Conferences related to Immersion

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2021 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference (PPC)

The Pulsed Power Conference is held on a biannual basis and serves as the principal forum forthe exchange of information on pulsed power technology and engineering.


2020 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and North American Radio Science Meeting

The joint meeting is intended to provide an international forum for the exchange of information on state of the art research in the area of antennas and propagation, electromagnetic engineering and radio science


2020 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE


2020 IEEE 70th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)

ECTC is the premier international conference sponsored by the IEEE Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Society. ECTC paper comprise a wide spectrum of topics, including 3D packaging, electronic components, materials, assembly, interconnections, device and system packaging, optoelectronics, reliability, and simulation.


2020 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE)

The Frontiers in Education (FIE) Conference is a major international conference focusing on educational innovations and research in engineering and computing education. FIE 2019 continues a long tradition of disseminating results in engineering and computing education. It is an ideal forum for sharing ideas, learning about developments and interacting with colleagues inthese fields.


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Periodicals related to Immersion

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Advanced Packaging, IEEE Transactions on

The IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging has its focus on the modeling, design, and analysis of advanced electronic, photonic, sensors, and MEMS packaging.


Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on

The theory, design and application of Control Systems. It shall encompass components, and the integration of these components, as are necessary for the construction of such systems. The word `systems' as used herein shall be interpreted to include physical, biological, organizational and other entities and combinations thereof, which can be represented through a mathematical symbolism. The Field of Interest: shall ...


Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in

The IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering will review the state-of-the-art and trends in the emerging field of biomedical engineering. This includes scholarly works, ranging from historic and modern development in biomedical engineering to the life sciences and medicine enabled by technologies covered by the various IEEE societies.


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Xplore Articles related to Immersion

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Demagnification and Magnification Effects in One-Step Noncontact Pattern Transfer by Direct-Current Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 2015

Complex patterns formed by an array of micrometer spots can be transferred onto a silicon wafer using a one-step noncontact pattern transfer method by dc plasma immersion ion implantation. The transferred images can be demagnified or magnified by placing a metal ring in contact with the metal mask (demagnification) or sample (magnification). Scanning electron microscopy reveals that the center to ...


Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation for the Prevention of Metal Ion Release From CoCrMo Alloys

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 2011

Surface modifications of biomaterials by plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3) are innovative methods to improve the biocompatibility of these materials. In this paper, the modification of the ion-releasing behavior of a LC forged ASTM F-799 CoCrMo alloy after implantation with N and O in a plasma immersion ion implantation process is described. Corrosion behavior in bovine serum was measured by ...


Annealing Effects on Silicon Oxynitride Layer Synthesized by N Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 2006

A silicon oxynitride layer was obtained on a polished silicon wafer surface by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation. Oxygen is provided by the residual gas in the implantation chamber (base pressure of 3times10<sup>-5</sup> mbar) and is also implanted as the main impurity. As-implanted Si samples were analyzed by high-resolution Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), which indicated the formation of a SiO<sub>x</sub>N<sub>y</sub> ...


Numerical Simulation of Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Diffusion

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 2007

A numerical model is proposed to simulate plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) and diffusion. The PIII process is modeled by the 1-D hybrid particle- in-cell ions and Boltzmann distribution of electrons. The depth profile of the as-implanted atoms is modeled by transport-of-ions-in-matter-based method. Diffusion of the implanted atoms is modeled by Fick's diffusion equation, assuming that the diffusion coefficient is ...


High-Performance Multilevel Resistive Switching Gadolinium Oxide Memristors With Hydrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation Treatment

IEEE Electron Device Letters, 2014

Multilevel resistive switching (RS) of gadolinium oxide (GdxOy) memristors treated by hydrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) was investigated. Hydrogen ions were implanted at the Pt/GdxOy interface to modify the oxygen- vacancy distribution, which was examined by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. After the hydrogen PIII treatment, a forming process is needed to operate the GdxOy memristors and the RS mechanism ...


