Toxicology

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Toxicology (from the Greek words τοξικός - toxicos "poisonous" and logos) is a branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Toxicology

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2017 12th International Forum on Strategic Technology (IFOST)

New materials and nanotechnologies , Information and communication technologies , Information and communication technologies , Power engineering and electric power electronics , etc


2017 13th International Conference on Emerging Technologies (ICET)

IEEE ICET is held every year and ICET 2017 will be the 13 in the series. It has become a prestigious technical conference with a scope covering new and exciting technologies and research areas, thereby inviting interest of a large audience. The conference targets research presentations by academic and professional researchers, and also includes invited talks and a series of tutorials enabling participants to learn about the latest trends in technology. Research contributions are expected from the participants, covering various disciplines under IEEE's domain, including technical papers, panel discussions, tutorials and project exhibitions. Technical papers describing original, previously unpublished work, are solicited in the areas of communications, computers, control, electronics, information technology, power and in the relevant areas of interest.

  • 2016 International Conference on Emerging Technologies (ICET)

    Conference scope covers original research contributions in emerging technologies in the field of engineering and applied sciences from academia and professionals. The conference includes technical papers, panel discussions, tutorials to cover latest technological trends.

  • 2015 International Conference on Emerging Technologies (ICET)

    The scope of conference is based on science-based innovations with the potential to create anew industry or transform an existing one which can substantially alter the business and social environment. The 11th ICET 2015 will cover multidisciplinary topics related to science and emerging technologies that fall in the scope of Conference which include Communications, Signal and Image Processing, Power, Computational, Integrative and Synthetic and Bio sciences.

  • 2014 International Conference on Emerging Technologies (ICET)

    ICET 2014 will attract leading researchers from academia and practitioners from industry in Pakistan and abroad to share their innovative ideas, experiences, and cutting edge research. We invite authors to submit high quality original papers. We solicit original and high quality papers that discuss the technical solutions to significant research problems. The paper should provide a clear motivation for solving the problem being addressed, the relevant literature review, and the proposed scientific solution. The paper should also highlight the benefits of the proposed solution. For the first time in Pakistan, ICET 2014 is also soliciting industry experience/application papers. We welcome high quality papers from industry practitioners describing experiences of applying various methods, tools, or techniques in any of the conference areas. The objective of such papers is to stimulate discussions and exchanging ideas between industry and research participants of the conference.

  • 2013 International Conference on Emerging Technologies (ICET)

    Conference scope covers original research contibutions in emerging technologiesfrom academia and professionals. The conference includes technical papers, panel discussions, tutorialsand PhD Symposia to cover latest technological trends.

  • 2011 7th International Conference on Emerging Technologies (ICET)

    The conference aims to have research presentation from a wide range of academic and professional backgrounds. The topics include Health informatics, Semantic Web, Information Security, Grid and Cloud Computing, Knowledge Management & discovery, Software Engineering, Signal & Image Processing, Embedded system design and verification, Wireless and Sensor Networks, Optical Networks and systems, Computer and Communication networks, Microwave and Wireless communication

  • 2010 International Conference on Emerging Technologies (ICET)

    The conference aims to have research presentations from a wide range of academic and professional backgrounds. The topics include, communications, Artificial Intelligence, Algorithms, Embedded Systems, Computer Vision and Graphics, Databases, Electronic Devices, Circuits and Systems, Microwave and Optoelectronics, Modeling & Simulation, Natural Language Processing, Power Systems, Software Engineering, Ubiquitous Computing

  • 2009 International Conference on Emerging Technologies (ICET)

    The conference aims to have research presentations from a wide range of academic and professional backgrounds. The topics include, communications, Artificial Intelligence, Algorithms, Embedded Systems, Computer Vision and Graphics, Databases, Electronic Devices, Circuits and Systems, Microwave and Optoelectronics, Modeling & Simulation, Natural Language Processing, Power Systems, Software Engineering, Ubiquitous Computing

  • 2008 International Conference on Emerging Technologies (ICET)

    To create an environment where scientists and engineers can share their research. To create a platform for discussing current problems in scientific and technical exploration. To benchmark Pakistani research with international standards by inviting distinguished scientists and engineers from abroad as guest lecturers and speakers. To provide a liaison between the electronics/computers industry in Pakistan with academia and pure research organizations.

