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The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) radar

2008 IEEE Radar Conference, 2008

The soil moisture active/passive (SMAP) mission is a NASA mission identified by the NRC ldquodecadal surveyrdquo to measure both soil moisture and freeze/thaw state from space. The mission will use both active radar and passive radiometer instruments at L-band. In order to achieve a wide swath at sufficiently high resolution for both active and passive channels, an instrument architecture that ...


The Soil Moisture Active and Passive Mission (SMAP): Science and applications

2009 IEEE Radar Conference, 2009

The soil moisture active and passive mission (SMAP) will provide global maps of soil moisture content and surface freeze/thaw state. Global measurements of these variables are critical for terrestrial water and carbon cycle applications. The SMAP observatory consists of two multipolarization L-band sensors, a radar and radiometer, that share a deployable-mesh reflector antenna. The combined observations from the two sensors ...


The Soil Moisture Active/Passive Mission (SMAP)

IGARSS 2008 - 2008 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2008

The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission will deliver global views of soil moisture content and its freeze/thaw state that are critical terrestrial water cycle state variables. Polarized measurements obtained with a shared antenna L-band radar and radiometer system will allow accurate estimation of soil moisture at hydrometeorological scale (10 km) and hydroclimatological scale (40 km) resolutions. The sensors will share ...


The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission radar: A novel conically scanning SAR

2009 IEEE Radar Conference, 2009

The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission is a NASA mission identified by the NRC ldquodecadal surveyrdquo to measure both soil moisture and freeze/thaw state from space. The mission will use both active radar and passive radiometer instruments at L-Band. In order to achieve a wide swath at sufficiently high resolution for both active and passive channels, an instrument architecture that ...


The GPS and RAdiometric Joint Observations experiment at the REMEDHUS site (Zamora-Salamanca region, Spain)

2009 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2009

GRAJO (GPS and RAdiometric Joint Observations) is a longterm field experiment over land which is being conducted since November 2008 at the REMEDHUS site, Zamora, Spain. REMEDHUS has been identified as a cal/val site for ESA's SMOS mission. The objectives of GRAJO are multiple: (i) validate and calibrate SMOS-derived soil moisture, (ii) study the variability of soil moisture within the ...


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Educational Resources on Smap Mission

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IEEE.tv Videos

KeyTalks: Mission Critical Power
IEEE Smart Grid: Vision, Mission, Community
IEEE Day 2017 Testimonial: Vincenzo Piuri
IEEE Day 2017 Testimonial: Karen Bartelson
IMS Organizers: Samir El-Ghazaly, President of MTT-S on Society Mission and Structure
New Horizons Mission to Pluto System and Kuiper Belt - Challenges and Solutions: Systems Engineering Case Study
Magnetic Shield Implementation - EMC Society Demo
MicroApps: Effectively Maintain and Troubleshoot Mission Critical Communication Systems in the Field (Agilent Technologies)
David G. Green - IEEE Haraden Pratt Award, 2019 IEEE Honors Ceremony
IEEE Haraden Pratt Award - Loretta Arellano - 2018 IEEE Honors Ceremony
Chair Takako Hashimoto presents the benefits of WIE membership - 2016 Women in Engineering Conference
Chief Scientist Barbara De Salvo on How Leti is a Pioneer to Innovation - 2016 Women in Engineering Conference
IEEE Internet Initiative - Mission and Goals; Review of Previous ETAP Forums; Goals for ETAP Namibia: Maike Luiken - ETAP Forum Namibia, Africa 2017
IEEE Women In Engineering - Bozenna Pasik-Duncan - Ignite: Sections Congress 2017
All About IEEE Smart Village - Karen Galuchie - Ignite: Sections Congress 2017
Provably-Correct Robot Control with LTLMoP, OMPL and ROS
IEEE ComSoc: Run ahead of the Curve
Javelins Into the Future with Stefanie Tompkins - IEEE WIE ILC 2017
A-10 Thunderbolt II: Systems Engineering Case Study
The Evolution of the Mini-RF Synthetic Aperture Radar Program: Systems Engineering Case Study

