Conferences related to Occipital Lobe

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2020 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE


2020 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC)

All areas of ionizing radiation detection - detectors, signal processing, analysis of results, PET development, PET results, medical imaging using ionizing radiation


2019 9th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER)

Neural Engineering

  • 2017 8th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER)

    Neural Engineering is an emerging core discipline,which coalesces neuroscience with engineering.Members of both the Neuroscience and Engineering Communities areencouraged to attend this highly multidisciplinarymeeting. The conference will highlight the emergingengineering innovations in the restoration andenhancement of impaired sensory, motor, andcognitive functions, novel engineering for deepeningknowledge of brain function, and advanced designand use of neurotechnologies

  • 2015 7th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER)

    Neural engineering deals with many aspects of basic and clinical problemsassociated with neural dysfunction including the representation of sensory and motor information, theelectrical stimulation of the neuromuscular system to control the muscle activation and movement, theanalysis and visualization of complex neural systems at multi -scale from the single -cell and to the systemlevels to understand the underlying mechanisms, the development of novel neural prostheses, implantsand wearable devices to restore and enhance the impaired sensory and motor systems and functions.

  • 2013 6th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER)

    Neural engineering deals with many aspects of basic and clinical problems associated with neural dysfunction including the representation of sensory and motor information, the electrical stimulation of the neuromuscular system to control the muscle activation and movement, the analysis and visualization of complex neural systems at multi-scale from the single-cell and to the system levels to understand the underlying mechanisms, the development of novel neural prostheses, implants and wearable devices to restore and enhance the impaired sensory and motor systems and functions.

  • 2011 5th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER)

    highlight the emerging field, Neural Engineering that unites engineering, physics, chemistry, mathematics, computer science with molecular, cellular, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and encompasses such areas as replacing or restoring lost sensory and motor abilities, defining the organizing principles and underlying mechanisms of neural systems, neurorobotics, neuroelectronics, brain imaging and mapping, cognitive science and neuroscience.

  • 2009 4th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER)

    highlight the emerging field, Neural Engineering that unites engineering, physics, chemistry, mathematics, computer science with molecular, cellular, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and encompasses such areas as replacing or restoring lost sensory and motor abilities, defining the organizing principles and underlying mechanisms of neural systems, neurorobotics, neuroelectronics, brain imaging and mapping, cognitive science and neuroscience.

  • 2007 3rd International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering

  • 2005 2nd International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering

  • 2003 1st International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering


2019 IEEE 18th International Conference on Cognitive Informatics & Cognitive Computing (ICCI*CC)

The IEEE ICCI*CC series is a flagship conference of its field. It not only synergizes theories of modern information science, computer science, communication theories, AI, cybernetics, computational intelligence, cognitive science, intelligence science, neuropsychology, brain science, systems science, software science, knowledge science, cognitive robots, cognitive linguistics, and life science, but also promotes novel applications in cognitive computers, cognitive communications, computational intelligence, cognitive robots, cognitive systems, and the AI, IT, and software industries.

  • 2018 IEEE 17th International Conference on Cognitive Informatics & Cognitive Computing (ICCI*CC)

    Informatics models of the brainCognitive processes of the brainThe cognitive foundation of big dataMachine consciousnessNeuroscience foundations of information processingDenotational mathematics (DM)Cognitive knowledge basesAutonomous machine learningNeural models of memoryInternal information processingCognitive sensors and networksCognitive linguisticsAbstract intelligence (aI)Cognitive information theoryCognitive information fusionCognitive computersCognitive systemsCognitive man-machine communicationCognitive InternetWorld-Wide Wisdoms (WWW+)Mathematical engineering for AICognitive vehicle systems Semantic computingDistributed intelligenceMathematical models of AICognitive signal processingCognitive image processing Artificial neural netsGenetic computingMATLAB models of AIBrain-inspired systemsNeuroinformaticsNeurological foundations of the brainSoftware simulations of the brainBrain-system interfacesNeurocomputingeBrain models

  • 2017 IEEE 16th International Conference on Cognitive Informatics & Cognitive Computing (ICCI*CC)

    Cognitive Informatics is a transdisciplinary field that studies the internal information processing mechanisms of the brain, the underlying abstract intelligence theories and denotational mathematics, and their engineering applications in cognitive computing, computational intelligence, and cognitive systems. Cognitive Computing is a cutting-edge paradigm of intelligent computing methodologies and systems based on CI, which implements computational intelligence by autonomous inferences and perceptions mimicking the mechanisms of the brain. CI and CC not only synergize theories of modern information science, computer science, communication theories, AI, cybernetics, computational intelligence, cognitive science, intelligence science, neuropsychology, brain science, systems science, software science, knowledge science, cognitive robots, cognitive linguistics, and life science, but also reveal exciting applications in cognitive computers, cognitive robots, and computational intelligence.