  • 2007 International Conference on Emerging Technologies (ICET)

  • 2006 International Conference on Emerging Technologies (ICET)

  • 2005 International Conference on Emerging Technologies (ICET)


2017 13th International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS)

The SITIS conference is dedicated to research on the technologies used to represent, shareand process information in various forms, ranging from signal, image, and multimedia data totraditional structured data and semi-structured data found in the web.SITIS spans two inter-related research domains (web and signal/image processing) thatincreasingly play a key role in connecting systems across network centric environments to allowdistributed computing and information sharing.SITIS aims to provide a forum for high quality presentations on research activities centered onthree main tracks:1) Web Computing and Applications (WeCA), 2) Signal & Image Technologies (SIT), an 3)Multimedia Information Retrieval and Application (MIRA).

  • 2016 12th International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS)

    The SITIS conference is dedicated to research on the technologies used to represent, share and process information in various forms, ranging from signal, image, and multimedia data to traditional structured data and semi-structured data found in the web.SITIS spans two inter-related research domains (web and signal/image processing) that increasingly play a key role in connecting systems across network centric environments to allow distributed computing and information sharing.SITIS aims to provide a forum for high quality presentations on research activities centered on four main tracks:1) Intelligent Web Computing and Applications (I-WeCA), 2) Signal & Image Technologies (SIT), 3) Multimedia Information Retrieval and Application (MIRA), and Social Networks, Large Networks and their Applications (SLNA)

  • 2015 11th International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS)

    The SITIS conference is dedicated to research on the technologies used to represent, share and process information in various forms, ranging from signal, image, and multimedia data to traditional structured data and semi-structured data found in the web.SITIS spans two inter-related research domains (web and signal/image processing) that increasingly play a key role in connecting systems across network centric environments to allow distributed computing and information sharing.SITIS aims to provide a forum for high quality presentations on research activities centered on three main tracks:1) Web Computing and Applications (WeCA), 2) Signal & Image Technologies (SIT), an 3) Multimedia Information Retrieval and Application (MIRA).

  • 2014 Tenth International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS)

    The SITIS conference is dedicated to research on the technologies used to represent, share and process information in various forms, ranging from signal, image, and multimedia data to traditional structured data and semi-structured data found in the web.SITIS spans two inter-related research domains (web and signal/image processing) that increasingly play a key role in connecting systems across network centric environments to allow distributed computing and information sharing.SITIS aims to provide a forum for high quality presentations on research activities centered on three main tracks:1) Web Computing and Applications (WeCA), 2) Signal & Image Technologies (SIT), an 3) Multimedia Information Retrieval and Application (MIRA).

  • 2013 International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS)

    The SITIS conference is dedicated to research on the technologies used to represent, share and process information in various forms, ranging from signal, image, and multimedia data to traditional structured data and semi-structured data found in the web.SITIS spans two inter-related research domains (web and signal/image processing) that increasingly play a key role in connecting systems across network centric environments to allow distributed computing and information sharing.SITIS aims to provide a forum for high quality presentations on research activities centered on two main tracks:- The first track titled " Web Computing and Applications (WeCA) / Web Computing, Big Data and Applications (WCBDA)" focuses on emerging and novel concepts, architectures and methodologies for information management. The Internet and the related technologies have created an interconnected world in which information can be exchanged easily, tasks can be processed collaboratively, communities of user

  • 2012 Eighth International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS 2012)

    The SITIS conference is dedicated to research on the technologies used to represent, share and process information in various forms, ranging from signal, image, and multimedia data to traditional structured data and semi-structured data found in the web.

