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2020 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE


2005 1st International Conference on Neural Interface and Control (CNIC)



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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Rehabilitation aspects of biomedical engineering, including functional electrical stimulation, acoustic dynamics, human performance measurement and analysis, nerve stimulation, electromyography, motor control and stimulation, and hardware and software applications for rehabilitation engineering and assistive devices.



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Complexity measures of the central respiratory networks during wakefulness and sleep in piglets

2007 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2007

In this study, we examine EMGdi complexity before and after general (muscimol) inhibition of respiratory neurons within the rostral ventral medulla (RVM). We inserted a microdialysis guide tube into the RVM region, allowing us to dialyze muscimol on a daily basis during experiments. Animals were studied using the technique of barometric plethysmography, allowing us to measure ventilation without restraint. The ...


A model of the pacemaking neuron of the respiratory central pattern generator

IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 2005

We have developed a model of the mammalian respiratory central pattern generator (rCPG) to mimic the salient characteristics of its constituent medullary neurons. This model is designed as a network of Hodgkin-Huxley-type medullary neurons driven by a pacemaking neuron from the pre-Bo/spl uml/tzinger complex. Here, we present the results of our model of this pacemaking neuron, based on available voltage ...


Immunohistochemical localization of the corticospinal tract in normal rat spinal cord as a stereotactic guidance for implantation of microelectronic chip

Proceedings. 2005 First International Conference on Neural Interface and Control, 2005., 2005

In order to investigate the pick-up, the process and the regeneration of central neural signals for neural function regeneration by means of microelectronic techniques, it is necessary to do a more detailed investigation, primarily of the stereotactic anatomical bases of corticospinal tract (CST). In present study, we use a polyclonal antibody against protein kinase C gamma subspecies (PKC /spl gamma/) ...


Experimental study on origin of cerebral bioelectric rhythm

Images of the Twenty-First Century. Proceedings of the Annual International Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society,, 1989

An attempt is made to determine the origin of the biological electric signals of the cerebral cortex in a certain sense and to uncover the different contributions of the midportion of the thalamus, the gigantocellular tegmental fields of the midbrain, the locus caeruleus of the pons, and the raphe of the medulla oblongata under the cortex in the formation of ...


Stationary regimes of the respiratory neuron networks and their identification

The Second International Symposium on Neuroinformatics and Neurocomputers, 1995

Mathematical modelling of rhythm generation in the respiratory neuron network (RNN) located in medulla oblongata is a slowly developing research area. There are some special models which take into account the configuration of connectedness between the neuron pools, chemoreceptor drive and dissipation factor. The compartmental approach is especially suitable to the modelling of the RNN's rhythm generation. The usefulness of ...


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  • Complexity measures of the central respiratory networks during wakefulness and sleep in piglets

    In this study, we examine EMGdi complexity before and after general (muscimol) inhibition of respiratory neurons within the rostral ventral medulla (RVM). We inserted a microdialysis guide tube into the RVM region, allowing us to dialyze muscimol on a daily basis during experiments. Animals were studied using the technique of barometric plethysmography, allowing us to measure ventilation without restraint. The EMGdi signals were recorded from 5 unanesthetized, chronically instrumented and intact piglets (3-10 days old) during eupnea before and after general inhibition of respiratory neurons in the RVM and analyzed using the approximate entropy and fractal analysis methods. Ten consecutive breaths were taken after 6 continuous minutes of unequivocal wakefulness, 3 minutes of NREM and 1 minute of REM sleep. Once the control responses to room air were measured, we dialyzed muscimol. GABA<sub>A</sub> agonist (10mM) into the RVM and repeated in room air. Note that muscimol is an nonspecific inhibitor and inhibits the neurons in the RVM. The EMGdi signals were recorded from 4 unanesthetized, chronically instrumented piglets (3-10 days old) during eupnea and analyzed using the expectation-maximization (EM) fractal method as in the first set of experiments, The complexity values in NREM were reduced more by the inhibition than were the awake stage. However, the changes in the complexity values due to the inhibition of the RVM were much more prominent during REM. The differences in the complexity measures of EMGdi before and after muscimol dialysis were statistically significant (p&lt;0.01) during REM and NREM, but not during wakefulness. Our findings show that inhibition of the RVM reduced the complexity of the respiratory patterns significantly (p&lt;0.05) during NREM and REM sleep stages. These data indicate that the RVM plays an important role in both the control of sleep and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDs).

