Data Center Power
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2021 IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC)
Photovoltaic materials, devices, systems and related science and technology
The Pulsed Power Conference is held on a biannual basis and serves as the principal forum forthe exchange of information on pulsed power technology and engineering.
ICC 2021 - IEEE International Conference on Communications
IEEE ICC is one of the two flagship IEEE conferences in the field of communications; Montreal is to host this conference in 2021. Each annual IEEE ICC conference typically attracts approximately 1,500-2,000 attendees, and will present over 1,000 research works over its duration. As well as being an opportunity to share pioneering research ideas and developments, the conference is also an excellent networking and publicity event, giving the opportunity for businesses and clients to link together, and presenting the scope for companies to publicize themselves and their products among the leaders of communications industries from all over the world.
APEC focuses on the practical and applied aspects of the power electronics business. Not just a power designer’s conference, APEC has something of interest for anyone involved in power electronics including:- Equipment OEMs that use power supplies and converters in their equipment- Designers of power supplies, dc-dc converters, motor drives, uninterruptable power supplies, inverters and any other power electronic circuits, equipments and systems- Manufacturers and suppliers of components and assemblies used in power electronics- Manufacturing, quality and test engineers involved with power electronics equipment- Marketing, sales and anyone involved in the business of power electronic- Compliance engineers testing and qualifying power electronics equipment or equipment that uses power electronics
This conference provides an exchange of technical topics in the fields of Solid State Modulators and Switches, Breakdown and Insulation, Compact Pulsed Power Systems, High Voltage Design, High Power Microwaves, Biological Applications, Analytical Methods and Modeling, and Accelerators.
The IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging has its focus on the modeling, design, and analysis of advanced electronic, photonic, sensors, and MEMS packaging.
The IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine publishes articles concerned with the various aspects of systems for space, air, ocean, or ground environments.
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters (AWP Letters) will be devoted to the rapid electronic publication of short manuscripts in the technical areas of Antennas and Wireless Propagation.
Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission
The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...
2017 18th International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design (ISQED), 2017
The underlying infrastructure of cloud computing relies on data centers monitored and maintained by the cloud service providers. Data centers usually incur enormous power consumption and are expected to have a significant impact on the local power grid due to dramatically increasing power consumption and fluctuation. In order to mitigate such fluctuation and balance the power demand and supply in ...
2012 International Green Computing Conference (IGCC), 2012
The mapping of the power delivery network to the equipment in a data center is an essential step towards having intelligent and efficient control over data center power distribution. Visual identification of the power connectivity is error-prone and expensive while other methods require high-power signal injection and significant human labor or interruption in the power delivery, making them impractical. The ...
2017 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2017
High reliability is extremely important for uninterruptable power supplies (UPS) such as those used in the modern data centers. It is necessary to comprehensively and precisely evaluate reliability of different UPS system's architectures before constructing the data center. In this paper, a novel reliability analysis and simulation tool for data center power distribution system is proposed. The basic algorithm of ...
2014 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition - APEC 2014, 2014
This paper develops a three-phase front-end power conversion stage for data center power supplies based on 400 V<sub>dc</sub> power delivery architecture, which has been proven to have higher efficiency than traditional AC architectures. The front-end stage is based on three paralleled three-phase current source rectifiers, which have several benefits for this application. A control method is introduced for paralleled three-phase ...
2015 IEEE 20th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA), 2015
Data centers have grown to become big energy consumers. At this scale of power consumption, data centers play cconsiderable role in electric networks operation. However, being ca relatively new industrial scale consumer, data center requires cmore careful consideration and research to uncover its specifics and better understand its requirements; and investigate data center's impact on regional grid. This paper reports ...
