Perineum

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In human anatomy, the perineum (Late Latin, from Greek περίνεος - perineos) is a region of the body including the perineal body and surrounding structures. (Wikipedia.org)






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2019 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)

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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


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Imaging methods applied to living organisms with emphasis on innovative approaches that use emerging technologies supported by rigorous physical and mathematical analysis and quantitative evaluation of performance.



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Xplore Articles related to Perineum

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Electrical stimulation for control of bladder function

2009 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2009

Electrical stimulation of sensory fibers in the pudendal nerve can generate either inhibition or activation of the bladder, and this is a promising approach to restoration of continence and micturition in neurological disease or injury. We review studies of pudendal afferent stimulation to excite the bladder and enhance bladder emptying in urinary retention or restore bladder emptying following spinal cord ...


A non-invasive ultrasonic method for gaining labor process curve

Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1988

The use of a labor process curve can be of significant assistance to safe childbirth. Current invasive methods have defects. A noninvasive method to obtain the labor process curve has been developed. Ultrasonic beams stimulated under phasing control generate differential echoes on the protruding head and the part of the head held by uterus. The diameter of the outcropping head, ...


Eddy current density for non-invasive treatment system for urinary incontinence using Functional Continuous Magnetic Stimulator (FCMS)

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Bioelectromagnetism (Cat. No.98TH8269), 1998

The authors have devised a non-invasive, painless treatment system composed of a Functional Continuous Magnetic Stimulator (FCMS) and a large saddle type coil for urinary incontinence, especially stress incontinence and urge incontinence. First, the authors assumed the current density to apply to the objective stimulation region by general electrical stimulation. As a result, the absolute current density |Je| assumed by ...


Device and method to determine perineal artery occlusion during road bicycling

2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2014

Greater than 60 million American men who ride bicycles are at risk of developing erectile dysfunction. One possible reason is occlusion of the perineal arteries. Researchers relied on indirect methods and stationary models to study this problem. We developed a novel system to quantify occlusion among bicycle riders during a road bike ride. Our verification and validation activities show that ...


Non-invasive treatment system for urinary incontinence using continuous magnetic stimulation

Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 'Magnificent Milestones and Emerging Opportunities in Medical Engineering' (Cat. No.97CH36136), 1997

Electrical stimulation therapy is a proven effective treatment for urinary incontinence. But it has some inconvenience and discomfort. The authors have devised a non-invasive treatment system for urinary incontinence with no pain using continuous magnetic stimulation (CMS). The system is composed of a continuous magnetic stimulator and a magnetic coil with a cooler, and can be used with the 2 ...


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  • Electrical stimulation for control of bladder function

    Electrical stimulation of sensory fibers in the pudendal nerve can generate either inhibition or activation of the bladder, and this is a promising approach to restoration of continence and micturition in neurological disease or injury. We review studies of pudendal afferent stimulation to excite the bladder and enhance bladder emptying in urinary retention or restore bladder emptying following spinal cord injury.

  • A non-invasive ultrasonic method for gaining labor process curve

    The use of a labor process curve can be of significant assistance to safe childbirth. Current invasive methods have defects. A noninvasive method to obtain the labor process curve has been developed. Ultrasonic beams stimulated under phasing control generate differential echoes on the protruding head and the part of the head held by uterus. The diameter of the outcropping head, i.e. the amount of cervical dilation, can be determined by an odd-even check.<<ETX>>

  • Eddy current density for non-invasive treatment system for urinary incontinence using Functional Continuous Magnetic Stimulator (FCMS)

    The authors have devised a non-invasive, painless treatment system composed of a Functional Continuous Magnetic Stimulator (FCMS) and a large saddle type coil for urinary incontinence, especially stress incontinence and urge incontinence. First, the authors assumed the current density to apply to the objective stimulation region by general electrical stimulation. As a result, the absolute current density |Je| assumed by calculation was 12.7 /spl mu/A/mm/sup 2/. Second, they have developed a saddle type coil for the FCMS which can be used practically in most hospital and stimulate continuously for 15 minutes. The coil has a cooling function to maintain the coil temperature to use the coil efficiently safely between 20/spl deg/C-25/spl deg/C. The size of the saddle type coil is 21 cm long, 12 cm wide and 3 cm thick. The most suitable region for urinary incontinence is from the anus to perineum and the saddle type coil can fit on this region. In experiments with dogs, we confirmed that the urethral pressure increased when the circumference of the perineum received Continuous Magnetic Stimulation (CMS) with 720 /spl mu/s pulse width (180 /spl mu/s risetime), 10 Hz frequency and about 500 V capacitor charge voltage. This result suggest that magnetic stimulation is effective as a stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence therapy. The specifications of the FCMS are 2 kW maximum electrical power consumption, 800 V maximum stimulation intensity, 720 /spl mu/s pulse width (180 /spl mu/s risetime), 5-30 Hz frequency. The frequency is selected to treat urge incontinence between 5 and 10 Hz and to treat stress incontinence between 25 and 30 Hz.

  • Device and method to determine perineal artery occlusion during road bicycling

    Greater than 60 million American men who ride bicycles are at risk of developing erectile dysfunction. One possible reason is occlusion of the perineal arteries. Researchers relied on indirect methods and stationary models to study this problem. We developed a novel system to quantify occlusion among bicycle riders during a road bike ride. Our verification and validation activities show that this system can be safely used on human subjects to measure perineal artery occlusion. The method described in this paper provides a valuable tool to the researchers to study or to develop new solutions that alleviate this problem. The outcomes of these efforts will help millions of cyclists worldwide.

