snakebot prototype is developed and experimentally validated in this paper. The structure is designed to allocate limited room for each functional module (including an external power module, battery power module, the wireless control & transmission module and some detective sensors) to ensure the snakebot work in different environments. For controlling and tracking the snakebot, a MEMS IMU ...


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Educational Resources on Snake Robots

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • An Analysis about the Problem of SLAM in Tunnel-like Environment with Serpentine Locomotion and Its Solution

    The SLAM only utilizing exteroceptive sensors is an important technology for the study of snake robots. Since the information from the model of the moving object is not needed, this kind of SLAM is also can be applied to the real snakes to observe their habits. This kind of SLAM has an issue in a tunnel- like environment without enough detectable features. This makes the SLAM is difficult to be utilized in the narrow tunnel-like environment where the snake robots and the real snakes are good at moving in. In our previous research, a strange phenomenon occurred whereby a mapping result and an estimated robot's trajectory from a SLAM algorithm with a snake robot using serpentine locomotion in a tunnel-like environment. This paper presents an analysis of this kind of situation theoretically. Based on the analyzed result, a basic method is proposed to obtain a corrected result from the output of the SLAM. Simulations were conducted to show the analysis and validity of the proposed method.

  • Head-Trajectory-Tracking Control of a Snake Robot and Its Robustness Under Actuator Failure

    This brief considers the problem of trajectory tracking of a planar snake robot without a lateral constraint. The reference trajectory of the head position and the orientation of link 1 are given, and torque control is determined to reduce tracking errors. The performance of the controller was tested in a number of simulations. The robustness during actuator failure was also studied. We assumed that one of the actuators was broken and the corresponding joint became passive. Furthermore, as a more realistic situation, we considered an instance when some of the states were not readily accessible from the sensor readings and needed to be estimated by an observer. The extended Kalman filter was employed for this purpose, and the performance of the closed-loop system with the observer was also tested in simulations.

  • Snake robot: Basic mechanical design, simulation and realization

    The paper is deals with mechanical construction, basic design, simulation of designed structure and final realization of combined snake robot. This robot can be used for various applications. Universality of the solution is assigned by special construction of designed robot. This construction is consisting of independent segments design. Each of designed segments can realize not only linear movement but curving movements too. Verification of designed structure is realized by program Matlab/Simulink. Obtained results can be present in video and picture format. Designed and simulated model is finally realized from lightweight materials mainly from duralumin and nylon.

  • Analysis of airdrop and safe landing of the multi-joint snake robot

    The snake robot is a multi-joint and link-type robot, and its joints are the weakest parts of the whole body. In order to deliver the snake robot designed with cross-type universal joint to the target area quickly and safely, the stability control of the falling speed of the airdrop snake robot and landing impact on the joints are mainly studied in this paper. An appropriate parachute is designed to control the falling speed of the robot. After the separation between the robot and parachute, the impact force and impact torque of 7 landing attitudes in different ways of joint constraints upon the joints are simulated by SimWise4d, and analyzed to find an optimal landing attitude. Then the maximum impact acceleration in this optimal landing attitude on whole body is analyzed to reduce the landing impact as more as possible. The simulation result provides the basis for the design of the landing attitude and joint optimization of the multi-joint and link-type robot, which has a great value to the airdrop and safe landing of this kind of robots.

  • Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU) Based Motion Tracking for Biomorphic Hyper-Redundant Snake Robot

    A 3D printed snakebot prototype is developed and experimentally validated in this paper. The structure is designed to allocate limited room for each functional module (including an external power module, battery power module, the wireless control & transmission module and some detective sensors) to ensure the snakebot work in different environments. For controlling and tracking the snakebot, a MEMS IMU (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems Inertial Measurement Units) based snakebot motion tracking system is developed. To minimize the noise influence to tracking accuracy, three algorithms (low-pass filter, baseline calibration, and Kalman filter) are used to eliminate noise from IMU's acceleration data. Through signal processing, the IMU acceleration data can be effectively used for motion tracking. To evaluate the motion tracking algorithm efficiency, the result from a real-time video tracking is employed as a reference for comparison. The comparison results demonstrate high efficiency of the proposed IMU based motion tracking algorithm.