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) radar

    The soil moisture active/passive (SMAP) mission is a NASA mission identified by the NRC ldquodecadal surveyrdquo to measure both soil moisture and freeze/thaw state from space. The mission will use both active radar and passive radiometer instruments at L-band. In order to achieve a wide swath at sufficiently high resolution for both active and passive channels, an instrument architecture that uses a large rotating reflector is employed. The active radar will further utilize SAR processing in order to obtain the sub- footprint resolution necessary for the geophysical retrievals. The SMAP radar has a unique geometry where the antenna footprint is continuously rotated about nadir in a conical fashion, as opposed to the more common side-looking SAR design. In support of the design of the SMAP radar, a point target simulator has been constructed and used to validate the SMAP radar design parameters.

  • The Soil Moisture Active and Passive Mission (SMAP): Science and applications

    The soil moisture active and passive mission (SMAP) will provide global maps of soil moisture content and surface freeze/thaw state. Global measurements of these variables are critical for terrestrial water and carbon cycle applications. The SMAP observatory consists of two multipolarization L-band sensors, a radar and radiometer, that share a deployable-mesh reflector antenna. The combined observations from the two sensors will allow accurate estimation of soil moisture at hydrometeorological (10 km) and hydroclimatological (40 km) spatial scales. The rotating antenna configuration provides conical scans of the Earth surface at a constant look angle. The wide-swath (1000 km) measurements will allow global mapping of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state with 2-3 days revisit. Freeze/thaw in boreal latitudes will be mapped using the radar at 3 km resolution with 1-2 days revisit. The synergy of active and passive observations enables measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with unprecedented resolution, sensitivity, area coverage and revisit.

  • The Soil Moisture Active/Passive Mission (SMAP)

    The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission will deliver global views of soil moisture content and its freeze/thaw state that are critical terrestrial water cycle state variables. Polarized measurements obtained with a shared antenna L-band radar and radiometer system will allow accurate estimation of soil moisture at hydrometeorological scale (10 km) and hydroclimatological scale (40 km) resolutions. The sensors will share a feed and a deployable light-weight mesh reflector that will make conical scans of the Earth surface at a constant look angle. The wide-swath (1000 km) measurements will allow global mapping of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state with 2-3 days revisit. Freeze/thaw in boreal latitudes will be mapped using the radar at 3 km resolution with 1-2 days revisit. The synergy of active and passive measurements enables global soil moisture mapping with unprecedented resolution, sensitivity, area coverage, and revisit. This paper outlines the science objectives of the SMAP mission and provides an overview of the measurement approach and data products.

  • The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission radar: A novel conically scanning SAR

    The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission is a NASA mission identified by the NRC ldquodecadal surveyrdquo to measure both soil moisture and freeze/thaw state from space. The mission will use both active radar and passive radiometer instruments at L-Band. In order to achieve a wide swath at sufficiently high resolution for both active and passive channels, an instrument architecture that uses a large rotating reflector is employed. The active radar will further utilize SAR processing in order to obtain the sub- footprint resolution necessary for the geophysical retrievals. The SMAP radar has a unique geometry where the antenna footprint is continuously rotated about nadir in a conical fashion, as opposed to the more common side-looking SAR design. In additional to the unconventional scan geometry, the SMAP radar must address the effects of Faraday rotation and radio-frequency interference (RFI), both consequences of the L-Band frequency of operation.

  • The GPS and RAdiometric Joint Observations experiment at the REMEDHUS site (Zamora-Salamanca region, Spain)

    GRAJO (GPS and RAdiometric Joint Observations) is a longterm field experiment over land which is being conducted since November 2008 at the REMEDHUS site, Zamora, Spain. REMEDHUS has been identified as a cal/val site for ESA's SMOS mission. The objectives of GRAJO are multiple: (i) validate and calibrate SMOS-derived soil moisture, (ii) study the variability of soil moisture within the SMOS footprint, (iii) test pixel disaggregation techniques to improve the spatial resolution of SMOS observations, (iv) determine the optical depth and vegetation water content of barley and grass and assess their influence on soil moisture estimates from radiometric and GNSS-R measurements, and (v) characterise the soil roughness factor. This paper presents an overview of the GRAJO experiment, describing the setup and measurements strategy.

