466 resources related to Neuromodulation
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The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE
The International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) is the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society’s biggest conference and one of the leading international forums for robotics researchers to present their work.
ISSCC is the foremost global forum for solid-state circuits and systems-on-a-chip. The Conference offers 5 days of technical papers and educational events related to integrated circuits, including analog, digital, data converters, memory, RF, communications, imagers, medical and MEMS ICs.
Tutorials and original papers on reliability, maintainability, safety, risk management, and logistics
The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...
The IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering will review the state-of-the-art and trends in the emerging field of biomedical engineering. This includes scholarly works, ranging from historic and modern development in biomedical engineering to the life sciences and medicine enabled by technologies covered by the various IEEE societies.
Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.
Both general and technical articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering; societal implications of medical technologies; current news items; book reviews; patent descriptions; and correspondence. Special interest departments, students, law, clinical engineering, ethics, new products, society news, historical features and government.
Science and technology related to the basic physics and engineering of magnetism, magnetic materials, applied magnetics, magnetic devices, and magnetic data storage. The Transactions publishes scholarly articles of archival value as well as tutorial expositions and critical reviews of classical subjects and topics of current interest.
2013 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2013
Modulation of neural activity through electrical stimulation of tissue is an effective therapy for neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. Researchers are exploring improving therapy through adjustment of stimulation parameters based upon sensed data. This requires classifiers to extract features and estimate patient state. It also requires algorithms to appropriately map the state estimation to stimulation parameters. ...
IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 2012
Chronically implantable, closed-loop neuromodulation devices with concurrent sensing and stimulation hold promise for better understanding the nervous system and improving therapies for neurological disease. Concurrent sensing and stimulation are needed to maximize usable neural data, minimize time delays for closed-loop actuation, and investigate the instantaneous response to stimulation. Current systems lack concurrent sensing and stimulation primarily because of stimulation interference ...
2017 International Conference on Intelligent Informatics and Biomedical Sciences (ICIIBMS), 2017
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with severe motor deficits such as bradykinesia, muscle rigidity, tremor at rest and abnormal posture. From neurophysiological perspective, the most prominent feature of Parkinsonian pathophysiology is enhanced beta-band power (1340 Hz beta oscillations) in the local field potentials (LFPs) in motor cortex and in several basal ganglia nuclei. Currently, the most effective treatment for ...
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 2011
Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic ...
2018 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), 2018
Conventional treatments of neuropathic pain are commonly invasive or non- localized. Focused ultrasound (FUS) is a promising neuromodulation technique that has been shown effective in various animal models. There have been numerous advances in the field of ultrasound neuromodulation with the technology already being applied to humans without a clear understanding of the underlying mechanism. Here, we present a method ...
Modulation of neural activity through electrical stimulation of tissue is an effective therapy for neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. Researchers are exploring improving therapy through adjustment of stimulation parameters based upon sensed data. This requires classifiers to extract features and estimate patient state. It also requires algorithms to appropriately map the state estimation to stimulation parameters. The latter, known as the control policy algorithm, is the focus of this work. Because the optimal control policy algorithms for the nervous system are not fully characterized at this time, we have implemented a generic control policy framework to facilitate exploratory research and rapid prototyping of new neuromodulation strategies.
Chronically implantable, closed-loop neuromodulation devices with concurrent sensing and stimulation hold promise for better understanding the nervous system and improving therapies for neurological disease. Concurrent sensing and stimulation are needed to maximize usable neural data, minimize time delays for closed-loop actuation, and investigate the instantaneous response to stimulation. Current systems lack concurrent sensing and stimulation primarily because of stimulation interference to neural signals of interest. While careful design of high performance amplifiers has proved useful to reduce disturbances in the system, stimulation continues to contaminate neural sensing due to biological effects like tissue-electrode impedance mismatch and constraints on stimulation parameters needed to deliver therapy. In this work we describe systematic methods to mitigate the effect of stimulation through a combination of sensing hardware, stimulation parameter selection, and classification algorithms that counter residual stimulation disturbances. To validate these methods we implemented and tested a completely implantable system for over one year in a large animal model of epilepsy. The system proved capable of measuring and detecting seizure activity in the hippocampus both during and after stimulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate an embedded algorithm that actuates neural modulation in response to seizure detection during stimulation, validating the capability to detect bioelectrical markers in the presence of therapy and titrate it appropriately. The capability to detect neural states in the presence of stimulation and optimally titrate therapy is a key innovation required for generalizing closed-loop neural systems for multiple disease states.