  • 2016 IEEE 15th International Conference on Cognitive Informatics & Cognitive Computing (ICCI*CC)

    Cognitive Informatics (CI) is a transdisciplinary field that studies the internal information processing mechanisms of the brain, the underlying abstract intelligence (¿I) theories and denotational mathematics, and their engineering applications in cognitive computing, computational intelligence, and cognitive systems. Cognitive Computing (CC) is a cutting-edge paradigm of intelligent computing methodologies and systems based on cognitive informatics, which implements computational intelligence by autonomous inferences and perceptions mimicking the mechanisms of the brain.

  • 2015 IEEE 14th International Conference on Cognitive Informatics & Cognitive Computing (ICCI*CC)

    The scope of the conference covers cognitive informatics, cognitive computing, cognitive communications, computational intelligence, and computational linguitics.

  • 2014 IEEE 13th International Conference on Cognitive Informatics & Cognitive Computing (ICCI*CC)

    Cognitive informatics, cognitive computing, cognitive science, cognitive robots, artificial intelligence, computational intelligence

  • 2013 12th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics & Cognitive Computing (ICCI*CC)

    Cognitive Informatics (CI) is a cutting-edge and multidisciplinary research field that tackles the fundamental problems shared by modern informatics, computing, AI, cybernetics, computational intelligence, cognitive science, intelligence science, neuropsychology, brain science, systems science, software engineering, knowledge engineering, cognitive robots, scientific philosophy, cognitive linguistics, life sciences, and cognitive computing.

  • 2012 11th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics & Cognitive Computing (ICCI*CC)

    Cognitive informatics and Cognitive Computing are a transdisciplinary enquiry on the internal information processing mechanisms and processes of the brain and their engineering applications in cognitive computers, computational intelligence, cognitive robots, cognitive systems, and in the AI, IT, and software industries. The 11th IEEE Int l Conference on Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computing (ICCI*CC 12) focuses on the theme of e-Brain and Cognitive Computers.

  • 2011 10th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics & Cognitive Computing (ICCI*CC)

    Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computing are a transdisciplinary enquiry on the internal information processing mechanisms and processes of the brain and their engineering applications in cognitive computers, computational intelligence, cognitive robots, cognitive systems, and in the AI, IT, and software industries. The 10th IEEE Int l Conference on Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computing (ICCI*CC 11) focuses on the theme of Cognitive Computers and the e-Brain.

  • 2010 9th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics (ICCI)

    Cognitive Informatics (CI) is a cutting-edge and transdisciplinary research area that tackles the fundamental problems shared by modern informatics, computing, AI, cybernetics, computational intelligence, cognitive science, neuropsychology, medical science, systems science, software engineering, telecommunications, knowledge engineering, philosophy, linguistics, economics, management science, and life sciences.

  • 2009 8th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics (ICCI)

    The 8th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics (ICCI 09) focuses on the theme of Cognitive Computing and Semantic Mining. The objectives of ICCI'09 are to draw attention of researchers, practitioners, and graduate students to the investigation of cognitive mechanisms and processes of human information processing, and to stimulate the international effort on cognitive informatics research and engineering applications.

  • 2008 7th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics (ICCI)

    The 7th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics (ICCI 08) focuses on the theme of Cognitive Computers and Computational Intelligence. The objectives of ICCI 08 are to draw attention of researchers, practitioners and graduate students to the investigation of cognitive mechanisms and processes of human information processing, and to stimulate the international effort on cognitive informatics research and engineering applications.

  • 2007 6th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics (ICCI)

  • 2006 5th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics (ICCI)

  • 2005 4th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics (ICCI)


2018 9th International Conference on Information Technology in Medicine and Education (ITME)

IT(Information Technology) changes everyday's life, especially in education and medicine. The goal of ITME 2018 is to further explore the theoretical and practical issues of IT in education and medicine. It also aims to foster new ideas and collaboration between researchers andpractitioners. The organizing committee is soliciting unpublished papers for the main conferenceand its special tracks. The major topics include, but not limited to: IT in Medicine, IT in Education, Big Data and It's Application in Medicine & Education, Other related Theories,Technologies and Applications.

