# Neural Implants

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# 191 resources related to Neural Implants

### Conferences related to Neural Implants

2020 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE

2020 IEEE International Solid- State Circuits Conference - (ISSCC)

ISSCC is the foremost global forum for solid-state circuits and systems-on-a-chip. The Conference offers 5 days of technical papers and educational events related to integrated circuits, including analog, digital, data converters, memory, RF, communications, imagers, medical and MEMS ICs.

2020 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS)

The International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) is the flagship conference of the IEEE Circuits and Systems (CAS) Society and the world’s premier networking and exchange forum for researchers in the highly active fields of theory, design and implementation of circuits and systems. ISCAS2020 focuses on the deployment of CASS knowledge towards Society Grand Challenges and highlights the strong foundation in methodology and the integration of multidisciplinary approaches which are the distinctive features of CAS contributions. The worldwide CAS community is exploiting such CASS knowledge to change the way in which devices and circuits are understood, optimized, and leveraged in a variety of systems and applications.

2019 20th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems & Eurosensors XXXIII (TRANSDUCERS & EUROSENSORS XXXIII)

The world's premiere conference in MEMS sensors, actuators and integrated micro and nano systems welcomes you to attend this four-day event showcasing major technological, scientific and commercial breakthroughs in mechanical, optical, chemical and biological devices and systems using micro and nanotechnology.The major areas of activity in the development of Transducers solicited and expected at this conference include but are not limited to: Bio, Medical, Chemical, and Micro Total Analysis Systems Fabrication and Packaging Mechanical and Physical Sensors Materials and Characterization Design, Simulation and Theory Actuators Optical MEMS RF MEMS Nanotechnology Energy and Power

2019 9th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER)

Neural Engineering

### Periodicals related to Neural Implants

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.

The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...

The IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering will review the state-of-the-art and trends in the emerging field of biomedical engineering. This includes scholarly works, ranging from historic and modern development in biomedical engineering to the life sciences and medicine enabled by technologies covered by the various IEEE societies.

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.

Educational methods, technology, and programs; history of technology; impact of evolving research on education.

### Xplore Articles related to Neural Implants

Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE Cat. No.03CH37439), 2003

The recording interface between neurons and an implanted microelectrode recording site is often compromised due to gliosis, rendering the implant nonfunctional under chronic conditions. The objective of this project is to design novel microelectrodes that will minimize gliosis under chronic implantation. We test the hypothesis that gliosis can be minimized or eliminated by reducing the cross-sectional area of the chronic ...

2017 39th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2017

This work proposes solutions to the current bulky packaged neural implants. We describe the next generation of miniaturized wirelessly powered neural interface that are distributed and free floating in the nervous system. This paper focuses on the microassembly, hermetic packaging and its effect on the inductive power link.

The 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2004

Benzocyclobutene (BCB) based intracortical neural implants for basic neuroscience research in animal models was fabricated, in which microfluidic channel was embedded to deliver chemical reagents. BCB presents several attractive features for chronic applications: flexibility, biocompatibility, desirable chemical and electrical properties, and can be easily manufactured using existing batch microfabrication technology; The fabricated implants have single shank with three recording sites ...

2018 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2018

Implantable electronic packages for neural implants utilize reliable electrical feedthroughs that connect the inside of a sealed capsule to the components that are exposed to the surrounding body tissue. With the ongoing miniaturization of implants requiring ever higher integration densities of such feedthroughs new technologies have to be investigated. The presented work investigates the sealing of vertical feedthroughs in aluminum-oxide-substrates ...

Proceedings. 2005 First International Conference on Neural Interface and Control, 2005., 2005

Implantable neural devices have many therapeutic, diagnostic, and prosthetic applications. Although there have been exciting developments in constructing these devices, two critical problems, data communication between the implanted device and external computers as well as electrical power to the device, have not yet been solved. We investigate these problems using the volume conduction properties of the human body. A prototype ...