  • 2011 Seventh International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS 2011)

    The SITIS conference is dedicated to research on the technologies used to represent, share and process information in various forms, ranging from signal, image, and multimedia data to traditional structured data and semi-structured data found in the web. SITIS spans two inter-related research domains that increasingly play a key role in connecting systems across network centric environments to allow distributed computing and information sharing. SITIS 2011 aims to provide a forum for high quality presentations on research activities centered on three main tracks: The focus of the first track "Internet-Based Computing and Systems" (IBCS) focuses on emerging and novel concepts, architectures and methodologies for information management. The Internet and the related technologies have created an interconnected world in which information can be exchanged easily, tasks can be processed collaboratively, communities of users with similarly interests can be formed to achieve efficiency.

  • 2010 Sixth International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS 2010)

    The SITIS conference is dedicated to research on the technologies used to represent, share and process information in various forms, ranging from signal, image, and multimedia data to traditional structured data and semi-structured data found in the web. SITIS spans two inter-related research domains that increasingly play a key role in connecting systems across network centric environments to allow distributed computing and information sharing.

  • 2009 Fifth International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS 2009)

    The SITIS conference is dedicated to research on the technologies used to represent, share and process information in various forms, ranging from signal, image, and multimedia data to traditional structured data and semi-structured data found in the web. SITIS spans two inter-related research domains that increasingly play a key role in connecting systems across network centric environments to allow distributed computing and information sharing.

  • 2008 Fourth International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS 2008)

    The SITIS conference is dedicated to research on the technologies used to represent, share and process information in various forms, ranging from signal, image, and multimedia data to traditional structured data and semi-structured data found in the web. SITIS spans two inter-related research domains that increasingly play a key role in connecting systems across network centric environments to allow distributed computing and information sharing.


2017 19th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT)

With technically co-sponsored by IEEE ComSoc(Communications Society), IEEE ComSoc CISTC(Communications & Information Security Technical Community), and IEEE ComSoc ONTC(Optical Networking Technical Community), the ICACT(International Conference on Advanced Communications Technology) Conference has been providing an open forum for scholars, researchers, and engineers to the extensive exchange of information on newly emerging technologies, standards, services, and applications in the area of the advanced communications technology. The conference official language is English. All the presented papers have been published in the Conference Proceedings, and posted on the ICACT Website and IEEE Xplore Digital Library since 2004. The honorable ICACT Out-Standing Paper Award list has been posted on the IEEE Xplore Digital Library also, and all the Out-Standing papers are subjected to the invited paper of the "ICACT Transactions on the Advanced Communications Technology" Journal issued by

  • 2018 20th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT)

    With technically co-sponsored by IEEE ComSoc(Communications Society), IEEE ComSoc CISTC(Communications & Information Security Technical Community), and IEEE ComSoc ONTC(Optical Networking Technical Community), the ICACT(International Conference on Advanced Communications Technology) Conference has been providing an open forum for scholars, researchers, and engineers to the extensive exchange of information on newly emerging technologies, standards, services, and applications in the area of the advanced communications technology. The conference official language is English. All the presented papers have been published in the Conference Proceedings, and posted on the ICACT Website and IEEE Xplore Digital Library since 2004. The honorable ICACT Out-Standing Paper Award list has been posted on the IEEE Xplore Digital Library also, and all the Out-Standing papers are subjected to the invited paper of the "ICACT Transactions on the Advanced Communications Technology" Journal issued by GIRI

  • 2016 18th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT)

    With technically co-sponsored by IEEE ComSoc(Communications Society), IEEE ComSoc CISTC(Communications & Information Security Technical Community), and IEEE ComSoc ONTC(Optical Networking Technical Community), the ICACT(International Conference on Advanced Communications Technology) Conference has been providing an open forum for scholars, researchers, and engineers to the extensive exchange of information on newly emerging technologies, standards, services, and applications in the area of the advanced communications technology. The conference official language is English. All the presented papers have been published in the Conference Proceedings, and posted on the ICACT Website and IEEE Xplore Digital Library since 2004. The honorable ICACT Out-Standing Paper Award list has been posted on the IEEE Xplore Digital Library also, and all the Out-Standing papers are subjected to the invited paper of the "ICACT Transactions on the Advanced Communications Technology" Journal issued by GiRI.

