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Xplore Articles related to Vehicle-to-grid

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Flexible Charging Coordination for Plug-in Electric Vehicles based on Uniform Stochastic Charging Demand and Time-of-Use Tariff

2019 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo (ITEC), 2019

In this study, a novel flexible plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) charging coordination scheme is proposed for the multi-charger station of an office building. Based on uniform stochastic charging demand (USCD) analysis of the PEVs in the building, charging time of PEVs can be prioritized with their arrival times and parking durations to mitigate the service conflicts during high demand. Also, ...


A Smooth Mode-Switching Strategy for Bidirectional OBC Base on V2G Technology

2019 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2019

Vehicle to grid (V2G) technology uses electric vehicles (EVs) as energy storage devices for the power grid along with peak cutting and grain filling function. The bidirectional converter plays an essential part in V2G technology since it allows energy to flow in both directions based on the grid dispatching signal. However, in two-stage bidirectional on-board-charge (OBC) with CLLC circuit, traditional ...


Reactive Power Compensation Using Plugged-In Electric Vehicles for an AC Power Grid

IECON 2018 - 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2018

In recent years, Plugged-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) have become more popular due to the growing interest in energy security and emission reduction. In addition to fulfilling these objectives, PEVs can play a crucial role in balancing the active power as well as compensating the reactive power of the smart power grid. These ancillary services provided by PEVs, not only help ...


A New Decentralized Control of EVs for Load Frequency Control Retaining EV users’ Convenience

2018 IEEE International Telecommunications Energy Conference (INTELEC), 2018

Several countries and cities announced last year that they would prohibit sales of petrol and diesel cars until around 2040 so that Electric Vehicle (EV) has a big change to spread all over the world. This situation raises a great expectation for EV being introduced under massive renewable energy because EV can provide frequency regulation reserve in power system under ...


An Energy Storage Capacity Determination Model of Electric Vehicle Aggregator Considering the Real-Time Response State

2018 IEEE International Conference on Energy Internet (ICEI), 2018

An energy storage capacity determination model of electric vehicle (EV) aggregator considering the real-time response state for participating in the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) was developed. Firstly, based on energy storage characteristics of EVs after plugging in the grid, the influence of energy storage capacity and the upper and lower limit of the power output of EV with different state of charge ...


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  • Flexible Charging Coordination for Plug-in Electric Vehicles based on Uniform Stochastic Charging Demand and Time-of-Use Tariff

    In this study, a novel flexible plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) charging coordination scheme is proposed for the multi-charger station of an office building. Based on uniform stochastic charging demand (USCD) analysis of the PEVs in the building, charging time of PEVs can be prioritized with their arrival times and parking durations to mitigate the service conflicts during high demand. Also, charging time can be shifted to minimize the charging cost under dynamic time-of-use (TOU) tariff, where the high price time slots are penalized. In this manner, the proposed flexible coordination scheme improves service satisfaction as well as charging cost benefit even under the limited charging resources. For evaluation of the charging schemes, the entry-and-exit records of an office building parking lot are investigated assuming a certain percentage of the PEVs penetration with a TOU tariff. Since vehicles' arrivals are concentrated in the morning while their departures are distributed over the day, the proposed flexible charging coordination improves charging request execution rate, relative to uncoordinated charging approach such as first come first serve (FCFS). Also, overall charging cost can be further saved by jointly considering the TOU with USCD.

  • A Smooth Mode-Switching Strategy for Bidirectional OBC Base on V2G Technology

    Vehicle to grid (V2G) technology uses electric vehicles (EVs) as energy storage devices for the power grid along with peak cutting and grain filling function. The bidirectional converter plays an essential part in V2G technology since it allows energy to flow in both directions based on the grid dispatching signal. However, in two-stage bidirectional on-board-charge (OBC) with CLLC circuit, traditional frequency conversion control can not achieve smooth mode-switching, so that the OBC can not response to the power grid dispatching signal quickly. In this paper, a control strategy combining frequency conversion control and phase-shifting control is proposed, which can realize smooth mode-switching of CLLC circuit. The control strategy is validated by a 3kW two-stage OBC prototype integrating Totem-pole and CLLC circuit.

  • Reactive Power Compensation Using Plugged-In Electric Vehicles for an AC Power Grid

    In recent years, Plugged-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) have become more popular due to the growing interest in energy security and emission reduction. In addition to fulfilling these objectives, PEVs can play a crucial role in balancing the active power as well as compensating the reactive power of the smart power grid. These ancillary services provided by PEVs, not only help in improving the reliability and quality of the power, but also benefit the grid operators and PEV owners financially. In this paper, a PEV-based reactive power compensation and a novel phase-detector-based feedback control system is proposed. The effects of reactive power compensation on the battery's State- Of-Charge (SOC) are investigated. Also, detailed analyses are carried out to assess the impacts of various components of a reactive power compensation circuit. Simulation results are provided to support the analysis and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  • A New Decentralized Control of EVs for Load Frequency Control Retaining EV users’ Convenience

    Several countries and cities announced last year that they would prohibit sales of petrol and diesel cars until around 2040 so that Electric Vehicle (EV) has a big change to spread all over the world. This situation raises a great expectation for EV being introduced under massive renewable energy because EV can provide frequency regulation reserve in power system under the intermittent renewable energy generation. Many EV and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) researchers have been studying EV batteries control methods for both EV users' convenience and contribution to frequency regulation, however, they are still insufficient regarding especially EV users' convenience. In this paper, a new decentralized control method of EV battery is proposed and its advantage is verified. It enables EVs not only to sufficiently retain EV users' convenience but also to contribute to frequency regulation.