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with severe motor deficits such as bradykinesia, muscle rigidity, tremor at rest and abnormal posture. From neurophysiological perspective, the most prominent feature of Parkinsonian pathophysiology is enhanced beta-band power (1340 Hz beta oscillations) in the local field potentials (LFPs) in motor cortex and in several basal ganglia nuclei. Currently, the most effective treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease is the electrical deep brain stimulation (eDBS) targeting at the subthalamic nucleus or internal globus pallidus, in which electrical current at about 125 Hz is continuously injected in to the target area. Even though eDBS significantly alleviates motor symptoms of the disease, it does not provide a complete cure. Therefore, there have been ongoing efforts to develop more effective brain stimulation paradigms, e.g. exploration of alternative areas for stimulation, or employment of advanced stimulation paradigms. A major obstacle against these efforts has been the ambiguities associated with electrical stimulation. Due to nonspecific nature of electrical stimulation and its incompatibility with simultaneous electrophysiology, it has been challenging to fine tune stimulation parameters and target specific neuronal groups or circuits with eDBS. In this work, we demonstrate optogenetics-based brain stimulation as a potential alternative to electrical brain stimulation in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Optogenetics, with its cellular specificity and compatibility with electrophysiology, offers unique opportunities to monitor the neural activity while modulating the activity of targeted neuronal populations. In our study, we address two important premises for assessment of an optogenetics-based therapeutic brain stimulation paradigm: (1) validation of therapeutic value of precisely targeted deep brain optogenetic modulation; (2) demonstration of potential benefits of spatiotemporally patterned optogenetic stimulation of the motor cortex by characterizing the spatiotemporal dynamics of pathological cortical beta-band activity. In 6-OHDA-induced hemi-Parkinsonian rat model, we used excitatory opsins (ChR2 and C1V1) or inhibitory opsins (iC1C2 and NpHR) to excite or inhibit the subthalamic nucleus. Neural activity across motor cortex was recorded with microelectrode arrays (MEAs, 400μm electrode pitch) implanted unilaterally (6×6 MEA) or bilaterally (two 5×5 MEAs) into the anterior forelimb area of motor cortices. Recording/stimulation sessions were performed during free behavior or during behavioral assays (e.g. amphetamine- induced rotation and mobility test) to quantify and compare therapeutic efficacies of optogenetic stimulation and eDBS. The spatiotemporal dynamics of LFPs were examined with spectral, correlation, and coherence analyses. Our data confirmed the motor deficits such as akinesia and rotational bias in h-P rats. eDBS of subthalamic nucleus improved these motor deficits to some extent, but not completely. In agreement with earlier findings (Gradinaru et al., Science, 2009), optogenetic excitation of subthalamic nucleus did not lead to behavioral improvements; by contrast we found that optogenetic inhibition of subthalamic did alleviate akinesia and rotational bias. Accompanying the motor deficits, elevated betaband power in LFPs was observed on the lesioned side of motor cortex. Interestingly, these beta oscillations appeared intermittently only at certain locations as distinct spatial activity patterns. A linear discriminant analysis showed that the beta band power at some recording sites was indistinguishable from control levels. However, further analysis indicated that these sites could be distinguished from control sites by their phase coherence. We found, within the lesioned motor cortex, excess phase coherence at the beta band between pairs of recording sites. The beta synchrony was not distributed uniformly; it was more pronounced between sites with higher beta power. Single-site optogenetic modulation of subthalamic nucleus led to behavioral improvements, but effects were limited as in eDBS. Our results show that optogenetics-based brain stimulation could be used as a therapeutic interference in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, the variation of beta power and phase across motor cortex implied inhomogeneity in the extent of Parkinsonism, and hence, the potential therapeutic benefit of differential neuromodulation at different cortical sites. Therefore, given the anatomical and functional location of the motor cortex within motor circuitry and its large size, our results imply that spatiotemporally-specific optogenetic modulation of motor cortex might be a potential approach for therapeutic brain stimulation. Such modulation paradigm could allow more specific control of motor cortical activity, and thereby alleviate motor symptoms. Our next step is to investigate the therapeutic potential of spatiotemporally-specific optogenetic modulation of the motor cortex, for which we will use custom optoelectrode arrays with capabilities of multi-site light delivery and electrophysiology.
Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.
Conventional treatments of neuropathic pain are commonly invasive or non- localized. Focused ultrasound (FUS) is a promising neuromodulation technique that has been shown effective in various animal models. There have been numerous advances in the field of ultrasound neuromodulation with the technology already being applied to humans without a clear understanding of the underlying mechanism. Here, we present a method capable of targeting and monitoring of focused ultrasound (FUS) neuromodulation of the mouse sciatic nerve using high frame-rate displacement and cavitation imaging. Our technique is capable of detecting micron displacements and cavitation activity at the focus. Displacement and cavitation were measured with excitation of the sciatic nerve, indicating that radiation force and cavitation play in parts of the underlying mechanism. Taken together, our imaging technique is a powerful in vivo tool for real-time targeting of deep structures and investigation of the FUS neuromodulation mechanism.