### Educational Resources on Neural Implants

#### IEEE-USA E-Books

• The recording interface between neurons and an implanted microelectrode recording site is often compromised due to gliosis, rendering the implant nonfunctional under chronic conditions. The objective of this project is to design novel microelectrodes that will minimize gliosis under chronic implantation. We test the hypothesis that gliosis can be minimized or eliminated by reducing the cross-sectional area of the chronic implant. Current microelectrodes for recording chronic action potentials range from 25 /spl mu/m to 100 /spl mu/m or more in diameter. We fabricated neural implants by coating 12 /spl mu/m stainless steel microwires with polyglycolic acid (PGA), a biodegradable polymer, resulting in a final diameter of 25 /spl mu/m. Twelve rats were implanted with the PGA coated electrode on the left hemisphere in the somatosensory cortex and with the regular 25 /spl mu/m stainless microelectrode in the right hemisphere. The rat brains were perfused at 4 weeks after implantation and stained for glial fibrilliary acidic protein (GFAP) and microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP-2). The microelectrodes coated with PGA produced minimal gliosis compared to the conventional 25 /spl mu/m wire and other silicon based microelectrodes. We conclude that ultra-thin neural implants with minimum cross-sectional area coated with PGA will greatly improve the functionality of microelectrodes under chronic conditions.

• This work proposes solutions to the current bulky packaged neural implants. We describe the next generation of miniaturized wirelessly powered neural interface that are distributed and free floating in the nervous system. This paper focuses on the microassembly, hermetic packaging and its effect on the inductive power link.

• Benzocyclobutene (BCB) based intracortical neural implants for basic neuroscience research in animal models was fabricated, in which microfluidic channel was embedded to deliver chemical reagents. BCB presents several attractive features for chronic applications: flexibility, biocompatibility, desirable chemical and electrical properties, and can be easily manufactured using existing batch microfabrication technology; The fabricated implants have single shank with three recording sites (20 /spl mu/ 20 /spl mu/m) and two reservoirs (inlet and outlet). The channel had large volume (40 /spl mu/m width and 10 /spl mu/m height), and hydrophobic surface to provide a high degree of chemical inertness. All the recording sites were positioned near the end of the shank in order to increase the probability of recording neural signals from a target volume of tissue. In vitro biocompatibility tests of fabricated implants revealed no adverse toxic effects on cultured cells. The implant with a 5 /spl mu/m silicon backbone layer penetrated rat's pia without buckling, a major drawback of polymer alone. The averaged impedance value at 1 kHz was /spl sim/1.2 M/spl Omega/. Water flowing through the channel was observed. Depending on the amount of the driving pressure from the syringes, the delivery speed of the water was totally controlled.

• Implantable electronic packages for neural implants utilize reliable electrical feedthroughs that connect the inside of a sealed capsule to the components that are exposed to the surrounding body tissue. With the ongoing miniaturization of implants requiring ever higher integration densities of such feedthroughs new technologies have to be investigated. The presented work investigates the sealing of vertical feedthroughs in aluminum-oxide-substrates with gold stud-bumps. The technology enables integration densities of up to 1600/cm2while delivering suitable water leak rates for realistic implantation durations of miniaturized packages (feedthrough-count > 50, package-volume <; 2 cm3) of more than 50 years. All manufacturing steps require temperatures below 420 °C and are suitable for maskless rapid prototyping.

• Implantable neural devices have many therapeutic, diagnostic, and prosthetic applications. Although there have been exciting developments in constructing these devices, two critical problems, data communication between the implanted device and external computers as well as electrical power to the device, have not yet been solved. We investigate these problems using the volume conduction properties of the human body. A prototype implantable device is constructed equipped with a volume conduction data communication channel. A new power delivery antenna is conceptualized, inspired by a study of the power delivery mechanisms of electric fish. Our investigation indicates that the volume conduction resources within the human body may provide a powerful solution to both problems.

