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Xplore Articles related to Solution Design

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Pole placement for l/sub 1/-suboptimal design

Proceedings of 1995 34th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 1995

In this paper we incorporate placement of one real closed loop pole into an l/sub 1/ controller design problem-that of designing a stabilising feedback compensator to minimise the l/sub 1/ norm of the tracking error when following a specified bounded command in a SISO discrete-time system. It is well known that the optimal solution to this problem involves a deadbeat ...


Weighted median filters for multichannel signals

Proceedings. (ICASSP '05). IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2005., 2005

This paper focuses on extending the weighted median for use with multidimensional (multichannel) signals. Sorting multicomponent (vector) values and selecting the middle value is not well defined as in the scalar case. This paper introduces two median based multivariate filtering structures inspired by ML estimates of location in multivariate spaces. Unlike Astola's weighted vector median filter, the multichannel weighted median ...


Cosine-modulated filterbanks based on extended Gaussian functions

IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 2000

A new family of cosine-modulated filterbanks based on functions called extended Gaussian functions (EGFs) is obtained. The design is particularly simple since it is mainly based on a closed-form expression. Nearly perfect reconstruction cosine-modulated filterbanks are obtained as well as guidelines to estimate the filterbank parameters. This analytical design method can be used to produce, with a controlled accuracy, filterbanks ...


Effects of inductance on the propagation delay and repeater insertion in VLSI circuits

IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, 2000

A closed-form expression for the propagation delay of a CMOS gate driving a distributed RLC line is introduced that is within 5% of dynamic circuit simulations for a wide range of RLC loads. It is shown that the error in the propagation delay if inductance is neglected and the interconnect is treated as a distributed RC line can be over ...


Three-dimensional pure permanent magnet undulator design theory

IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 1996

Expressions for fields due to a point charge in 3D and due to a line charge in 2D are compared. Extensions to dipoles are made with emphasis on the relationship between dipole orientation and field component magnitudes. Differences between the effects on fields of dipole rotations in 2D and in 3D are highlighted and formulas for maximizing individual field components ...


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Educational Resources on Solution Design

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Pole placement for l/sub 1/-suboptimal design

    In this paper we incorporate placement of one real closed loop pole into an l/sub 1/ controller design problem-that of designing a stabilising feedback compensator to minimise the l/sub 1/ norm of the tracking error when following a specified bounded command in a SISO discrete-time system. It is well known that the optimal solution to this problem involves a deadbeat closed loop map of finite, but possibly very high order, from command to tracking error. We show that for a class of plants, if the controller order is to be less than that required for the l/sub 1/-optimal solution, it is better to use closed loop pole locations other than deadbeat.

  • Weighted median filters for multichannel signals

    This paper focuses on extending the weighted median for use with multidimensional (multichannel) signals. Sorting multicomponent (vector) values and selecting the middle value is not well defined as in the scalar case. This paper introduces two median based multivariate filtering structures inspired by ML estimates of location in multivariate spaces. Unlike Astola's weighted vector median filter, the multichannel weighted median filter structures introduced in this paper are able to exploit the spatial and cross- channel correlations embedded in the data. Adaptive optimization algorithms for the filters are derived. The effectiveness of these algorithms is shown through image and array processing experiments.

  • Cosine-modulated filterbanks based on extended Gaussian functions

    A new family of cosine-modulated filterbanks based on functions called extended Gaussian functions (EGFs) is obtained. The design is particularly simple since it is mainly based on a closed-form expression. Nearly perfect reconstruction cosine-modulated filterbanks are obtained as well as guidelines to estimate the filterbank parameters. This analytical design method can be used to produce, with a controlled accuracy, filterbanks with practically no upper limitations in the number of coefficients and subbands. Furthermore, a slight modification of the prototype filter coefficients is sufficient to satisfy exactly the perfect reconstruction constraints. An analysis of the time-frequency localization of the discrete prototype filters also shows that under certain conditions, EGF prototypes are at less than 0.3% from the optimal upper bound.

  • Effects of inductance on the propagation delay and repeater insertion in VLSI circuits

    A closed-form expression for the propagation delay of a CMOS gate driving a distributed RLC line is introduced that is within 5% of dynamic circuit simulations for a wide range of RLC loads. It is shown that the error in the propagation delay if inductance is neglected and the interconnect is treated as a distributed RC line can be over 35% for current on-chip interconnect. It is also shown that the traditional quadratic dependence of the propagation delay on the length of the interconnect for RC lines approaches a linear dependence as inductance effects increase. On-chip inductance is therefore expected to have a profound effect on traditional high-performance integrated circuit (IC) design methodologies. The closed-form delay model is applied to the problem of repeater insertion in RLC interconnect. Closed-form solutions are presented for inserting repeaters into RLC lines that are highly accurate with respect to numerical solutions. RC models can create errors of up to 30% in the total propagation delay of a repeater system as compared to the optimal delay if inductance is considered. The error between the RC and RLC models increases as the gate parasitic impedances decrease with technology scaling. Thus, the importance of inductance in high-performance very large scale integration (VLSI) design methodologies will increase as technologies scale.

