Conferences related to Meninges

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2020 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE


2014 International Conference on Distributed Frameworks for Multimedia Applications (DFmA)

Papers are invited on all aspects of Advanced Computer Networks/Next Generation Internet or research areas aligned to it that include (but are not limited to) the following: Multimedia Communications and Systems, Networks/Internet & Communications, Internet Security and Monitoring, Grid and Cloud Computing.



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Medical Imaging, IEEE Transactions on

Imaging methods applied to living organisms with emphasis on innovative approaches that use emerging technologies supported by rigorous physical and mathematical analysis and quantitative evaluation of performance.




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Insertion of a three dimensional silicon microelectrode assembly through a thick meningeal membrane

2009 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2009

There are many different needs for intraoperative mapping in both rodent as well as human brain. Whether the goal of the procedure is for epileptic mapping, removal of cancerous tissue, mapping the motor and sensory cortices, or understanding the underlying neural networks within the brain, dense three- dimensional electrode arrays are necessary. In this study, we outlined and validated thicker ...


A new approach to model subarachoid trabeculae resistance in cerebrospinal fluid flow

2012 19th Iranian Conference of Biomedical Engineering (ICBME), 2012

The subarachnoid space (SAS) contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and a variety of trabeculae that are arranged between the arachnoid mater and the pia layers of the meninges, which stabilizes the shape and the position of the brain during head movements. The complex geometry of subarachnoid trabeculae makes it extremely challenging for the researchers to model the role of them in ...


3D Visualisation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Flow Within the Human Central Nervous System

The 2nd International Conference on Distributed Frameworks for Multimedia Applications, 2006

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a biomedical fluid contained within the central nervous system (CNS). It is produced in the ventricular system within the brain and is contained between the meninges, which are membranes lining the brain and the inside of the spine and cranium. It has a major role as a damper that protects the head from injuries and ...


Microstructural Characterization of the Pia-Arachnoid Complex Using Optical Coherence Tomography

IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 2015

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world, and is often identified by the presence of subdural and/or subarachnoid hemorrhages that develop from ruptured cortical vessels during brain-skull displacement. The pia-arachnoid complex (PAC), also known as the leptomeninges, is the major mechanical connection between the brain and skull, and influences cortical ...


Automatic tumor segmentation using knowledge-based techniques

IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 1998

A system that automatically segments and labels glioblastoma-multiforme tumors in magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the human brain is presented. The MRIs consist of T1-weighted, proton density, and T2-weighted feature images and are processed by a system which integrates knowledge-based (KB) techniques with multispectral analysis. Initial segmentation is performed by an unsupervised clustering algorithm. The segmented image, along with cluster ...


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  • Insertion of a three dimensional silicon microelectrode assembly through a thick meningeal membrane

    There are many different needs for intraoperative mapping in both rodent as well as human brain. Whether the goal of the procedure is for epileptic mapping, removal of cancerous tissue, mapping the motor and sensory cortices, or understanding the underlying neural networks within the brain, dense three- dimensional electrode arrays are necessary. In this study, we outlined and validated thicker silicon probe designs for use in intracortical mapping applications. Multiple shank and electrode site configurations were implanted successfully through rat dura as a model for human pia, and all devices maintained the electrical functionality necessary for electrophysiological mapping applications.

  • A new approach to model subarachoid trabeculae resistance in cerebrospinal fluid flow

    The subarachnoid space (SAS) contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and a variety of trabeculae that are arranged between the arachnoid mater and the pia layers of the meninges, which stabilizes the shape and the position of the brain during head movements. The complex geometry of subarachnoid trabeculae makes it extremely challenging for the researchers to model the role of them in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow. The goal of this research is to investigate the role of subarachnoid trabeculae in CSF flow, and introduce an alternative model. Three fluid models were created: 1) a model with normal CSF properties, 2) a model with an equivalent fluid, and 3) a modified model having trabeculae as some flow-obstacles. It is found that the trabeculae yield smoother pressure response in a head impact simulation. The sudden pressure changes in SAS are mainly caused by the improvement of the trabeculae anatomy. The study showed that the presence of trabeculae should not be ignored, and the modified model could be used to show heterogeneous distribution of trabeculae in SAS.

  • 3D Visualisation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Flow Within the Human Central Nervous System

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a biomedical fluid contained within the central nervous system (CNS). It is produced in the ventricular system within the brain and is contained between the meninges, which are membranes lining the brain and the inside of the spine and cranium. It has a major role as a damper that protects the head from injuries and transports biochemical elements and proteins inside the brain. In this paper a three dimensional (3D) model of the human ventricular system (HVS) is used to investigate the flow of CSF within the human brain, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CSF can be modelled as a Newtonian fluid and its flow through the HVS can be visualized using CFD. In this investigation a 3D geometric model of the HVS is constructed from MRI data. It is the only model of its type to date. The flow of CSF within the HVS is a complicated phenomenon due to the complex HVS geometry. Understanding the nature of CSF flow allows engineers and physicians to design medical techniques and drugs to treat various HVS complications, such as hydrocephalus as a result of a tumour

