Small Animal Imaging Systems
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The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted full papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and poster sessions,will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE.
IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS) is an annual conference coordinated by the Plasma Science and Application Committee (PSAC) of the IEEE Nuclear & Plasma Sciences Society.
All areas of ionizing radiation detection - detectors, signal processing, analysis of results, PET development, PET results, medical imaging using ionizing radiation
The conference is the primary forum for cross-industry and multidisciplinary research in automation. Its goal is to provide a broad coverage and dissemination of foundational research in automation among researchers, academics, and practitioners.
The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances in theoretical and applied biomedical imaging.ISBI 2019 will be the 16th meeting in this series. The previous meetings have played a leading role in facilitating interaction between researchers in medical and biological imaging. The 2019 meeting will continue this tradition of fostering cross fertilization among different imaging communities and contributing to an integrative approach to biomedical imaging across all scales of observation.
Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission
Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.
Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to, sequence analysis, comparison and alignment methods; motif, gene and signal recognition; molecular evolution; phylogenetics and phylogenomics; determination or prediction of the structure of RNA and Protein in two and three dimensions; DNA twisting and folding; gene expression and gene regulatory networks; deduction of metabolic pathways; micro-array design and analysis; proteomics; ...
Both general and technical articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering; societal implications of medical technologies; current news items; book reviews; patent descriptions; and correspondence. Special interest departments, students, law, clinical engineering, ethics, new products, society news, historical features and government.
Telemedicine, teleradiology, telepathology, telemonitoring, telediagnostics, 3D animations in health care, health information networks, clinical information systems, virtual reality applications in medicine, broadband technologies, and global information infrastructure design for health care.
IEEE Symposium on Ultrasonics, 2003, 2003
In this paper, a 45 MHz ultrasonic small animal imaging systems and its applications in blood flow measurements on mouse tumors are presented. Specifically, the system was used to perform in vivo mouse imaging with a tumor cell line named WF-3. The WF-3 tumor cells were injected into the C57BL/6 mice subcutaneously and it was used as an ovarian cancer ...
2003 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium. Conference Record (IEEE Cat. No.03CH37515), 2003
Positron range is one of the factors that fundamentally limits the spatial resolution of PET images. With the higher resolution of small animal imaging systems and increased interest in using higher energy positron emitters, it is important to consider range effects when designing image reconstruction methods. The positron range distribution can be measured experimentally or calculated using approximate analytic formulae ...
2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 2006
Small animal microSPECT systems require high resolution and efficiency to faithfully image biodistributions of molecular reporters and radiopharmaceuticals in a short time. Because of their variable magnification, pinhole and multipinhole cameras are particularly well suited for small animal imaging systems. These cameras nonetheless require a high degree of sampling to achieve high resolution in tomographic images. In order to construct ...
2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 2007
Small-animal imaging is rapidly becoming an essential tool for preclinical development of new compounds for imaging and therapy. Although imaging performance evaluations and regular quality control are both important, surprisingly, there are relatively few appropriate phantoms available for such procedures. Phantoms can also be used with liquid or gel dosimeters for measuring radiation doses in different compartments, as well as ...
2007 IEEE 33rd Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, 2007
There has been a surge of interest in the design of small animal imaging systems that use radioactive tracers to track in vivo quantities such as tumor growth or spread. For single-photon radiotracers, one needs a blocking aperture, such as a pinhole, multi-pinhole aperture or collimator, to form images. Here we consider a single pinhole. For engineers, the pinhole design, ...