  • 2015 17th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT)

    With technically co-sponsored by IEEE ComSoc(Communications Society), IEEE ComSoc CISTC(Communications & Information Security Technical Community), and IEEE ComSoc ONTC(Optical Networking Technical Community), the ICACT(International Conference on Advanced Communications Technology) Conference has been providing an open forum for scholars, researchers, and engineers to the extensive exchange of information on newly emerging technologies, standards, services, and applications in the area of the advanced communications technology. The conference official language is English. All the presented papers have been published in the Conference Proceedings, and posted on the ICACT Website and IEEE Xplore Digital Library since 2004. The honorable ICACT Out-Standing Paper Award list has been posted on the IEEE Xplore Digital Library also, and all the Out-Standing papers are subjected to the invited paper of the "ICACT Transactions on the Advanced Communications Technology" Journal issued by GiRI.

  • 2014 16th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT)

    Technology, service, architecture, strategy, and policy in newly emerging system, standard, service, and variety of application on the area of telecommunications. ICACT 2014 provides an open forum for scholar, researcher, engineer, policy maker, network planner, and service provider in the advanced communication technologies.

  • 2013 15th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT)

    Technology, standard, service, architecture, strategy, and policy in newly emerging systems and a variety of applications in the area of communications. ICACT2013 provides an open forum for scholar, researcher, engineer, policy maker, network planner, and service provider in the advanced communications technologies.

  • 2012 14th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT)

    Technology, service, architecture, strategy, and policy in newly emerging systems, standards, service, and a variety of applications in the area of telecommunicatons. ICACT 2012 provides an open forum for scholars, researchers, engineers, policy makers, network planners, and service providers in the advanced communication technologies.

  • 2011 13th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT)

    International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT) provides an open forum for researchers, engineers, policy, network planners, and service providers in the advanced communication technologies. Extensive exchange of information will be provided on newly emerging systems, standards, services, and variety of applications on the area of telecommunications.

  • 2010 12th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT)

    ICACT is an annual conference providing an open forum for researchers, engineers, network planners, and service providers in telecommunications. Extensive exchange of information will be provided on newly emerging systems, standards, services, and variety of applications in the area of telecommunications.

  • 2009 11th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT)

    ICACT is an annual conference providing an open forum for researchers, engineers, network planners, and service providers in telecommunications. Extensive exchange of information will be provided on newly emerging systems, standards, services, and variety of applications in the area of telecommunications.

  • 2008 10th International Conference Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT)

  • 2007 9th International Conference Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT)

  • 2006 8th International Conference Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT)

  • 2005 7th International Conference Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT)

  • 2004 6th International Conference Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT)


2017 25th International Conference on Geoinformatics

The theme is Past and Future 25 Years. We welcome traditional topics in GIScience and also encourage papers on new and emergent themes including: Big GeoData, GIScience of the Internet of Things, Geospatial Semantic Web, Sensor Geomatics, Geosimulation Modeling, Mobile Computing, Mobile Behavior, Complex Networks, Online Social Media, Cyber Computing, Events and Process, and Critical GIS to address societal issues, such as climate change, smart cities, precision medicine, urban mobility, crime analysis, migration, disaster, and environmental sustainability. Topics on China, such as population, urban and environmental developments, are especially encouraged. A wide range of disciplines related to Geographic Information Science are invited, including: Geography, Cognitive science, Computer science, Engineering, Information science, Social science, Urban Planning, among many others.


