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Synthesis of controlled semiconductors

1949 Conference on Electrical Insulation, 1949

The chemical approach to the synthesis of semiconductors is based on the electroneutrality of crystal lattices. Even minor concentrations of impurities, which do not have to conform with the more rigid requirements for the formation of mixed crystals have to be balanced electrically in order to enter a crystal lattice. A lattice can force the impurity to assume the valency ...


Changing the properties of doped vanadium dioxide during prolonged storage under natural conditions

2016 Dynamics of Systems, Mechanisms and Machines (Dynamics), 2016

The article compares the results of X-ray diffraction, electric and magnetic studies, as well as the heat capacity of samples of solid solutions V1-xFexO2and V1-xAlxO2and the same samples after their long storage at ordinal conditions. The appearance of reflexes, allegedly belonging to the phases of V2O5and iron oxide (aluminum), was fixed by the X-ray diagrams of “stored” samples. It was ...


Is this the ultimate grid battery?

IEEE Spectrum, 2017

Inside, it's brightly lit and filled with humming machinery, a mammoth futuristic manufactory. Robot arms grab components from bins and place each part with precision, while conveyor belts move the assembled pieces smoothly down production lines. Finished products enter testing stations for quality checks before being packed for shipping. It has been called a gigafactory, and it does indeed produce ...


Equivalent Circuit Model Considering Self-discharge for SOC Estimation of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

2018 21st International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), 2018

The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) consists of the electrodes, pump, and membrane, but the pump is causative of self-discharge because it continuously operated the ions diffusion through membrane. Thus, the equivalent circuit of VRFB should consider the self-discharge to enhance the accuracy of the state of charge (SOC) estimation. This paper proposes the equivalent circuit model of VRFB, which ...


A multifunctional micro-electro-opto-mechanical (MEOM) platform based on phase-transition materials

2018 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2018

We demonstrate a new MEOM multifunctional platform activated by the structural phase transition of an embedded vanadium dioxide layer. Its diverse stimuli and > 50% optical modulation depth over a broad wavelength range promise versatile applications.


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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Synthesis of controlled semiconductors

    The chemical approach to the synthesis of semiconductors is based on the electroneutrality of crystal lattices. Even minor concentrations of impurities, which do not have to conform with the more rigid requirements for the formation of mixed crystals have to be balanced electrically in order to enter a crystal lattice. A lattice can force the impurity to assume the valency of its own cations. For example, tetravalent vanadium is stabilized when vanadium is introduced into ZrO2. The lattice may also cause the valency of some of its own cations to change in order to balance the effect of the impurity.

  • Changing the properties of doped vanadium dioxide during prolonged storage under natural conditions

    The article compares the results of X-ray diffraction, electric and magnetic studies, as well as the heat capacity of samples of solid solutions V1-xFexO2and V1-xAlxO2and the same samples after their long storage at ordinal conditions. The appearance of reflexes, allegedly belonging to the phases of V2O5and iron oxide (aluminum), was fixed by the X-ray diagrams of “stored” samples. It was found a significant change in the electrical and magnetic properties of materials and less noticeable changes in the heat capacity of the metal-semiconductor phase transition. The results are discussed in the terms of the active collisions model. It is concluded about the deformation of the conduction band and, as a consequence, the reduction of the electronic states density near the Fermi level for the “stored” samples.

  • Is this the ultimate grid battery?

    Inside, it's brightly lit and filled with humming machinery, a mammoth futuristic manufactory. Robot arms grab components from bins and place each part with precision, while conveyor belts move the assembled pieces smoothly down production lines. Finished products enter testing stations for quality checks before being packed for shipping. It has been called a gigafactory, and it does indeed produce vast quantities of advanced batteries. But this gigafactory is in China, not Nevada. It doesn't make batteries for cars, and it's not part of the Elon Musk empire.