2011 IEEE Medal for Innovations in Healthcare Technology - Harrison H. Barrett
Smarter Smartphone Imaging - Erik Douglas - IEEE EMBS at NIH, 2019
ICASSP 2010 - Radar Imaging of Building Interiors
Harrison H. Barrett
KeyTalk with Hamish Laird: The Gap Between Large Power Converters and Small Power Converters - APEC 2017
IMS 2015: Robert H. Caverly - Aspects of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Abbas El Gamal accepts the IEEE Richard W. Hamming Medal - Honors Ceremony 2016
Dr. Scott Fish
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IROS TV 2019- Macau- Episode 2- Robots Connecting People
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A Career in Engineering: The Journey From Academia to Industry - Dalma Novak at IEEE WIE Forum USA East 2017
SDRJ: Small to Large Scale Quantum Computational Systems - Kae Nemoto at INC 2019
5G Proof-of-Concept (PoC) Systems with focus on real use cases - Juha Silipa and Mark Cudak: Brooklyn 5G Summit 2017
Implantable, Insertable and Wearable Micro-optical Devices for Early Detection of Cancer - Plenary Speaker, Christopher Contag - IPC 2018
P2020 Establishing Image Quality Standards for Automotive
Critical use cases for video capturing systems in autonomous driving applications
A 10-40GHz Frequency Quadrupler Source with Switchable Bandpass Filters and >30dBc Harmonic Rejection: RFIC Interactive Forum 2017
ASC-2014 SQUIDs 50th Anniversary: 3 of 6 - Bob Fagaly
In this paper, a 45 MHz ultrasonic small animal imaging systems and its applications in blood flow measurements on mouse tumors are presented. Specifically, the system was used to perform in vivo mouse imaging with a tumor cell line named WF-3. The WF-3 tumor cells were injected into the C57BL/6 mice subcutaneously and it was used as an ovarian cancer model. Vascularity of the tumor was successfully imaged when the diameter of the tumor was around 2 mm with flow velocities on the order of a few mm/s. The blood flow images were also correlated with histology after the mice were sacrificed. Good correlation between the blood flow images and the histology was demonstrated in that the lack of blood flow signals in the image for a tumor at a late development stage corresponded to necrosis at the center of the tumor shown in histology.
Positron range is one of the factors that fundamentally limits the spatial resolution of PET images. With the higher resolution of small animal imaging systems and increased interest in using higher energy positron emitters, it is important to consider range effects when designing image reconstruction methods. The positron range distribution can be measured experimentally or calculated using approximate analytic formulae or Monte Carlo simulations. We investigate the use of this distribution within a MAP image reconstruction framework. Positron range is modeled as a blurring kernel and included as part of the forward projection matrix. We describe the use of a 3D isotropic shift- invariant blur kernel, which assumes that positrons are propagating in a homogeneous medium and is computed by Monte Carlo simulation using EGS4. We also propose a new shift-variant blurring model for positron range that accounts for spatial inhomogeneities in the positron scatter properties of the medium. Monte Carlo simulations, phantom, and animal studies with the isotopes Cu-60 and Cu-64 are presented.
Small animal microSPECT systems require high resolution and efficiency to faithfully image biodistributions of molecular reporters and radiopharmaceuticals in a short time. Because of their variable magnification, pinhole and multipinhole cameras are particularly well suited for small animal imaging systems. These cameras nonetheless require a high degree of sampling to achieve high resolution in tomographic images. In order to construct a high resolution pinhole and multipinhole gamma camera for small animal imaging, we developed a large cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector array. This detector, having 128times128 1.5times1.5 mm<sup>2</sup> pixels, is one of the largest of its kind in terms of number of pixels and readout channels. The CZT detector crystal array and application-specific integrate circuits (ASICs) are embedded in an aluminum enclosure to form a compact cassette unit. The signals generated by gamma interactions in the CZT crystal are amplified, shaped and multiplexed within the detector unit, and thereafter read by a computer-based data acquisition system. A high-energy keel edge pinhole collimator was coupled to this detector and used to image photons with energies up to 250 keV. This new CZT gamma detector was characterized using Tc-99m (140 keV) and In-111 (171 keV and 245 keV). Specifically, we measured the dead pixel fraction, the uniformity, the intrinsic spatial resolution, and the energy resolution of this detector. Furthermore, we assessed the sensitivity of the pinhole camera. The detector was shown to have fewer than 1% of dead pixels, and also demonstrated energy resolutions of 6.8 % at 140keV (Tc-99m), 6.2 % at 171 keV, and 6.0 % at 245 keV (In-111). Using a microsphere phantom at 3 cm from a 0.5 mm pinhole, a sensitivity of 20 cps/MBq (Tc-99m) was achieved. This new detector will be integrated into our recently developed microSPECT/microCT small animal scanner to increase the overall system sensitivity and image resolution.