Non-invasive brain stimulation of small animals plays an important role in neuroscience especially in understanding fundamental mechanisms of brain disorders. Here, we report a miniaturized ultrasound transducer array designed for non-invasive brain stimulation of mouse for the first time. We designed and fabricated a Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) ring array that operates at 183 kHz in immersion. The fabricated transducer ring array exhibited a focal length of 2.25 mm and a maximum intensity of 175 mW/cm2. Because the array was fabricated in a ring shape, a natural focus was achieved and thus, no additional focusing circuitries or acoustic lens were required. Thus, a compact packaging was achieved with minimum surgical procedures for in vivo mouse experiments. Using the developed micromachined transducer array and simple packaging, we successfully induced the motor responses of a mouse. The success rate of ultrasound stimulation was quantified by recording the electromyography (EMG) signal during the stimulation. While the current ultrasound neuromodulation system is limited to acute experiments, the presented light (<; 1 g) and compact ultrasound neuromodulation system with a natural focus would enable chronic ultrasound neuromodulation experiments on freely-moving mice.
Implantable medical devices can provide chronic access to the nervous system. Implants containing embedded scientific instrumentation payloads (e.g. - sensors, classification, and control policy implementation) provide a unique opportunity for exploring diseased neural networks and how these neural networks may be better treated. Physically embedding payloads in an implant creates intertwined constraints such as power consumption, algorithmic computation limits and lack of flexibility, data storage, and the scale of sensing information. These limitations can be largely addressed with a combination of rechargeable batteries and high-bandwidth, secure, distance telemetry, which enables a distributed neural research system. Taking advantage of a distributed architecture helps facilitate scientific investigation in a more unconstrained environment. In this paper, we describe the design of an implantable research tool, discuss the prototype system architecture and its design details, and present preliminary bench verification and validation with human data drawn from representative use cases.
The use of light-activated modulation techniques, such as optogenetics, is growing in popularity for enabling basic neuroscience research. It is also being explored for advancing more applied applications like therapeutic neuromodulation. However, current hardware systems are generally limited to acute measurements or require external tethering of the system to the light source. This paper presents an implantable prototype for use in techniques that modulate neurological state through optically-activated channels and compounds. The prototype system employs a three chip custom IC architecture to manage information flow into the neural substrate, while also handling power dissipation and providing a chronic barrier to the tissue interface. In addition to covering the details of the IC architecture, we discuss system level design constraints and solutions, and in-vitro test results using our prototype system with an optogenetic model. Potential technical limitations for the broader adoption of these techniques will also be considered.
The current state of neuromodulation can be cast in a classical dynamic control framework such that the nervous system is the classical “plant”, the neural stimulator is the controller, tools to collect clinical data are the sensors, and the physician's judgment is the state estimator. This framework characterizes the types of opportunities available to advance neuromodulation. In particular, technology can potentially address two dominant factors limiting the performance of the control system: “observability,” the ability to observe the state of the system from output measurements, and “controllability,” the ability to drive the system to a desired state using control actuation. Improving sensors and actuation methods are necessary to address these factors. Equally important is improving state estimation by understanding the neural processes underlying diseases. Development of enabling technology to utilize control theory principles facilitates investigations into improving intervention as well as research into the dynamic properties of the nervous system and mechanisms of action of therapies. In this paper, we provide an overview of the control system framework for neuromodulation, its practical challenges, and investigational devices applying this framework for limited applications. To help motivate future efforts, we describe our chronically implantable, low-power neural stimulation system, which integrates sensing, actuation, and state estimation. This research system has been implanted and used in an ovine to address novel research questions.
Neuromodulation is an important method for investigating neural circuits and treating neurological and psychiatric disorders. Multiple-target neuromodulation is considered an advanced technology for the flexible optimization of modulation effects. However, traditional methods such as electrical and magnetic stimulations are not convenient for multiple-target applications due to their disadvantages of invasiveness or poor spatial resolution. Ultrasonic neuromodulation is a new noninvasive method that has gained wide attention in the field of neuroscience, and it is potentially able to support multiple-target stimulation by allocating multiple focal points in the brain using an array transducer. However, there are no reports in the literature of the efficacy of this technical concept, and an imaging tool for localizing the stimulation area for evaluating the neural effects in vivo has been lacking. In this study, we designed and fabricated a new system specifically for imaging-guided dual-target neuromodulation. The design of the array transducer and overall system is described in detail. The stimulation points were selectable on a B-mode image. In vivo experiments were carried out in mice, in which forelimbs shaking responses and electromyography outcomes were induced by changing the stimulation targets. The system could be a valuable tool for imaging-guided multiple-target stimulation in various neuroscience applications.
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