  • 2016 8th International Conference on Information Technology in Medicine and Education (ITME)

    IT(Information Technology) changes everyday's life, especially in education and medicine. Thegoal of ITME 2016 is to further explore the theoretical and practical issues of IT in education andmedicine. It also aims to foster new ideas and collaboration between researchers andpractitioners. The organizing committee is soliciting unpublished papers for the main conferenceand its special tracks. The major topics include, but not limited to: IT in Medicine, IT inEducation, Big Data and It’s Application in Medicine & Education, Other related Theories, Technologies and Applications.

  • 2015 7th International Conference on Information Technology in Medicine and Education (ITME)

    IT(Information Technology) changes everyday's life, especially in education and medicine. The goal of ITME 2015 is to further explore the theoretical and practical issues of IT in education and medicine. It also aims to foster new ideas and collaboration between researchers and practitioners. The organizing committee is soliciting unpublished papers for the main conference and its special tracks. The major topics include, but not limited to: IT in Medicine, IT in Education, Other related theories, Technologies and applications.

  • 2012 International Symposium on Information Technology in Medicine and Education (ITME 2012)

    ITME 2012 is to further explore the theoretical and practical issues of IT in education and medicine, Internet and computer networks and Multimedia Technology.

  • 2011 International Symposium on Information Technology in Medicine and Education (ITME 2011)

    The scope of the conference includes, but not limited to Architecture of Educational Information Systems, Building and Sharing Digital Education Resources on the Internet, Collaborative Learning/Training, Digital Library, e-Learning Pedagogical Strategies, Web Based Systems for Education, Medical Image Processing & compression, e-Health and e-Hospital, Medical Knowledge Mining, IT and Medical Informatics, Other related theories technologies and applications.

  • 2009 IEEE International Symposium on IT in Medicine & Education (ITME 2009)

    ITME 2009 is to further explore the theoretical and practical issues of IT in education and medicine, including Educational Information Systems, Digital Education Resources, Collaborative Learning/Training ,Computer Aided Teaching, e-Learning, Medical Image Processing & compression, Biomechanics, modeling and computing, Hospital Management Information, Construction of Medical Database and etc..

  • 2008 IEEE International Symposium on IT in Medicine & Education (ITME 2008)

    Conference Scope:IT changes people's method of working, learning and life such as in medicine and education. The goal of 2008 IEEE International Symposium on IT in Medicine & Education (ITME 2008) is to further explore the theoretical and practical issues of IT in medicine and education. It also aims to foster new ideas and collaboration between researchers and practitioners.


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Periodicals related to Occipital Lobe

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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on

Signal-processing aspects of image processing, imaging systems, and image scanning, display, and printing. Includes theory, algorithms, and architectures for image coding, filtering, enhancement, restoration, segmentation, and motion estimation; image formation in tomography, radar, sonar, geophysics, astronomy, microscopy, and crystallography; image scanning, digital half-toning and display, andcolor reproduction.


Information Technology in Biomedicine, IEEE Transactions on

Telemedicine, teleradiology, telepathology, telemonitoring, telediagnostics, 3D animations in health care, health information networks, clinical information systems, virtual reality applications in medicine, broadband technologies, and global information infrastructure design for health care.


Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on

Science and technology related to the basic physics and engineering of magnetism, magnetic materials, applied magnetics, magnetic devices, and magnetic data storage. The Transactions publishes scholarly articles of archival value as well as tutorial expositions and critical reviews of classical subjects and topics of current interest.


Medical Imaging, IEEE Transactions on

Imaging methods applied to living organisms with emphasis on innovative approaches that use emerging technologies supported by rigorous physical and mathematical analysis and quantitative evaluation of performance.


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Most published Xplore authors for Occipital Lobe

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Xplore Articles related to Occipital Lobe

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The brain mapping of emotion in human faces: Clinical aplication in epilepsy

2014 IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (MeMeA), 2014

Introduction: The ability to process multiple domains of the human face it is a well-developed capability in humans, contributing significantly to social interaction. The extraction of emotional content out of facial features is one such domain, which involves well-known brain structures, whose detailed contribution is nevertheless poorly characterized. Objectives: Our emphasis is on detection and functional characterization of the brain ...