Classifying attention in Pivotal Response Treatment Videos - Corey Heath - LPIRC 2019
Kazunori Iwasa: Challenges in Controlling Data Center Facilities - IoT Challenges Industry Forum Panel: WF IoT 2016
Micrel Ripple Blocker
The Intergrid - Safe, Dependable, Sustainable: IECON 2018
NREL Wind Technology Center
ITEC 2014: Next Generation Combat Vehicle Electrical Power Architecture Development
APEC 2011-NASA's Space Power Technologies
WIE ILC: Exception to Expectation: Women in Engineering
IROS TV 2019- Shantou University- Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Manufacturing
Q&A with Dr. May Wang: IEEE Big Data Podcast, Episode 9
The Power of seeing and understanding your DATA & Closing Ceremony | DSBC 2020
APEC 2017 in Tampa, Florida: Save the Date
Keynote Isaac Ben-Israel - ETAP Forum Tel Aviv 2016
Collection, Modeling & Interpretation of Mobile Sensor Big Data - Santosh Kumar - IEEE EMBS at NIH, 2019
KeyTalk with Xin Li and Shuai Jiang: Google 48V Power Architecture - APEC 2017
APEC 2014 Surges Ahead
Pt. 3: Scaling of Ethernet Switches, IP Routers, & the Cloud - David Neilson - Industry Panel 3, IEEE Globecom, 2019
Yasuhiko Arakawa, Pallab Bhattacharya, Dieter H. Bimberg - IEEE Jun-Ichi Nishizawa Medal, 2019 IEEE Honors Ceremony
APEC 2013 MicroMouse Competition
The underlying infrastructure of cloud computing relies on data centers monitored and maintained by the cloud service providers. Data centers usually incur enormous power consumption and are expected to have a significant impact on the local power grid due to dramatically increasing power consumption and fluctuation. In order to mitigate such fluctuation and balance the power demand and supply in the power grid in real time, the regulation service (RS) opportunity has been provided, which offers the electricity consumers to dynamically adjust their power consumption and reduce their electricity cost. Data centers can be active RS participants due to their flexibility and controllability in load dispatching and scheduling temporally (within a server) and spatially (among multiple servers). In order for the data centers to provide better RS, prediction on the data center power consumption becomes essential. In this work, we first adopt artificial neural network (ANN)-based method and long short term memory (LSTM) neural network-based method for the prediction of future data center power consumption. Based on the prediction results, we formulate a novel optimal power management problem of data center to minimize the total cost. Experimental results demonstrate that the total cost of the data center can be reduced by up to 20.6% compared with the baseline systems.
The mapping of the power delivery network to the equipment in a data center is an essential step towards having intelligent and efficient control over data center power distribution. Visual identification of the power connectivity is error-prone and expensive while other methods require high-power signal injection and significant human labor or interruption in the power delivery, making them impractical. The use of power modulation in a server has been proposed but requires large power variations in order to do the mapping. In this paper we propose a new technique that reduces by over an order of magnitude the amount of signaling power necessary to less than 2.5W. Using this technique we show that a simple, USB device is able to generate that signal, allowing a non-intrusive method to identify the power connectivity for a system. The speed of detecting the connectivity reliably makes this a feasible solution for mapping entire data centers.
High reliability is extremely important for uninterruptable power supplies (UPS) such as those used in the modern data centers. It is necessary to comprehensively and precisely evaluate reliability of different UPS system's architectures before constructing the data center. In this paper, a novel reliability analysis and simulation tool for data center power distribution system is proposed. The basic algorithm of this software tool is based on Monte Carlo next event simulation method but novel enhancements are made to make it suitable for large system reliability analysis. Specially, a novel dependent event generator allows the correct modeling of important events such as the battery discharge event and breaker trip event. Moreover, a multi- thread algorithm is developed to significantly increase the calculation speed with high precision. Several typical data center architectures are analyzed with the proposed software tool and their reliability performance are compared.
This paper develops a three-phase front-end power conversion stage for data center power supplies based on 400 V<sub>dc</sub> power delivery architecture, which has been proven to have higher efficiency than traditional AC architectures. The front-end stage is based on three paralleled three-phase current source rectifiers, which have several benefits for this application. A control method is introduced for paralleled three-phase current source rectifiers to achieve balanced outputs and individual rectifier module hot- swap, which are required by power supply systems. By using SiC power semiconductors, the power conversion efficiency of the front-end stage is improved and the whole efficiency of the data center power supply system can be further increased.
Data centers have grown to become big energy consumers. At this scale of power consumption, data centers play cconsiderable role in electric networks operation. However, being ca relatively new industrial scale consumer, data center requires cmore careful consideration and research to uncover its specifics and better understand its requirements; and investigate data center's impact on regional grid. This paper reports on the work in progress and at this stage details an effort to understand the impact of dynamic server load of a data center on its power infrastructure and further on the grid; the effects of transient faults in power grid on performance of a data center. This will help regional grid operators to improve power balancing within cthe network to maintaining network stability avoiding failures and blackouts. The results of this work will be used in developing dynamic power balancing strategy for a smart grid containing large data centers.