  • Equivalent Circuit Model Considering Self-discharge for SOC Estimation of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) consists of the electrodes, pump, and membrane, but the pump is causative of self-discharge because it continuously operated the ions diffusion through membrane. Thus, the equivalent circuit of VRFB should consider the self-discharge to enhance the accuracy of the state of charge (SOC) estimation. This paper proposes the equivalent circuit model of VRFB, which is comprised of the basic RC ladder. In addition, to consider the self-discharge of VRFB the proposed equivalent circuit takes into account that the capacitance of the vanadium redox flow battery is changed by the charging and discharging cycles. The self-discharge test profile was proposed by applying the decreased capacity depending on cycles, and the derived amount of self-discharge was applied to the RC ladder based equivalent circuit model based on resistance. The parameters for the equivalent circuit model is extracted by the actual experimental data. The equivalent circuit model with the basic RC ladder is modeled by using MATLAB/Simulink. Based on the equivalent circuit model considering self-discharge, EKF (Extended Kalman filter) suitable for nonlinear system of vanadium redox flow battery was used for SOC estimation.

  • A multifunctional micro-electro-opto-mechanical (MEOM) platform based on phase-transition materials

    We demonstrate a new MEOM multifunctional platform activated by the structural phase transition of an embedded vanadium dioxide layer. Its diverse stimuli and > 50% optical modulation depth over a broad wavelength range promise versatile applications.

  • Polarization-Independent Terahertz Tunable Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    The analogs of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) based on the concept of metamaterials (MMs) bring the primitive quantum phenomena into the scope of classical optics. However, most of the previous designs are anisotropic. Here, in this letter, a tunable isotropic classical analog of EIT is studied based on the wide-angle MM with a layer of vanadium dioxide underneath it. The tunable conductivity of vanadium dioxide is the key point to realize the dynamic modulation of EIT. The numerical calculation tells that the transmission peak of EIT can be tuned from 66% to 12% when the conductivity of vanadium dioxide is changed from 10 to 2000 Ω-1cm-1. Furthermore, such design possesses a nearly insensitive characteristic of transmission on polarization and incident angle. Although the simple planar structure presented here is a specific design to manipulate EIT-like phenomenon in terahertz MMs, it can be easily scaled to other electromagnetic spectra. This letter could provide one possible way for the plasmonic filter and sensing application.

  • Irradiation Induced Phase Transition of Single V2O5Nanowire under in situ TEM Tensile Testing

    A phase change from alpha-V2O5to VO occurs in a single V2O5nanowire under high-flux electron beam irradiation in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Based on a MEMS/TEM tensile system, the strength of the nanowire after phase change is investigated in situ TEM. Tensile fracture is located in the phase change position, indicating that the phase change reduced the strength of the material.

  • Dynamically-Tunable Plasmonic Devices based on Phase Transition of Vanadium Dioxide

    We have experimentally demonstrated several dynamically-tunable plasmonic devices based on phase transition of vanadium dioxide, which include dynamic plasmonic color generators and dynamically switchable polarizers. The investigations can be applied in dynamic digital displays, optical data storage, and imaging sensors. © 2019 The Author(s)

  • Structural and electro-optical properties of Sn-doped VO2films elaborated by spray pyrolysis

    In this study, we focus on the growth of thin films of undoped and Sn doped vanadium dioxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis on glass substrates. All the samples were grown at a fixed temperature of 450°C for the time duration of 10 min, and the concentration of the precursor solution was fixed at 0.015M. Two different Sn doping concentrations (2% and 4%) were studied in term of optical transmission T and electrical resistance R change. VO2films doped with 2% of Sn showed transmission of 85% at a wavelength of 2000 nm and at a temperature of 25 °C, and it becomes less than 42% for the same wavelength at 90 °C. Electrical measurements as a function of the temperature of VO2films doped 2% of Sn show a difference of about two orders of magnitude between semi-conductor and metallic state.

  • Power Handling of Vanadium Dioxide Metal-Insulator Transition RF Limiters

    Maximum power handling, spike leakage, and failure mechanisms have been characterized for limiters based on the thermally triggered metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide. These attributes are determined by properties of the metal-insulator material such as on/off resistance ratio, geometric properties that determine the film resistance and the currentcarrying capability of the device, and thermal properties such as heatsinking and thermal coupling. A limiter with greater than 10 GHz of bandwidth demonstrated 0.5 dB loss, 27 dBm threshold power, 8 Watts blocking power, and 0.4 mJ spike leakage at frequencies near 2 GHz. A separate limiter optimized for high power blocked over 60 Watts of incident power with leakage less than 25 dBm after triggering. The power handling demonstrates promise for these limiter devices, and device optimization presents opportunities for additional improvement in spike leakage, response speed, and reliability.



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