Study on SSVEP response under the checkerboard stimulus pattern based on improved 2D-EEMD

2017 IEEE 2nd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC), 2017

In the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) system, brain activities can be translated into command for a computer without depending on the normal brain signal output pathway. Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP), one of these rhythmic brain signals induced by Repetitive Visual Stimulus (RVS), is widely used in studies. Different RVS results in the performance difference of BCI system. This paper uses ...


Reorganization of Retinotopic Maps after Occipital Lobe Infarction

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2014

We studied patient JS, who had a right occipital infarct that encroached on visual areas V1, V2v, and VP. When tested psychophysically, he was very impaired at detecting the direction of motion in random dot displays where a variable proportion of dots moving in one direction (signal) were embedded in masking motion noise (noise dots). The impairment on this motion ...


Cortical atrophy in Alzheimer's disease unmasks electrically silent sulci and lowers EEG dipolarity

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 1999

Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients show lower dipolarity (goodness-of-fit) for dipole localizations of alpha or other dominant electroencephalography (EEG) frequency components in the occipital cortex. In the present study, we performed computer simulations to discover which of distributions of dipole activity lower dipolarity in a manner similar to that seen in severe AD. Dipolarity was estimated from simulations of various electric ...


Occipital EEG Activity for the Detection of Nocturnal Hypoglycemia

2018 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2018

Nocturnal hypoglycemia is dangerous that threatens patients because of its unclear symptoms during sleep. This paper is a study of hypoglycemia from 8 patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) at night. O1 and O2 EEG data of the occipital lobe associated with glycemic episodes were analyzed. Frequency features were computed from Power Spectral Density using Welch's method. Centroid alpha frequency ...


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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • The brain mapping of emotion in human faces: Clinical aplication in epilepsy

    Introduction: The ability to process multiple domains of the human face it is a well-developed capability in humans, contributing significantly to social interaction. The extraction of emotional content out of facial features is one such domain, which involves well-known brain structures, whose detailed contribution is nevertheless poorly characterized. Objectives: Our emphasis is on detection and functional characterization of the brain areas involved in emotional processing of faces, with particular focus on the contribution of frontal lobes to processing of basic facial emotion expressions, such as fear and happiness. Methods: Participants were ten healthy volunteers and five patients with occipital lobe epilepsies. Mapping neurovascular (BOLD) responses to fear, happy and neutral facial expressions were obtained through functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Results: The results from the group of volunteers were used as a base for the construction of a quantitative database that included the following brain structures: fusiform gyrus, insula, amygdala, cingulate gyrus, and frontal-orbital cortex. The maximum Z-score obtained from each ROI as responses to the contrast fear-neutral faces produced higher statistically significant activations in the areas selected. Responses in clinical patients revealed focal impairments only in right hemisphere epilepsies, consistent with a hemispheric asymmetry for emotional processing. Conclusions: The frequent association of some brain structures involved in facial emotion processing in epilepsy suggests that the proposed mapping protocol can be clinically useful to gain deeper insights into the anatomical-functional correlations of this disease.

  • Study on SSVEP response under the checkerboard stimulus pattern based on improved 2D-EEMD

    In the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) system, brain activities can be translated into command for a computer without depending on the normal brain signal output pathway. Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP), one of these rhythmic brain signals induced by Repetitive Visual Stimulus (RVS), is widely used in studies. Different RVS results in the performance difference of BCI system. This paper uses an improved two-dimensional Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (2D-EEMD) algorithm to pretreat the response signal and study the response performance of SSVEP in the various regions of the brain under the checkerboard stimulus. The improved 2D-EEMD introduced according to the feature of EEG can get a clearer two-dimensional decomposition result and improve the accuracy of the extraction response frequency. It decomposes the SSVEP separately in two orthogonal directions, and then recombines the decomposition results according to the “comparable minimal-scale combination strategy” to obtain the final two-dimensional decomposition result. The strategy removes the interference components from the decomposition results to prevent the effective characteristics of the SSVEP from being covered. This is more conducive to the extraction of signal characteristics. In contrast to a single-stimulus, SSVEP response shows significantly regional features under the checkerboard stimulus. The main response frequency is different in each brain area. Only in Left Occipital Lobe (LO) area, the main response frequency is consistent with visual stimulation frequency.