Small-animal imaging is rapidly becoming an essential tool for preclinical development of new compounds for imaging and therapy. Although imaging performance evaluations and regular quality control are both important, surprisingly, there are relatively few appropriate phantoms available for such procedures. Phantoms can also be used with liquid or gel dosimeters for measuring radiation doses in different compartments, as well as cross-doses to other compartments. Both imaging and therapy applications, however, could benefit from phantoms with walls that are thinner than those currently available (~1 mm). Using high-resolution stereolithography (SL), we produced phantoms with 2-cm-long cold rods or hot channels ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 mm in diameter. Hollow spheres with 3- mm inner diameter were also produced, with wall thickness from 100 to 350 mum. All phantoms were imaged by muCT, with 27 mum resolution. SL performance was estimated by measuring the dimensions of many structures in the micro-CT images. We also evaluated the degree of water absorption by two different SL resins, Somos<sup>reg</sup> 11120 and Accura<sup>reg</sup> 40, after curing. The average bias (and precision) of the cold-rod and hot-channel structures over the size range 0.5 to 1.0 mm, were 0.75% (1.93%) and 0.9% (1.92%), respectively. Water absorption by the resins after 4 hours was minimal (0.1 to 0.15% weight change) for both materials; however, after 66 hours in water, the change was greater for Accura<sup>reg</sup> 40 (1.5%) than for Somos<sup>reg</sup> 11120 (0.25%); thus, the latter is a more suitable material for nuclear medicine applications. The muCT images demonstrated that the minimum acceptable spherical wall thickness was ~150 mum; this will allow beta particles from low-energy beta emitters, e.g., Lu-177, Cu-67, or 1-131, to deliver a greater radiation dose to neighboring compartments. SL is a robust and accurate method for fabrication of phantoms with thin walls for small-animal imaging systems and dosimetry measurements.
There has been a surge of interest in the design of small animal imaging systems that use radioactive tracers to track in vivo quantities such as tumor growth or spread. For single-photon radiotracers, one needs a blocking aperture, such as a pinhole, multi-pinhole aperture or collimator, to form images. Here we consider a single pinhole. For engineers, the pinhole design, especially its diameter, is crucial in that it controls a noise-resolution tradeoff, and this tradeoff ultimately determines the ability of a human observer to find and detect the tumor. We considered a single-pinhole planar emission imaging system and addressed the following engineering question what pinhole diameter allows the best possible performance in both detecting and localizing a signal (e.g. tumor) embedded in the noisy image We applied recent theoretical developments from our group to answer this question by using a mathematical ideal observer. If the only source of noise is radiation noise, then we demonstrate the result that a very large aperture leading to very blurry images is best.
Small animal imaging systems now allow researchers to non-invasively monitor the progression of diseases in living small animals and study the efficacy of drugs and treatment protocols. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established imaging modality capable of obtaining high resolution anatomical images which are sensitive to blood volume, blood flow, and metabolic rate of oxygen. Optical tomography, on the other hand, is an emerging imaging modality, which, while much lower in spatial resolution and insensitive to blood flow, can separate the effects of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and blood volume with high temporal resolution. We illustrate how these imaging modalities can supplement each other and cross validation can be performed by applying both modalities to imaging of tumors growth and regression in mice that are treated with a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antagonist
The aim of this paper is to investigate the basic properties and limits of the small animal imaging systems based on single photon detectors. The detectors for radio imaging of small animals are challenging because of the very high spatial resolution needed, possibly coupled with high efficiency to allow dynamic studies. These performances are hardly attainable with single photon technique because of the collimator that limits both spatial resolution and sensitivity. In this paper we describe a simple desktop detector based on pixellated NaI(Tl) scintillator array coupled with a pinhole collimator and a PSPMT, the Hamamatsu R2486. The limits of such systems as well as the way to overcome them will be shown. In fact better light sampling at the anode level would allow better pixel identification for higher number of pixel that is one of the parameters defining the image quality. Also the spatial resolution would improve. The performances of such layout are compared with others using PSPMTs differing from R2486 for the light sampling at the anode level and different areas. We show how a further step, namely the substitution of the pinhole collimator with a coded aperture, will allow a great improvement in system sensitivity while maintaining very good spatial resolution, possibly submillimetric. Calculations and simulations show that sensitivity would improve by a factor of 50.
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