  • A model of the pacemaking neuron of the respiratory central pattern generator

    We have developed a model of the mammalian respiratory central pattern generator (rCPG) to mimic the salient characteristics of its constituent medullary neurons. This model is designed as a network of Hodgkin-Huxley-type medullary neurons driven by a pacemaking neuron from the pre-Bo/spl uml/tzinger complex. Here, we present the results of our model of this pacemaking neuron, based on available voltage clamp data. Implications for the behavior of the rCPG are discussed.

  • Immunohistochemical localization of the corticospinal tract in normal rat spinal cord as a stereotactic guidance for implantation of microelectronic chip

    In order to investigate the pick-up, the process and the regeneration of central neural signals for neural function regeneration by means of microelectronic techniques, it is necessary to do a more detailed investigation, primarily of the stereotactic anatomical bases of corticospinal tract (CST). In present study, we use a polyclonal antibody against protein kinase C gamma subspecies (PKC /spl gamma/) as a specific marker of CST to reveal the precise localization of CST in rat spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. The strong PKC /spl gamma/ immunoreactivities in axons of CST were found in the pyramid and pyramidal decussation of medulla oblongata, and then from the cervical to lumbar spinal cord, PKC /spl gamma/ immunoreactivities were found to descend caudully through the white matter occupying the ventralmost portion of the posterior funiculus. At the conus medullaris, the positive reactivities of PKC /spl gamma/ appeared at the midline of the posterior funiculus. The area of positive reactivities of PKC /spl gamma/ decreased in size caudally in different spinal cord segments. These findings suggest that PKC /spl gamma/ immunohistochemical method can show the accurate position of corticospinal tract in rat spinal cord clearly, and provide the stereotactic anatomical bases for the microelectronic chip implantation in spinal cord.

  • Experimental study on origin of cerebral bioelectric rhythm

    An attempt is made to determine the origin of the biological electric signals of the cerebral cortex in a certain sense and to uncover the different contributions of the midportion of the thalamus, the gigantocellular tegmental fields of the midbrain, the locus caeruleus of the pons, and the raphe of the medulla oblongata under the cortex in the formation of the basic frequency of the cerebral cortex. Using the analysis of the square coherence spectrum, it is found that the gigantocellular tegmental fields provide higher frequency rhythms that belong to exciting bands, and the locus caeruleus and the raphe provide lower frequency rhythms that belong to resting bands.<<ETX>>

  • Stationary regimes of the respiratory neuron networks and their identification

    Mathematical modelling of rhythm generation in the respiratory neuron network (RNN) located in medulla oblongata is a slowly developing research area. There are some special models which take into account the configuration of connectedness between the neuron pools, chemoreceptor drive and dissipation factor. The compartmental approach is especially suitable to the modelling of the RNN's rhythm generation. The usefulness of the compartmental approach is presented in the case of structural modelling and identification of hierarchical respiratory neuron networks.