  • Downscaling of Global Soil Moisture using Auxiliary Data

    Soil moisture is important to land surface modeling and climate modeling, which usually use soil moisture as a critical parameter. Derivation of soil moisture by radar remote sensing has theoretically and practically proven to be possible. However, radar-derived soil moisture is at coarse resolution, nominally about 25 kilometers, which does not satisfy the requirements of models using higher resolution grids. It is desirable to downscale the soil moisture to resolutions finer than 25 kilometers, especially 1 to 5 kilometers. In this study, derived parameters from MODIS have been used to derive the correlation between soil moisture and these parameters and downscale soil moisture. Six downscaling algorithms were proposed and compared. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was used as the base model. Results showed that GWR performed well in downscaling. Further studies would look into more parameters for base models and higher-order polynomial regression for improving the accuracy of soil moisture downscaling.

  • Overview of the SMAP Applications and the SMAP Early Adopters program - NASA's first mission-directed outreach effort

    Satellite data provide global observations of many of the earth's system processes and features. These data are valuable for developing scientific products that increase our understanding of how the earth's systems are integrated. The water, energy and carbon cycle exchanges between the land and atmosphere are linked by soil moisture. NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission provides soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements from space and allows scientiscts to link the water energy and carbon cycles. In order for SMAP data to be best integrated into decision support systems, the mission has engaged with the stakeholder community since 2009 and has attempted to scale the utility of the data to the thematic societal impacts of the satellite product applications. The SMAP Mission, which launched on January 31, 2015, has actively grown an Early Adopter (EA) community as part of it's applications effort and worked with these EAs to demonstrate a scaled thematic impact of SMAP data product in societally relevant decision support applications. The SMAP mission provides global observations of the Earth's surface soil moisture, providing high accuracy, resolution and continuous global coverage. Through the Early Adopters Program, the SMAP Applications Team will spend the next 2 years after launch documenting and evaluating the use of SMAP science products in applications related to weather forecasting, drought, agriculture productivity, floods, human health and national security.

  • A Science Data System approach for the SMAP mission

    Though Science Data System (SDS) development has not traditionally been part of the mission concept phase, lessons learned and study of past Earth science missions indicate that SDS functionality can greatly benefit algorithm developers in all mission phases. We have proposed a SDS approach for the SMAP Mission that incorporates early support for an algorithm testbed, allowing scientists to develop codes and seamlessly integrate them into the operational SDS. This approach will greatly reduce both the costs and risks involved in algorithm transitioning and SDS development.

  • Utilization of ancillary data sets for SMAP algorithm development and product generation

    Once launched in late 2014/early 2015, the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will provide high resolution global mapping of soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw state every 2-3 days. These measurements are valuable to improved understanding of the Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles, and to applications of societal benefit. In order for soil moisture and freeze/thaw to be retrieved accurately from SMAP microwave data, a variety of global static and dynamic ancillary data are required. The choice of which ancillary datasets to use for SMAP products will be based on a number of factors including availability and ease of use, their inherent error and resulting impact on SMAP retrieval accuracies, and compatibility with similar choices made by ESA's SMOS mission.

  • High-resolution enhanced product based on SMAP active-passive approach using Sentinel 1 data and its applications

    SMAP project is working on a new and enhanced high-resolution (3km and 1km) soil moisture product. This product will combine SMAP radiometer data and Sentinel-1A and -1B data, and it will use the heritage SMAP active-passive approach. However, modifications in the SMAP active-passive algorithm are done to accommodate the Sentinel-1A and -1B C-band SAR data. Tests of the SMAP and Sentinel active-passive algorithm has been conducted and results show great promise for the high-resolution soil moisture data. The beta version of this product will be released to public in end of the March, 2017. This high- resolution (1 km and 3 km) soil moisture product will be useful for agriculture, flooding, watershed and rangeland management, and ecological and hydrological applications. Specific examples of interest will be shown from the proposed product for the above mention geophysical applications.



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