  • Microstructural Characterization of the Pia-Arachnoid Complex Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world, and is often identified by the presence of subdural and/or subarachnoid hemorrhages that develop from ruptured cortical vessels during brain-skull displacement. The pia-arachnoid complex (PAC), also known as the leptomeninges, is the major mechanical connection between the brain and skull, and influences cortical vessel deformation and rupture following brain trauma. This complex consists of cerebrospinal fluid, arachnoid trabeculae, and subarachnoid vasculature sandwiched between the arachnoid and pia mater membranes. Remarkably, studies of the tissues in the PAC are largely qualitative and do not provide numerical metrics of population density and variability of the arachnoid trabeculae and subarachnoid vasculature. In this study, microstructural imaging was performed on the PAC to numerically quantify these metrics. Five porcine brains were perfusion-fixed and imaged in situ using optical coherence tomography with micrometer resolution. Image processing was performed to estimate the volume fraction (VF) of the arachnoid trabeculae and subarachnoid vasculature in 12 regions of the brain. High regional variability was found within each brain, with individual brains exhibiting up to a 38.4 percentage-point range in VF. Regions with high VF were often next to regions with low VF. This suggests that some areas of the brain may be mechanically weaker, increasing their susceptibility to hemorrhage during TBI events. This study provides the first quantifiable data of arachnoid trabeculae and subarachnoid vasculature distribution within the PAC and will be valuable to understanding brain biomechanics during head trauma.

  • Automatic tumor segmentation using knowledge-based techniques

    A system that automatically segments and labels glioblastoma-multiforme tumors in magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the human brain is presented. The MRIs consist of T1-weighted, proton density, and T2-weighted feature images and are processed by a system which integrates knowledge-based (KB) techniques with multispectral analysis. Initial segmentation is performed by an unsupervised clustering algorithm. The segmented image, along with cluster centers for each class are provided to a rule-based expert system which extracts the intracranial region. Multispectral histogram analysis separates suspected tumor from the rest of the intracranial region, with region analysis used in performing the final tumor labeling. This system has been trained on three volume data sets and tested on thirteen unseen volume data sets acquired from a single MRI system. The KB tumor segmentation was compared with supervised, radiologist-labeled "ground truth" tumor volumes and supervised K-nearest neighbors tumor segmentations. The results of this system generally correspond well to ground truth, both on a per slice basis and more importantly in tracking total tumor volume during treatment over time.

  • A simple genetic algorithm for tracing the deformed midline on a single slice of brain CT using quadratic Bezier curves

    Midline shift (MLS) is one of the most important quantitative features clinicians use to evaluate the severity of brain compression. It can be recognized by modeling brain deformation according to the estimated biomechanical properties of the brain structures. This paper proposes a novel method to identify the deformed midline by decomposing it into three segments: the upper and the lower straight segments representing parts of the tough meninges separating two brain hemispheres, and the central curved segment formed by a quadratic Bezier curve, representing the intervening soft brain tissue. The deformed midline is obtained by minimizing the summed square of the differences across all midline points, applying a genetic algorithm. Our algorithm was evaluated on images containing various pathologies from 81 consecutive patients treated in a single institute over one-year period. The deformed midlines were evaluated by human experts, and the values of midline shift were accurate in 95%

  • Pathogen Detection Using Frequency Domain Fluorescent Lifetime Measurements

    Objective: Inflammation of the meninges is a source of severe morbidity and therefore is an important health concerns worldwide. The conventional clinical microbiology approaches used today to identify pathogens suffer from several drawbacks and frequently provide false results. This research describes a fast method to detect the presence of pathogens using the frequency domain (FD) fluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging microscopy (FLIM) system. Methods: The study included 43 individuals divided into 4 groups: 9 diagnosed with different types of bacteria; 16 diagnosed with different types of viruses; 5 healthy samples served as a control; and 12 samples were negative to any pathogen, although presenting related symptoms. All samples contained leukocytes that were extracted from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and were subjected to nuclear staining by 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and FLT analyses based on phase and amplitude crossing point (CRPO). Results: Using notched boxplots, we found differences in 95% probability between the first three groups through different notch ranges (NR). Pathogen samples presented a longer median FLT (3.28 ns with NR of 3.24-3.32 ns in bacteria and 3.18 ns with NR of 3.16-3.21 ns in viruses) compared to the control median FLT (2.65 ns with NR of 2.63-2.67 ns). Furthermore, we found that the undetected forth group was divided into two types: a relatively normal median FLT (2.72 ns with NR of 2.68-2.76 ns) and a prolonged FLT (3.22 ns with NR of 3.17-3.27 ns). Conclusion: FLT measurements can differentiate between control and pathogen by the CRPO method. Significance: The FD-FLIM system can provide a high throughput diagnostic technique that does not require a physician.

  • Knowledge-driven extraction of the four modified Talairach cortical landmarks (A, P, L, and R) from MR neuroimages

    An algorithm to locate the four modified Talairach cortical landmarks (A, P, L, and R) based on knowledge is proposed. Knowledge is employed to select the axial plane (the AP plane) passing through the anterior and posterior commissures, determination of optimum thresholds, segmentation, and refinement of the AP plane. The algorithm has been validated against 38 T1-weighted datasets from public resources. It takes less than 1 second on Pentium 4 (2.6 GHz) to extract the 4 landmarks. The average landmark location error is below 1 mm. The algorithm is robust and accurate as the factors influencing the determination of cortical landmarks like noise, gray level inhomogeneity, partial volume effect, and connection between the cortex and the sagittal sinus/meninges/skull are carefully compensated. A low computational cost is attributed to simple operations like thresholding, seeding, simple morphological operations and distance transform.



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