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Periodicals related to Toxicology

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Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Automation Science and Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

The IEEE Transactions on Automation Sciences and Engineering (T-ASE) publishes fundamental papers on Automation, emphasizing scientific results that advance efficiency, quality, productivity, and reliability. T-ASE encourages interdisciplinary approaches from computer science, control systems, electrical engineering, mathematics, mechanical engineering, operations research, and other fields. We welcome results relevant to industries such as agriculture, biotechnology, healthcare, home automation, maintenance, manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, retail, ...


Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Communications Magazine, IEEE

IEEE Communications Magazine was the number three most-cited journal in telecommunications and the number eighteen cited journal in electrical and electronics engineering in 2004, according to the annual Journal Citation Report (2004 edition) published by the Institute for Scientific Information. Read more at http://www.ieee.org/products/citations.html. This magazine covers all areas of communications such as lightwave telecommunications, high-speed data communications, personal communications ...


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Most published Xplore authors for Toxicology

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Xplore Articles related to Toxicology

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Comparing two life cycle assessment approaches: a process model vs. economic input-output-based assessment

C. T. Hendrickson; A. Horvath; S. Joshi; M. Klausner; L. B. Lave; F. C. McMichael Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment. ISEE-1997, 1997

We compare two tools for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The software GaBi (Ganzheitliche Bilanzierung Integrated Assessment) from Germany is based on a process model approach, as recommended by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC). These results are contrasted to those from the method developed by Carnegie Mellon University's Green Design Initiative, Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis (EIO-LCA). The ...


Transformer Noise Problem - Performance of Acoustic Treatments and Vibration Isolators

A. T. Edwards Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Part III: Power Apparatus and Systems, 1957

The considerations for dealing with the reduction of noise from transformers in residential areas are discussed from the standpoint of necessity for acoustic treatment, type and design of treatment, and importance and design of vibration isolators. Quantitative data on the performance of various treatments and vibration isolators are given; and details are provided of an inexpensive wall combining high-absorption and ...


Surface fitting with boundary data

S. Maad; C. Martin; T. Stromberg; J. Bystrom 2004 43rd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) (IEEE Cat. No.04CH37601), 2004

The problem of fitting surfaces to data is a well studied problem in statistics. However when there is prior information the theory is not developed. It often happens in toxicology and in medicine that the effect of a single drug is well understood.. However if a pair of drugs is delivered in tandem or if two toxins are interacting the ...


Performance of 3D landmark detection methods for point-based warping in autoradiographic brain imaging

R. Pielot; M. Scholz; K. Obermayer; E. D. Gundelfinger; A. Hess Proceedings Fifth IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation, 2002

Warping can be used to reduce interindividual structural variations of three- dimensional anatomical image datasets of brains. For this, a standard brain is generated and the individual datasets are matched to this reference system. Model-based warping uses structural information such as landmarks to construct the spatial correspondence between the datasets. In this paper we compare three different fully automatic landmark ...


General Considerations on the Toxicity of Gaseous Dielectrics

David Lester Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Part III: Power Apparatus and Systems, 1957

First Page of the Article ![](/xploreAssets/images/absImages/04499746.png)


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Educational Resources on Toxicology

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Comparing two life cycle assessment approaches: a process model vs. economic input-output-based assessment

C. T. Hendrickson; A. Horvath; S. Joshi; M. Klausner; L. B. Lave; F. C. McMichael Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment. ISEE-1997, 1997

We compare two tools for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The software GaBi (Ganzheitliche Bilanzierung Integrated Assessment) from Germany is based on a process model approach, as recommended by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC). These results are contrasted to those from the method developed by Carnegie Mellon University's Green Design Initiative, Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis (EIO-LCA). The ...