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Educational Resources on Immersion

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Demagnification and Magnification Effects in One-Step Noncontact Pattern Transfer by Direct-Current Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    Complex patterns formed by an array of micrometer spots can be transferred onto a silicon wafer using a one-step noncontact pattern transfer method by dc plasma immersion ion implantation. The transferred images can be demagnified or magnified by placing a metal ring in contact with the metal mask (demagnification) or sample (magnification). Scanning electron microscopy reveals that the center to center distance between the imaged holes can be reduced from 300 to 245 μm, that is, center to center distance in the mask. The 2-D multiple-grid particle-in-cell simulation illustrates that the electric field between the metal mask and sample leads to the demagnification and magnification effects. This one-step and truly noncontact process that has potential applications in transferring pattern onto soft and flexible substrates is applicable to brittle nanostructures that may not survive etching.

  • Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation for the Prevention of Metal Ion Release From CoCrMo Alloys

    Surface modifications of biomaterials by plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3) are innovative methods to improve the biocompatibility of these materials. In this paper, the modification of the ion-releasing behavior of a LC forged ASTM F-799 CoCrMo alloy after implantation with N and O in a plasma immersion ion implantation process is described. Corrosion behavior in bovine serum was measured by open circuit potential and cathodic potentiodynamic polarization curves. After corrosion tests, metal ion release was estimated comparing GDOES analysis results in treated samples before and after corrosion tests. They showed a good relation between both studies. Better results in corrosion tests indicate important reduction in Co and Cr ions release rates. Conclusions about corrosion improvement of CoCrMo alloys after N or O implantation are presented.

  • Annealing Effects on Silicon Oxynitride Layer Synthesized by N Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    A silicon oxynitride layer was obtained on a polished silicon wafer surface by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation. Oxygen is provided by the residual gas in the implantation chamber (base pressure of 3times10<sup>-5</sup> mbar) and is also implanted as the main impurity. As-implanted Si samples were analyzed by high-resolution Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), which indicated the formation of a SiO<sub>x</sub>N<sub>y</sub> layer of about 30 nm with varying x and y, along the depth of the treatment layer. AES also provided concentration profiles of the implanted elements at the as-implanted stage. Annealing of samples from a batch of such oxynitrided Si samples was carried out at different temperatures ranging from 200 degC to 1060 degC. The AES analysis of these annealed samples indicated a significant escape of the implanted nitrogen atoms (starting already at 200 degC), but even at 1060 degC, there was a very thin (about 12 nm) remaining layer of the silicon oxynitride, which is probably in crystalline form. Results from high- resolution X-ray diffraction measurements also corroborate the aforementioned results

  • Numerical Simulation of Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Diffusion

    A numerical model is proposed to simulate plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) and diffusion. The PIII process is modeled by the 1-D hybrid particle- in-cell ions and Boltzmann distribution of electrons. The depth profile of the as-implanted atoms is modeled by transport-of-ions-in-matter-based method. Diffusion of the implanted atoms is modeled by Fick's diffusion equation, assuming that the diffusion coefficient is independent of location and time. It is shown that PIII at a high temperature will generate a more shallow depth profile than the process of PIII at low temperature, followed by high- temperature annealing. In the extreme case of fast diffusion, the PIII at high temperature reveals a standard erfc (error function) distribution profile of constant-surface-concentration diffusion, and the process of PIII at low temperature, followed by high-temperature annealing, reveals a Gaussian distribution profile of constant-total-dopant diffusion.

  • High-Performance Multilevel Resistive Switching Gadolinium Oxide Memristors With Hydrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation Treatment

    Multilevel resistive switching (RS) of gadolinium oxide (GdxOy) memristors treated by hydrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) was investigated. Hydrogen ions were implanted at the Pt/GdxOy interface to modify the oxygen- vacancy distribution, which was examined by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. After the hydrogen PIII treatment, a forming process is needed to operate the GdxOy memristors and the RS mechanism is changed from Schottky emission to space-charge-limited conduction. Superior multilevel RS properties such as data retention for more than 104 s at 85°C, and sequentially cycling test for more than 103 times with a resistance ratio of approximately one order of magnitude between each state are realized, making the future high- density flash memory possible.