  • Somatosensory encoding with cuneate nucleus microstimulation: Detection of artificial stimuli

    The sense of touch and proprioception are critical to movement control. After spinal cord injury, these senses may be restored with direct, electrical microstimulation of the brain as part of a complete sensorimotor neuroprosthesis. The present study was designed to test, in part, the hypothesis that the cuneate nucleus (CN) of the brainstem is a suitable site to encode somatosensory information. Two rhesus macaques were implanted with microelectrode arrays providing chronic access to the CN. The monkeys were trained on an active touch oddity task to detect vibrotactile stimuli. When the vibrotactile stimuli were replaced with electrical stimuli delivered to the CN, initial detection probabilities were near chance. Detection performance improved over time, reaching a plateau after about 10 daily sessions. At plateau performance, the monkeys exhibited detection probabilities that were 68-80% higher than the chance probability. Finally, detection probability was quantified as a function of stimulus amplitude. The resulting psychometric curve showed a detection threshold of 45 μA for 100-Hz stimulus trains. These behavioral data are the first to show that artificial CN activation is sufficient for perception. The results are consistent with our hypothesis and motivate future tests of the CN as a somatosensory encoding site.

  • A model-based approach for the evaluation of vagal and sympathetic activities in a newborn lamb

    This paper proposes a baroreflex model and a recursive identification method to estimate the time-varying vagal and sympathetic contributions to heart rate variability during autonomic maneuvers. The baroreflex model includes baroreceptors, cardiovascular control center, parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways. The gains of the global afferent sympathetic and vagal pathways are identified recursively. The method has been validated on data from newborn lambs, which have been acquired during the application of an autonomic maneuver, without medication and under beta-blockers. Results show a close match between experimental and simulated signals under both conditions. The vagal and sympathetic contributions have been simulated and, as expected, it is possible to observe different baroreflex responses under beta-blockers compared to baseline conditions.

  • Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Estimation of the Electric Field and of the Current Density in an Anatomical Human Head Model

    This paper investigates the spatial distribution of the electric field and of the current density in the brain tissues induced by transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex. A numerical method was applied on a realistic human head model to calculate these field distributions in different brain structures, such as the cortex, the white matter, the cerebellum, the hippocampus, the medulla oblongata, the pons, the midbrain, and the thalamus. The influence of varying the anode area, the cathode area, and the injected current was also investigated. An electrode area as the one typically used in clinical practice (i.e., both electrodes equal to 35 cm<sup>2</sup>) resulted into complex and diffuse amplitude distributions over all the examined brain structures, with the region of maximum induced field being below or close to the anode. Variations in either the anode or cathode area corresponded to changes in the field amplitude distribution in all the brain tissues, with the former variation producing more diffuse effects. Variations in the injected current resulted, as could be expected, in linearly correlated changes in the field amplitudes.

  • Quantification of Corticospinal Tract Atrophy Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Potential Diagnostic Tool in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a rare neurodegenerative disease affecting the motor tract pathways. The role of neuroimaging in diagnosing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is still growing, and no definite technique has been adopted yet. Using an advanced neuroimaging technique, namely Diffusion Tensor Imaging, we propose a novel non-invasive, objective and quantitative technique to help in the diagnosis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Specifically, we collected Fractional Anisotropy and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient measurements at three anatomical sites (Posterior Limb of the Internal Capsule, Anterior Cerebral Peduncle, and Pre-Pyramidal Decussation in the medulla oblongata), where Corticospinal Tracts cross inside the brain and brainstem, in 10 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patients and 10 healthy controls. Then, we derived Side-toSide Ratios of the collected Fractional Anisotropy and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient data at every site, and statistically evaluated these data to check for differences between abnormal patients and controls. Our results showed that for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patients, the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient inter-side difference was 0.4500×10-10, which was more than double the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient inter-side difference in Controls (0.0212×10-10). The Side-to-Side Ratio of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient at the Posterior Limb of the Internal Capsule was significantly different between abnormal patients and Controls. The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve comparing the Sideto-Side Ratio of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient at the Posterior Limb of the Internal Capsule between abnormal and Control groups showed a sensitivity and specificity of 30% and 90%, respectively, with a likelihood ratio of 3.0 for values <;1.017. Our study appeared promising and is the first of its kind in terms of evaluating the diagnostic value of the Side-to-Side Ratios of Fractional Anisotropy and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient measurements at different levels of the central motor pathway in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patients.



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