  • Reorganization of Retinotopic Maps after Occipital Lobe Infarction

    We studied patient JS, who had a right occipital infarct that encroached on visual areas V1, V2v, and VP. When tested psychophysically, he was very impaired at detecting the direction of motion in random dot displays where a variable proportion of dots moving in one direction (signal) were embedded in masking motion noise (noise dots). The impairment on this motion coherence task was especially marked when the display was presented to the upper left (affected) visual quadrant, contralateral to his lesion. However, with extensive training, by 11 months his threshold fell to the level of healthy participants. Training on the motion coherence task generalized to another motion task, the motion discontinuity task, on which he had to detect the presence of an edge that was defined by the difference in the direction of the coherently moving dots (signal) within the display. He was much better at this task at 8 than 3 months, and this improvement was associated with an increase in the activation of the human MT complex (hMT<sup>+</sup>) and in the kinetic occipital region as shown by repeated fMRI scans. We also used fMRI to perform retinotopic mapping at 3, 8, and 11 months after the infarct. We quantified the retinotopy and areal shifts by measuring the distances between the center of mass of functionally defined areas, computed in spherical surface-based coordinates. The functionally defined retinotopic areas V1, V2v, V2d, and VP were initially smaller in the lesioned right hemisphere, but they increased in size between 3 and 11 months. This change was not found in the normal, left hemisphere of the patient or in either hemispheres of the healthy control participants. We were interested in whether practice on the motion coherence task promoted the changes in the retinotopic maps. We compared the results for patient JS with those from another patient (PF) who had a comparable lesion but had not been given such practice. We found similar changes in the maps in the lesioned hemisphere of PF. However, PF was only scanned at 3 and 7 months, and the biggest shifts in patient JS were found between 8 and 11 months. Thus, it is important to carry out a prospective study with a trained and untrained group so as to determine whether the patterns of reorganization that we have observed can be further promoted by training.

  • Cortical atrophy in Alzheimer's disease unmasks electrically silent sulci and lowers EEG dipolarity

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients show lower dipolarity (goodness-of-fit) for dipole localizations of alpha or other dominant electroencephalography (EEG) frequency components in the occipital cortex. In the present study, we performed computer simulations to discover which of distributions of dipole activity lower dipolarity in a manner similar to that seen in severe AD. Dipolarity was estimated from simulations of various electric dipole generator configurations within the occipital cortex under conditions of widened cortical sulci (a severely demented AD case) or no sulcal widening (a normal subject). The cortical and scalp surfaces, derived from the subjects' MRI's, were assumed to be uniformly electrically conducting. Randomly placed, nonoverlapping lesions ranging from 1 to 4 mm/sup 2/ per lesion were used in both the normal and AD models to simulate the electrical effect of neuropathological AD lesions. In both models, dipolarity decreased as total lesion size increased. However, the AD model showed lower dipolarity than the normal model for both individual lesion sizes and for larger total lesion sizes. The larger decline in dipolarity in the AD model appears to be due to sulcal widening which unmasks the effect of lesions buried within sulci. These simulations identify a possible mechanism explaining why sulcally-located neuropathological changes plus progressive cortical atrophy in AD brains (and presumably other cortical disorders producing atrophy) alter EEG patterns and dipolarity differently from normal cortex damaged by similar lesions.

  • Occipital EEG Activity for the Detection of Nocturnal Hypoglycemia

    Nocturnal hypoglycemia is dangerous that threatens patients because of its unclear symptoms during sleep. This paper is a study of hypoglycemia from 8 patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) at night. O1 and O2 EEG data of the occipital lobe associated with glycemic episodes were analyzed. Frequency features were computed from Power Spectral Density using Welch's method. Centroid alpha frequency reduced significantly (P<;0.0001) while centroid theta increased considerably (P<;0.01). Spectral entropy of the unified theta- alpha band rose significantly (P<;0.005). These occipital features acted as the input of a Bayesian regularized neural network for detecting hypoglycemic episodes. The classification results were 73% and 60% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  • Alpha-band rhythm suppression during memory recall reflecting memory performance

    Alpha-band rhythm is thought to be involved in memory processes, similarly to other spontaneous brain rhythms. Ten right-handed healthy volunteers participated in our proposed sequential short-term memory task that provides a serial position effect in accuracy rate. We recorded alpha-band rhythms by magnetoencephalography during performance of the task and observed that the amplitude of the rhythm was suppressed dramatically in the memory recall period. The suppressed region was estimated to be in the occipital lobe, suggesting that alpha-band rhythm is suppressed by activation of the occipital attentional network. Additionally, the alpha-band suppression reflected accuracy rate, that is, the amplitude was suppressed more when recalling items with higher accuracy rate. The sensors with a significant correlation between alpha-band amplitude and accuracy rate were located widely from the frontal to occipital regions mainly in the right hemisphere. The results suggests that alpha-band rhythm is involved in memory recall and can be index of memory performance.