  • Robust nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation treatment on gadolinium oxide resistive switching random access memory

    In this paper, we demonstrate gadolinium oxide RRAM with nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treatment technique at first time. For nitrogen plasma treatment, the nitrogen ions were incorporated with gadolinium oxide. We controlled the implantation voltage that the nitrogen ions exist near the surface of gadolinium oxide and it was forming a Gd<sub>x</sub>O<sub>y</sub>N<sub>z</sub> layer. This can reduce the leakage current to reach a low current and power consumption operation. In addition, the retention and endurance characteristics were also improved.

  • Two-Dimensional Fluid Model of Pulse Sheath in Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation With Dielectric Substrates

    A 2D fluid model is developed to describe the charging effects during plasma immersion ion implantation with dielectric substrates. The spatiotemporal evolution of the surface potential, the accumulated charge dose, and the ion impact angle at the surface of dielectric substrates are calculated with the model. The numerical results demonstrate that the charging effects lead to reduction of the surface potential with time, and the surface potential is nonuniform along the dielectric surface. The lowest value of surface potential is near but not at the edge of the dielectric target. Therefore, the charge accumulation on the dielectric surface is also a function of surface position. The dose nonuniformity is more severe near the edge of the dielectric target. To lengthen the width of the metal electrode that is located below the dielectric target, one can improve the nonuniformity of the accumulated charge dose on the dielectric surface.

  • 3-D Numerical Simulation on Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation Batch Treating Process of Bearing Balls

    In the plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process, since the dose distribution is affected by the sheath around the sample to be treated, controlling the sheath expanding process is very important for obtaining a good dose uniformity. In this paper, a 3-D particle-in-cell (PIC) model was established to study the sheath expanding process around balls of the bearing in a PIII batch treating process respectively. Using the finite difference method, the spatial distributions of the normalized potential and ion density in the simulation region were calculated by solving Poisson's Equation, Newton's motion equations and the Boltzmann assumption for the electrons. The influences of the magnitude and pulse width of the implantation voltage applied as well as the plasma density on the sheath conformability were studied. The simulation results show that the sheath conformability around the balls in batch treating process is worse than that in a single process due to the sheath overlap of neighbor bearing components. The bad conformability of the sheath would lead to a bad distribution of the incident dose on the surface of bearing balls. In order to guarantee the conformability of the sheath around the bearing balls, a small pulse width, enough display distance as well as proper implantation voltage and plasma density should be promised in the PIII batch treating process.

  • Aluminium Incorporation in Lanthanum Oxide Films by using Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    The physics and the effects of aluminium incorporation into lanthanum oxide (La<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) films were studied by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrical measurements. We found that trace amount (5% ) of aluminium incorporation in lanthanum oxide film can suppress the leakage current effectively. The bulk oxide traps and interface traps can also reduced. The percentage of aluminium incorporation into the La<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> films by plasma immersion ion-implantation needs to be optimized to have the maximum reduction of oxide traps and to maintain the lowest leakage current.

  • Highly thermal robust NiSi for nanoscale MOSFETs utilizing a novel hydrogen plasma immersion ion implantation and Ni-Co-TiN tri-layer

    In this letter, hydrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (H PIII) with Ni- Co-TiN tri-layer is introduced for the first time to enhance the thermal stability of the Ni-silicide for nanoscale CMOS technology. The Ni-silicided poly-Si gate and source/drain showed stable sheet resistance in spite of 650/spl deg/C, 30 min post-silicidation annealing. The junction leakage current is even improved a lot without degradation of device performance using the proposed method.



Standards related to Immersion

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