Transformer Noise Problem - Performance of Acoustic Treatments and Vibration Isolators

A. T. Edwards Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Part III: Power Apparatus and Systems, 1957

The considerations for dealing with the reduction of noise from transformers in residential areas are discussed from the standpoint of necessity for acoustic treatment, type and design of treatment, and importance and design of vibration isolators. Quantitative data on the performance of various treatments and vibration isolators are given; and details are provided of an inexpensive wall combining high-absorption and ...


Surface fitting with boundary data

S. Maad; C. Martin; T. Stromberg; J. Bystrom 2004 43rd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) (IEEE Cat. No.04CH37601), 2004

The problem of fitting surfaces to data is a well studied problem in statistics. However when there is prior information the theory is not developed. It often happens in toxicology and in medicine that the effect of a single drug is well understood.. However if a pair of drugs is delivered in tandem or if two toxins are interacting the ...


Performance of 3D landmark detection methods for point-based warping in autoradiographic brain imaging

R. Pielot; M. Scholz; K. Obermayer; E. D. Gundelfinger; A. Hess Proceedings Fifth IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation, 2002

Warping can be used to reduce interindividual structural variations of three- dimensional anatomical image datasets of brains. For this, a standard brain is generated and the individual datasets are matched to this reference system. Model-based warping uses structural information such as landmarks to construct the spatial correspondence between the datasets. In this paper we compare three different fully automatic landmark ...


General Considerations on the Toxicity of Gaseous Dielectrics

David Lester Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Part III: Power Apparatus and Systems, 1957

First Page of the Article ![](/xploreAssets/images/absImages/04499746.png)


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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • A Case Study in Environmental Disaster Management

    **What makes teamwork tick?** Cooperation matters, in daily life and in complex applications. After all, many tasks need more than a single agent to be effectively performed. Therefore, teamwork rules! Teams are social groups of agents dedicated to the fulfilment of particular persistent tasks. In modern multiagent environments, heterogeneous teams often consist of autonomous software agents, various types of robots and human beings. _Teamwork in Multi-agent Systems: A Formal Approach_ explains teamwork rules in terms of agents' attitudes and their complex interplay. It provides the first comprehensive logical theory, TeamLog, underpinning teamwork in dynamic environments. The authors justify design choices by showing TeamLog in action. The book guides the reader through a fascinating discussion of issues essential for teamwork to be successful: * What is teamwork, and how can a logical view of it help in designing teams of agents? * hat is the role of agents' awareness in an uncertain, dynamic environment? * How does collective intention constitute a team? * How are plan-based collective commitments related to team action? * How can one tune collective commitment to the team's organizational structure and its communication abilities? * What are the methodological underpinnings for teamwork in a dynamic environment? * How does a team and its attitudes adjust to changing circumstances? * How do collective intentions and collective commitments arise through dialogue? * What is the computational complexity of TeamLog? * How can one make TeamLog efficient in applications? This book is an invaluable resource for researchers and graduate students in computer science and artificial intelligence as well as for developers of multi-agent systems. Students and researchers in organizational science, in particular those investigating teamwork, will also f nd this book insightful. Since the authors made an effort to introduce TeamLog as a conceptual model of teamwork, understanding most of the book requires solely a basic logical background.

  • Cache Poisoning Defenses

    The primary attack vector for poisoning domain name system (DNS) cache consists of an attacker manipulating DNS responses by sending numerous answers to a given query with varying IP and DNS header parameters. A high volume of incoming DNS answers disproportionate to outgoing queries could indicate a cache poisoning attack. Upon detection of an attack, user should attempt to identify the source of the attack and if possible, block the sender. Antivirus and anti¿¿¿malware defenses for end user devices can help reduce the incidence of known viruses and malware from instigating a cache poisoning attack against the recursive servers. The definitive solution to cache poisoning attacks requires the authentication of each DNS query answer as having been published by the authoritative domain owner. DNS security extensions (DNSSEC) specifications provide for query answer authentication as well as data integrity validation to assure no manipulation of query answers en route to the validating resolver.



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