• This paper presents a fully-integrated stimulator chip for electrical microstimulation. The device is designed in a high-voltage process that allows up to 20V power supply and 19V output voltage compliance. A broad range of current-mode stimulation waveforms and patterns can be generated, including symmetrical/asymmetrical, biphasic/monophasic, and pulse train stimuli. The current amplitude, pulse width, and stimulation rate are adjustable from 0.5μA to 2mA, 100μs to 4ms, and 0.1Hz to 200Hz, respectively. Two complementary charge-balancing techniques are integrated to reduce residual voltage and stimulation artifacts. In in vitro experiments, the stimulator is demonstrated to trigger neural spikes, modulate neuronal firing rate, and alter mesoscopic neuronal activity. The results suggest the proposed microstimulator can support a wide variety of neuroscience experiments that require electrical microstimulation.

• Millimeter-sized implants for neural interface have been of great interest in the neuroengineering field due to their minimal invasiveness and great potential as an alternative to conventional bulky neural interfacing systems. However, their size poses great challenges not only on wireless power transmission, but also on uplink (implant to outside) data communication. One of most feasible data communication methods is load-shift keying based on the backscattering principle utilizing the existing inductive power link. This method consumes minimal power inherently, but its achievable modulation index is infinitesimal so that it is greatly challenging to detect the transmitted data on the outside. In this paper, we explore new schemes using a separate data reception coil that is magnetically balanced with the power coil. Due to its minimal crosstalk between the power transmission coil and data coil, a much higher data modulation index can be achieved. In addition to circular coils, we also present elliptical magnetic-balanced coil structures. According to finite element model stimulations with a realistic brain tissue model in Ansys HFSS and time domain simulation in Cadence, up to $15\times$ improvement in data modulation index can be achieved compared to conventional methods.

• A unique structure for chronically implantable cortical electrodes based on benzocyclobutene (BCB) biopolymer was designed to perform intracortical and extracortical neural recording simultaneously in basic neuroscience research using animal models. It was fabricated on silicon wafer using standard planar CMOS surface microfabrication technique. Dry-etchable BCB was used to insulate the electrode and provide flexibility for micro-motion compliance between brain tissue and skull. This electrode is also designed to ease the handling and implantation during the surgery and to integrate buffer circuits to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The reliable fabrication process was developed to improve the electrode yield and performance. A 15 /spl mu/m thick tungsten layer was sandwiched in the electrode tip to improve the stiffness for easy insertion during the surgery. The fabricated electrodes have two intra-cortical recording sites (20/spl times/20 /spl mu/m) in the tip penetrating into the cortex and two epidural recording sites (80/spl times/80um) on each side wing, providing a 6 channel system. One via (40/spl times/40 /spl mu/m) was also incorporated in the tip to balance the tip and provide the bio-seeding to improve the implants and neural tissue interaction. The acute surgical testing suggests that this electrode structure can penetrate the pia into the cortical tissue without damaging the electrode.

• A finite element model has been developed to investigate the theoretical relationship between changes in extracellular resistivity and electrical potential in a chronic extracellular recording scenario. The inputs to the model are experimental results obtained from chronic recording and complex impedance measurements in cerebral cortex of adult guinea pigs. Using the measured tissue-electrode impedance to set the resistivity in the model provides simulated extracellular potentials that are consistent with the measured spike amplitudes. In both the experimental and theoretical paradigms it was found that increased extracellular resistivity results in an increased potential at the recording electrode tip. Although the results of the two methods could not be directly correlated, they do suggest that a certain amount of variance can be accounted for by the increased resistivity values. The methods presented offer a powerful theoretical tool for understanding some of the factors, which may affect chronic extracellular recording stability.

• A novel full digital and non-coherent DPSK demodulator is presented for inductively powered biomedical systems. The transmitter uses differential phase encoding technique that requires in the demodulation, a precise symbol clock recovery. This was achieved by the detection of the rising and falling edges of the digitized received carrier. Very low power consumption and high data transmission rate are obtained with an excellent data-rate-to-carrier- frequency ratio of 100% without increasing the carrier frequency. The proposed demodulator is especially appropriate for high data rate biomedical applications such as visual prostheses and brain-machine interface. The circuit is designed in the 0.35-μm CMOS technology of Austria Micro Systems and it consumes 136.3μW @ 3.3 V at a data transmission rate of 10 Mbps.