  • An Energy Storage Capacity Determination Model of Electric Vehicle Aggregator Considering the Real-Time Response State

    An energy storage capacity determination model of electric vehicle (EV) aggregator considering the real-time response state for participating in the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) was developed. Firstly, based on energy storage characteristics of EVs after plugging in the grid, the influence of energy storage capacity and the upper and lower limit of the power output of EV with different state of charge (SOC) is analyzed. Then, the energy storage capacity model (ESCM) of the single EV is built. Finally, taking the aggregator containing three different types of EVs on the market as an example, the energy storage capacity model of EV aggregator is established to achieve the purpose of accurately analyzing the aggregator energy storage capacity.

  • Research on integrated bidirectional control of EV charging station for V2G

    With the increasing number of electric vehicles, the interaction between the electric vehicle and the power grid is becoming more and more obvious, V2G (Vehicle to Grid) technology has become a hot research. EV charging station is an electric vehicle energy supply station, how to efficiently realize the bidirectional interaction, reduce the EV charging damage and power pollution between vehicle and grid in EV charging station is a focus of attention. At present, charging or discharging usually requires separate equipment, in this paper, we realizes a high quality integrated operation of single charger for charging and discharging combined with space vector control and instantaneous reactive power theory, realized a effectively bidirectional interaction of V2G.

  • QoE Based Optimization for Cyber Vehicular Networks

    In order to help the aggregator choose the contract item designed for its type to maximize Quality of Experience (QoE), a contract-based pricing mechanism is presented in this paper for the Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) networks under asymmetric information. First, the utilities of the power grid and aggregators are analyzed based on their QoE, respectively. Secondly, with the contract theory, the problem is formulated as an optimization with two class of constraints. Thirdly, the optimization problem is divided into two parts and the constraints are simplified by Spence-Mirrlees single-crossing condition. Finally, under the regular distribution, we obtain the optimal contract.

  • Potential Benefits of Vehicle-to-Grid Technology in California: High Value for Capabilities Beyond One-Way Managed Charging

    The capability to inject power from an EV's battery into the electric grid is known as vehicle -to -grid (V2G). Adding V2G capability to EVs would enable them to deliver much greater benefits to the electric grid than V1G. There are, however, significant barriers to the widespread deployment of V2G, including the development of standards for information exchange, regulatory frameworks, and business models. These barriers are similar to those facing other distributed energy resources (DERs) but are even more complex because vehicles are mobile and require the flexibility to connect to a variety of EV service equipment (EVSE) and charge or discharge at many different locations. As part of CEC-funded project 14-086, Distribution System Aware Vehicle to Grid Services for Improved Grid Stability and Reliability, Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3) was tasked with quantifying the potential benefits of V2G technology for California's ratepayers across a variety of use cases. In this article, we share results and key insights from E3's study. We believe that these results provide regulators and in dustry with the critical information necessary to help identify the best opportunities for V2G technology in California

  • Large-Signal Black-Box Modelling of Bidirectional Battery Charger for Electric Vehicles

    This paper introduces a new approach of black-box modelling of bidirectional battery chargers for Electric Vehicles (EV). Due to the increasing penetration of EV, the number of battery chargers connected to the grid is also increasing, being a challenge to assess the impact of such growing number of battery chargers into the grid performance. The black-box model is able to represent the behavior of the battery charger using the information generated from a number of tests applied to the equipment to be modeled. Due to the variability of the operating conditions a large-signal modelling strategy based on the polytopic structure is proposed. This modelling strategy will be tested with an actual commercial bidirectional battery charger. The experimental tests of the paper illustrate the Grid to Vehicle (G2V) and Vehicle to Grid (V2G) operations.

  • Integration of Electric Vehicles as Smart Loads for Demand Side Management in Medium Voltage Distribution Network

    The distributed solar generation possess the potential to overcome the energy deficit in a power system network. However, its high penetration reshapes the system's power flow and causes high fluctuations in voltages and frequency. To overcome the uncertainty and variability issues faced by the solar systems, storage plays a vital role. In this paper, Electric Vehicles (EVs) are used as a Demand Side Management (DSM) tool to mitigate the solar fluctuations. The behaviour of EV's battery to act as a load/source is controlled by three parameters; State of Charge (SoC), output power from PV and system's voltage. Different scenarios have been analysed on a 2MW distributed solar generation system integrated with an IEEE-33 bus radial network using MATLAB/Simulink. The results show that the over/under voltage conditions are mitigated and excess energy generated is utilized effectively by using EVs as a DSM tool.



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