  • Adaptation of Translated Frame-Based Approach for Forward Kinematics in a Radiosurgical Snake-Like Robot

    Snake-like robots are a typical serial-link manipulator newly adopted to assist human experts during medical procedures. Of the several prototypes that have been proposed for surgical repair of abdominal organs and delivery of radiation doses, only a very few attained FDA clearance and commercialization for clinical usage. This can be ascribed to complexities inherent with teleoperation of the redundant robots when controlled via single-ports or interactions with other organs both along the surgical path and the operation area. In this study, translated frame-based approach is adapted for forward kinematics of snake-like robots that have orthogonal joints. This is realized by modifying the conventional standard DH approach commonly used for frame translation in serial robots. The adapted method is validated with model of a newly proposed radiosurgical snake-like robot. Validation results show that adapted method requires reduced execution times for both workspace generation and inverse kinematics of the snake robot.

  • Adaptive Path Following of Underactuated Snake Robot on Unknown and Varied Frictions Ground: Theory and Validations

    This letter investigates the straight path following problem for a class of underactuated bioinspired snake robots on ground with unknown and varied friction coefficients. Existing works usually design control input requiring the exact values of these friction coefficients, which however rely on the specific operating terrain and may not always be known a priori. By virtue of backstepping technique, we present a novel adaptive controller that can perform the path following tasks and meanwhile it can compensate for unknown and varied friction coefficients in real time. Moreover, it is proved via LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem that the path following errors converge to zero asymptotically and all the parameter estimates are bounded. Simulations and experiments on an eight-link snake robot are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  • SnakeSIM: A ROS-based rapid-prototyping framework for perception-driven obstacle-aided locomotion of snake robots

    Biological snakes are capable of exploiting roughness in the terrain for locomotion. This feature allows them to adapt to different types of environments. Snake robots that can mimic this behaviour could be fitted with sensors and used for transporting tools to hazardous or confined areas that other robots and humans are unable to access. Snake robot locomotion in a cluttered environment where the snake robot utilises a sensory-perceptual system to perceive the surrounding operational environment for means of propulsion can be defined as perception-driven obstacle-aided locomotion (POAL). The initial testing of new control methods for POAL in a physical environment using a real snake robot imposes challenging requirements on both the robot and the test environment in terms of robustness and predictability. This paper introduces SnakeSIM, a virtual rapid-prototyping framework that allows researchers for the design and simulation of POAL more safely, rapidly and efficiently. SnakeSIM is based on the Robot Operating System (ROS) and it allows for simulating the snake robot model in a virtual environment cluttered with obstacles. The simulated robot can be equipped with different sensors. Tactile perception can be achieved by using contact sensors to retrieve forces, torques, contact positions and contact normals. A depth camera can be attached to the snake robot head for visual perception purposes. Furthermore, SnakeSIM allows for exploiting the large variety of robotics sensors that are supported by ROS. The framework can be transparently integrated with a real robot. To demonstrate the potential of SnakeSIM, a possible control approach for POAL is considered as a case study.

  • Bridging the Gap between Bio-Inspired Steering and Locomotion: A Braitenberg 3a Snake Robot

    Braitenberg vehicles are simple models of animal motion towards, or away from, a stimulus (light, sound, chemicals, etc). They have been widely used in robotics to implement target reaching and avoidance behaviors based on different types of sensors. While the seminal work of Braitenberg used wheeled vehicles to illustrate the principles of animal steering, few attempts have been made at combining these steering level controllers with locomotion mechanism other than actuated wheels. This paper presents the first implementation of this biologically inspired steering controller in a snake- like robot with non-actuated wheels and actuated joints. The sinusoidal gait of the snake is modulated following the principles of the Braitenberg vehicle 3α using two sensors symmetrically located on the head. The effectiveness of this bio-inspired controller is shown through simulations where the snake orients its head and body with the direction of the stimulus gradient, and reaches the stimulus maximum within some range. This paper represents one of the first steps towards connecting bio-inspired sensor-based steering mechanisms and bio-inspired locomotion, and shows that existing theoretical results of Braitenberg vehicles with actuated wheels also apply to a snake- like robot with non-actuated wheels.

  • Snake Robot Urban Search After the 2017 Mexico City Earthquake

    The Carnegie Mellon University Biorobotics Laboratory was invited to bring snake robots to Mexico City to assist with search and rescue efforts in the wake of the September 2017 earthquake. We travelled with the Mexican Red Cross to collapsed building sites, and deployed a snake robot within one building to obtain a camera view in two voids that conventional search cameras could not access. We confirmed that the an open area within the building was unoccupied. In this paper we describe our experiences during the deployment and the limitations of snake robot platform encountered along the way.



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