  • Non-invasive treatment system for urinary incontinence using continuous magnetic stimulation

    Electrical stimulation therapy is a proven effective treatment for urinary incontinence. But it has some inconvenience and discomfort. The authors have devised a non-invasive treatment system for urinary incontinence with no pain using continuous magnetic stimulation (CMS). The system is composed of a continuous magnetic stimulator and a magnetic coil with a cooler, and can be used with the 2 kW AC power line of most hospitals. The authors confirmed that the system is able to run stably for 20 minutes. In experiments with dogs, the urethral pressure increased when the circumference of the perineum received CMS with 720 /spl mu/s pulse width (180 /spl mu/s risetime), 10 Hz frequency and about 520 V capacitor charge voltage. Also, the bladder pressure decreased when the pudendal nerves received CMS with the same conditions. These results suggest that magnetic stimulation is effective as a stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence therapy.

  • Quantification of urethral resistance by perineal sound recording

    In Urology the quantification of urethral resistance is important for a correct diagnosis and treatment planning. Presently such quantification is based on invasive measurements. In this report data is presented to support the hypothesis that a non-invasive measurement method can he based on external recording of sound produced in the urethra during voiding.

  • Stimulation of the deep perineal nerve elicits bladder contractions

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) eliminates voluntary control of bladder function. This study examined the ability to elicit and sustain bladder contractions with deep perineal nerve (DP) stimulation in 3 cats. The DP was stimulated at 2, 10, 20, 33, and 40 Hz over a range of bladder volumes before and after SCI. DP stimulation elicited bladder contractions pre- and post-spinal transection and was dependent on bladder volume and stimulation frequency. Bladder contractions were only evoked above a threshold bladder volume, which decreased post-spinalization. Both pre- and post-transection, bladder contractions were evoked at stimulation frequencies (2 Hz - 40 Hz), however frequencies of 20 Hz or greater were more effective at sustaining contractions. Post-transection, stimulation frequencies of 33 Hz or greater evoked greater bladder pressures than lower frequencies. Stimulation of the proximal, but not distal DP after DP-transection elicited contractions, demonstrating that the response was afferent mediated. Neural prostheses able to evoke sustained bladder contractions could restore bladder control and provide substantial clinical benefit to individuals with SCI.

  • Pubic arch detection in transrectal ultrasound guided prostate cancer therapy

    New biopsy techniques, increased life expectancy, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening have contributed to an increase in the reported incidence of prostate cancer. Among several treatment options available to the patients, transperineal prostate brachytherapy has emerged as a medically successful, cost-effective outpatient procedure for treating localized prostate cancer. Transperineal prostate brachytherapy employs transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) as the primary imaging modality to accurately preplan and subsequently execute the placement of radioactive seeds into the prostate. Under TRUS guidance, a needle (preloaded with radioactive seeds) is inserted through a template guide, through the perineum and into a predetermined prostate target. The pubic arch, formed by the central union of pelvic bones, is a potential barrier to the passage of these needles in the prostate. A critical aspect, therefore, in the planning and execution of the brachytherapy procedure is the accurate assessment of pubic arch interference (PAI) in relation to the prostate. Traditionally, the evaluation of PAI has involved computed tomography correlate scanning or crude subjective evaluations. In this paper, the authors describe a new method of assessing PAI by detecting the pubic arch via image processing on the TRUS images. The PAI detection (PAID) algorithm first uses a technique known as sticks to selectively enhance the contrast of linear features in ultrasound images. Next, the enhanced image is thresholded via percentile thresholding. Finally, the authors fit a parabola (a model for the pubic arch) recursively to the thresholded image. Their evaluation result from 15 cases indicates that the algorithm can successfully detect the pubic arch with 90% accuracy. Based on this study, the authors believe that detecting the pubic arch and assessing PAI can be done practically and more accurately in the clinical setting using TRUS rather than the current available methods.

  • Semi-automated Needling and Seed Delivery Device for Prostate Brachytherapy

    In this paper we present a semi-automated device designed and developed to deliver radio-active seeds for treating prostate cancer. In the brachytherapy procedure a slander needle is inserted through the perineum and passed through different types of tissues. Thus, the needle experiences significant amount of force which may cause it to buckle and bend. In our design, we have considered the buckling force and insertion force on needle by collecting in-vivo data from real patient and performing in-vitro experiments. Techniques to reduce force and organ/tissue deformation have been implemented into this new design. To track the axial force on the needle for detecting pubic arch interference and to improve robotic control, we have incorporated three force sensors. Rigidity and factor of safety of the device has been analyzed using finite element method which was very useful for iterative design process

  • Toward an Acoustic Noninvasive Diagnosis of Urinary Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    On average, in aging males, the prostate enlarges (benign prostatic enlargement or BPE) and may cause bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). The internationally standardized method for diagnosing BOO is based on measurements of urinary flow rate and bladder pressure, using a catheter inserted into the bladder via the urethra. This method is invasive, time- consuming, and uncomfortable for the patient. We are developing a novel diagnostic method based on perineal recording of sound during urinary flow. Although it is known that (some aspects of) the recorded sound are (among others) related to the degree of obstruction, an exact and unique relation allowing derivation of the degree of obstruction from the sound recording is not known. In a biophysical model of the urethra, we found that the weighted average frequency, the standard deviation, and the skewness of the power spectrum are monotonically related to the degree of obstruction. The standard deviation was the most significant predictor of BOO (89% correct). Based on this model study, we are confident that a simple noninvasive acoustic method for diagnosing BOO caused by BPE can be developed. This would lower the threshold for urodynamic testing of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms resulting in higher therapeutic efficacy.



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