  • Mathematical methods of analysis of the MEG brain data:

    The method of recurrent analysis was applied to the MEG brain data, obtained during the execution of imaginary movements by the subjects. The purpose of the method was to determine, for the subjects, significant data for further analysis of these channels in the performance of imaginary movements. It is shown that in the course of the experiment, the subjects have significant channels in the prefrontal cortex, especially in the pre-moto and somatomotor zones, as well as in the occipital lobe, if the subject was asked to present the motion visually.

  • Simulations of a combined fan-beam and multi-pinhole SPECT system for clinical I-123 DaTscan imaging

    We propose an inexpensive method to enhance the resolution and sensitivity of DaTscan imaging for the general-purpose dual-head SPECT systems. DaTscan is a 123I labeled SPECT imaging agent used for diagnosis and monitoring progression of Parkinson's Disease (PD), where the structures of interest, the putamen and caudate are in the central interior portion of the brain. The occipital lobe, located at the rearmost portion of the skull, is also required with PD for calculation of the striatal binding ratio (SBR), a parameter of significance in early diagnosis, differentiation of PD from other disorders with similar clinical presentations, and monitoring progression. A dedicated brain SPECT system with MPH collimators focusing on these specific volumes of interests (VOI) would be an ideal imaging solution to improve the sensitivity and resolution. However, the cost of such a system is likely prohibitive especially considering relatively low amount of procedures performed for brain imaging. Our relatively inexpensive method will use a specifically designed MPH collimator on one detector head providing enhanced spatial resolution/sensitivity for the interior brain, allowing the differentiation of the key brain structures. The fan-beam collimator on the other head will provide lower resolution, but complete sampling of the brain, addressing data sufficiency and allowing SBR calculation over the occipital lobe. We built the proposed SPECT system geometry using the GATE simulation package. To verify the system geometry, we performed GATE and analytic (developed in our Lab) simulations of a cylinder and point source centered in the imaging FOV. We obtained nearly a perfect match between the two simulations. We will continue our investigation with GATE simulations of the XCAT realistic human brain phantom. Optimization of the MPH collimator to enhance the resolution/sensitivity and reduce/model the penetration and an investigation of combined reconstruction methods will follow.

  • Electrocortical amplitude modulations of human level-ground, slope, and stair walking

    This study investigates if the electrocortical amplitude modulations relative to the mean gait cycle are different across walking conditions (i.e., level- ground (LW), ramp ascent (RA), and stair ascent (SA)). Non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) signals were recorded and a systematic EEG processing method was implemented to reduce artifacts. Source localization using independent component analysis and k-means clustering revealed the involvement of four clusters in the brain (Left and Right Occipital Lobe, Posterior Parietal Cortex (PPC), and Sensorimotor Area) during the walking tasks. We found that electrocortical amplitude modulations varied across different walking conditions. Specifically, our results showed that the modulations in the PPC shifted to higher frequency bands when the subjects walked in RA and SA conditions. Moreover, we found low γ modulations in the sensorimotor area in LW walking and the modulations in this cluster shifted to lower frequency bands in RA and SA walking. These results are a promising step toward the development of a non-invasive Neural-machine Interface (NMI) for locomotion mode recognition.

  • Cortical features of locomotion-mode transitions via non-invasive EEG

    This study investigates the neural features of locomotion mode transitions (i.e., level-ground walking to stair ascent) from non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) signals. A systematic EEG processing method was implemented to reduce artifacts. Source localization using independent component analysis and k-mean clustering algorithm revealed the involvement of four clusters in the brain (Left and Right Occipital Lobe, Posterior Parietal Cortex, and Motor Cortex) during the walking tasks. Our results show significant differences in spectral power in the Occipital cluster between level-ground (LW) and stair (SA) walking. Additionally, significant increases in spectral power were detected up to 1.4 second before the critical transition time (LW to SA). The findings have implications for developing noninvasive lower-limb neuroprostheses that predict, rather than respond to, the user gait intentions. This work is a further step toward the development of a multimodal Neural-machine Interface (NMI) that fuses EEG and electromyography (EMG) signals for intuitive and flexible control of power prosthetic legs.



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