  • Three-dimensional pure permanent magnet undulator design theory

    Expressions for fields due to a point charge in 3D and due to a line charge in 2D are compared. Extensions to dipoles are made with emphasis on the relationship between dipole orientation and field component magnitudes. Differences between the effects on fields of dipole rotations in 2D and in 3D are highlighted and formulas for maximizing individual field components are given. A final macrogeometry extension is made and a closed-form expression is developed to calculate the field due to an arbitrary 3D configuration of permanent magnet (PM) blocks. The field optimization theory is applied to the design of the ALS elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU). Utilizing 3D field enhancement, peak on-axis field in practical designs can be increased typically by 5% to 40% or more over their 2D counterparts. The theory is generally applicable to any pure (i.e., no soft magnetic material) PM design.

  • Closed-form design of generalized maximally flat low-pass FIR filters using generating functions

    In this paper, we propose a closed-form design of the generalized maximally flat low-pass FIR filters. By representing the transfer function as the Bernstein polynomial form, a simple generating function of the weighting coefficients is derived. We show that the linear phase maximally flat FIR filters and the nonlinear phase maximally flat half-band FIR filters are both special cases of the proposed filter. Closed-form expressions of both linear and nonlinear phase maximally flat FIR filters with prescribed degrees of flatness and delay can be easily obtained by the proposed method.

  • Optimization of single layer and double layer general twisted nematic liquid crystal displays

    The author derives the Jones matrix representation for a general DTN (double- layer twisted nematic) display with an arbitrary uniform pretilt angle. This representation is used to obtain an analytic closed-form expression for the optical transmission for a DTN display. The optimum design criteria for both single-layer and double-layer TN displays are then obtained. For the single TN display, two design criteria have to be met: one is the optimum cell thickness; the other is optimum polarizer orientation. Design criteria for special cases of single layer TN displays are presented in tabular form. For the DTN display, at the field-off state, the author obtains a completely dark state (for crossed polarizer arrangement) or a completely bright state (for parallel polarizer arrangement). The optimum cell-thickness design criterion obtained for the single-layer TN display is applicable to both layers of the DTN display, and the optimum polarizer orientation criterion for the single TN displays is also applicable for the DTN display.<>

  • Cascaded multiplierless realizations of low sensitivities allpass based fractional delay filters

    A new method of design of fractional delay IIR filters based on cascade realization of allpass structures is proposed in this paper. Closed-form design expressions are derived and the sensitivity of the individual sections is minimized. The advantages of the method are demonstrated by comparative study. Efficient multiplierless implementations are discussed and the robustness in limited wordlength environment is firmly demonstrated.

  • Optimal Fractional Controllers for Rational Order Systems: A Special Case of the Wiener-Hopf Spectral Factorization Method

    In this note, the authors propose a generalization of the well known Wiener- Hopf design method of optimal controllers and filters, applicable to a certain class of systems described by fractional order differential equations, the so called _rational order systems _that, in the Laplace domain, are described by transfer functions which are quotients of polynomials in salpha, alpha = (1 /q), q being a positive integer. As can be verified in the literature, such transfer functions arise in the characterization of some industrial processes and physical systems which can be adequately modeled using fractional calculus, or when modeling some distributed parameter systems by finite dimensional models. A brief exposition of the standard Wiener-Hopf method, and some fundamental considerations about rational order systems are given before presenting the proposed procedure. Illustrative examples are discussed.

  • An approximate minimal time closed-loop controller for processes with bounded control amplitudes and rates

    This paper presents a method for designing an approximate minimal time closed- loop controller for linear systems with bounded control amplitudes and rates. The method is based on obtaining an approximate functional expression (explicitly in terms of the state variables) that describes the minimal time isochrones of the system. This expression is obtained by a series of least- squares fits to the computed system states on the various isochrones. The computation of the system states on the isochrones and the determination of the approximate expressions are achieved off-line. For on-line operation, it is only required to store a limited number of coefficients of the approximate expressions, and to compute the closed-loop control function by some algebraic manipulation. Consequently, the on-line computer storage requirement as well as the on-line computation requirement is relatively small. Thus, the method is feasible for high-order practical systems. To evaluate its usefulness in applications, the scheme is used to design a fourth-order Ranger Block III Attitude Control System. The results are compared to those obtained by applying the minimal time open-loop control.



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