The power distribution grid of a DC data center is unique due to the highly capacitive characteristics of both the output of the DC power source (Uninterruptable Power Supply - UPS) and the input of the distributed load (multiple Power Supply Units - PSU). In case of a short-circuit to ground in such a system, oscillations are observed due to discharge of the capacitors through distributed RL network created by cables and bus bars. The detailed values of the frequency and amplitude of the current oscillations are system dependant, but in some cases the oscillation period might be as short as single millisecond, while the amplitude might rise to tens of thousands of Amps. The discharge of the input filters of the PSUs creates additional problem - a short current pulse of high amplitude and reversed polarity, which is noticed by all of the protection devices other than those located on the of the short-circuit current path, creates possible danger of unnecessary tripping of these breakers. Thus it is crucial to ensure that only the one, correct circuit breaker reacts during the fault in shortest time possible. This paper presents results of short-circuit to ground simulation in exemplary DC data center, the challenges of the proper protection system design and discusses zone selectivity as possible solution for fast and exact fault location.
Size and number of data centers are fast growing all over the world and their increasing total power consumption is a worldwide concern. Moreover, increase in the amount of process variation in nanometer technologies and its effect on total power consumption of servers has made it inevitable to move toward variation-aware power reduction strategies. This paper formulates a variation- aware joint server placement and task assignment method using Integer Linear Programming (ILP) to minimize total power consumption of data centers. We first determine the optimum placement of servers in the data center racks based on total power consumption of each server and the data center recirculation model obtained by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Then, we dynamically consolidate the ON servers in chassis and racks such that the use of power-greedy servers is minimized. Experimental results reveal up to 14.85% and an average of 8.92% power saving at different server utilization rates with respect to conventional methods.
Recent studies have proposed to dynamically reshape the power demand curve of a data center (i.e., power shaving) with energy storage devices, particularly uninterruptible power supply (UPS) batteries. Power shaving can be used to limit the peak power demand in a data center, in order to reduce both the power infrastructure investment (i.e., cap-ex) and the electricity bills (i.e., op-ex). However, power shaving requires the UPS batteries to be frequently charged/discharged, which is known to compromise the battery lifetime and availability. This paper presents a detailed quantitative study that explores different options to integrate supercapacitor (SC) with batteries for cost-efficient energy storage. Compared with batteries, SC allows more charge/discharge cycles and has a higher power density, which are desirable for fast power shaving. However, SC also has undesirable characteristics (e.g., relatively high self-discharging rate and cost). Therefore, we quantitatively compare three possible energy storage options (i.e., Battery-only, SC-only, and Battery+SC) in detail, with different SC self-discharging rate assumptions. SC options (SC-only and Battery+SC) are shown to be more cost-efficient designs, saving the energy storage cost by 34 percent, on average, compared with Battery-only. For a 10 MW data center in a 10-year period, the savings can be converted to $3 M in total cost of ownership (TCO) reduction by allowing more servers to be deployed. In addition, we also propose the integration of energy storage with dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) to cap the peak power demand (i.e., power capping). Specifically, we comparatively studyfour power capping algorithms and discuss their applicable scenarios. Finally, we introduce our proof-of- concept SC physical testbed and present preliminary hardware testing results.
Data centers are fast-growing electricity consumers. Electric power system configurations and energy management opportunities are discussed across all levels of a data center, with emphasis on building distribution and dc conversion. Several strategies that enhance center energy efficiency are discussed. The general issues are related to energy and reliability needs of telecommunications power systems. It is shown that best-case scenarios based on emerging methods can achieve energy reductions approaching 30% for data centers.
Isolated DC-DC converters are widely used as the essential power conversion equipment in recent renewable energy systems. At the same time, such converters are expected for wide input voltage range and fault tolerance. This paper proposes an isolated boost full bridge DC-DC converter with a set of low loss active snubber circuits. To verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme, a 10 kW prototype was developed for three-phase PV inverter system. Experimental result confirms the proposed converter's high efficient operation at 280-500 V input and resilient operation along 100-0-100% load change.
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