Surgery

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Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance. An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical procedure, operation, or simply surgery. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Surgery

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2014 5th IEEE RAS & EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob)

Theoretical and experimental challenges posed by the application of robotics and mechatronics in medicine and biology. Analysis of biological systems from a biomechatronic point of view. Design and fabrication of bio-inspired and biomimetic machines. Robotic and mechatronic devices and systems for prevention, diagnosis, surgery, prosthetics, rehabilitation and personal assistance.

  • 2012 4th IEEE RAS & EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob 2012)

    Theoretical and experimental challenges posed by the application of robotics and mechatronics in medicine and biology. Analysis of biological systems from biomechatronic point of view. Design and fabrication of bio-inspired machines. Robotic and mechatronic devices and systems for prevention, diagnosis, surgery, prosthetics, rehabilitation and personal assistance.

  • 2010 3rd IEEE RAS & EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob 2010)

    Theoretical and experimental challenges posed by the application of robotics and mechatronics in medicine and biology. Analysis of biological systems from a biomechatronic point of view. Design and fabrication of bio-inspired machines and systems for diagnosis, surgery, prosthetics, rehabilitation and personal assistance.

  • 2008 2nd IEEE RAS & EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob 2008)

    The main focus of Biorobotics is to analyze biological systems from a "biomechatronic" point of view, trying to understand the scientific and engineering principles underlying their extraordinary performance. This profound understanding of how biological systems work, behave and interact can be used for two main objectives: to guide the design and fabrication of novel, high performance bio-inspired machines and systems, for many different potential applications; and to develop (nano, micro, macro) novel dev

  • 2006 1st IEEE RAS & EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob 2006)


2013 6th International Conference on Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics (RAM)

The goal of the RAM 2013 is to bring together experts from the field of robotics, automation and mechatronics to discuss on the state-of-the-art and to present new research findings and perspectives of future developments.

  • 2011 IEEE 5th International Conference on Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics (RAM)

    The goal of the RAM 2011 is to bring together experts from the field of robotics, automation and mechatronics to discuss on the state-of-the-art and to present new research findings and perspectives of future developments with respect to the conference themes. The RAM 2011 is held in conjunction with the IEEE International Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems (CIS 2011)

  • 2008 IEEE Conference on Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics (RAM)

    The CIS-RAM 2008 is to bring together experts from the field of cybernetics, intelligent systems robotics, automation, and mechatronics to present and discuss new research findings and perspectives of future developments with respect to the conference themes.


2013 Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC)

Provide a forum for scientists and professionals from the fields of medicine, physics, engineering and computer science to discuss their current research in topics pertaining to computing in clinical cardiology and cardiovascular physiology.

  • 2012 Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC)

    Provide a forum for scientists and professionals from the fields of medicine, physics, engineering and computer science to discuss their current research in topics pertaining to computing in clinical cardiology and cardiovascular physiology.

  • 2011 Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC)

    Provides a forum for scientists and professionals from the fields of medicine, physics, engineering and computer science to discuss their current research in topics pertaining to computing in clinical cardiology and cardiovascular physiology.

  • 2010 Computing in Cardiology (CinC)

    Computing in Cardiology (formerly Computers in Cardiology) is one of the premier events focusing on computer applications in clinical cardiology and cardiovascular research. The conference fosters interdisciplinary discussions and collaboration among physicians, engineers, physicists, biologists, computer scientists and others in research and development in Cardiology.

  • 2009 36th Annual Computers in Cardiology Conference (CinC)

    The Computers in Cardiology conference provides an international forum for scientific presentations focusing on computer applications in clinical cardiology and cardiovascular research. The conference fosters interdisciplinary discussions and collaboration between physicians, engineers, physicists, biologists, computer scientists and others engaged in research in this area.

  • 2008 35th Annual Computers in Cardiology Conference (CinC)

    The Computers in Cardiology conference provides an international forum for scientific presentations focusing on computer applications in clinical cardiology and cardiovascular research. The conference fosters interdisciplinary discussions between scientists and professionals from different fields including medicine, physics, engineering, biology, information technology, computer science and others engaged in research in this area.

  • 2007 34th Annual Computers in Cardiology Conference (CinC)

    The Computers in Cardiology conference provides an international forum for scientific presentations focusing on computer applications in clinical cardiology and cardiovascular research. The conference fosters interdisciplinary discussions and collaboration between physicians, engineers, physicists, biologists, computer scientists, and others engaged in research in this area.

  • 2006 Computers in Cardiology Conference


2013 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM)

This conference on Mechatronics will be held on July 9-12, 2013 in University of Wollongong, Wollongong. AIM 2013 conference brings together an international community of experts to discuss the state-of-the-art, new research results, perspectives of future developments, and innovative applications relevant to mechatronics, robotics, control, automation, and related areas.

  • 2012 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM)

    Actuators, Automotive Systems, Aerospace Engineering, Bioengineering, Data Storage Systems, Electronic Packaging, Fault Diagnosis, Human-Machine Interfaces, Industry Applications, Information Technology, Intelligent Systems, Machine Vision, Manufacturing, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems, Micro/Nano Technology, Modeling and Design, Motion Vibration and Noise Control, Neural and Fuzzy Control, Motion Control, Optimal and Adaptive Control, Opto-Electronic Systems, Planning and Navigation, Prototyping, Real-Time and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation, Robotics, Sensors, System Integration, Transportation Systems, Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics.

  • 2011 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM)

    The purpose of the IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics(AIM), following the footsteps of the previous nine editions, is to promote activities in various areas of mechatronics by providing a forum for exchange of ideas, presentation of technical achievements and discussion of future directions The AIM brings together an international community of experts to discuss the state-of-the-art, new research results, perspectives of future developments, and innovative applications.

  • 2010 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM)

    included but not limited to Actuators, Automotive Systems, Bioengineering, Data Storage Systems, Electronic Packaging, Fault Diagnosis, Human-Machine Interfaces, Industry Applications, Information Technology, Intelligent Systems, Machine Vision, Manufacturing, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems, Micro/Nano Technology, Modeling and Design, Motion Vibration and Noise Control, Neural and Fuzzy Control, Opto-Electronic Systems, Planning and Navigation, Prototyping, Real-Time and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation, R

  • 2009 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM)

    All areas in mechatronics, systems engineering, product design

  • 2008 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM)

    All related areas of mechatronics.

  • 2007 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM)


2012 5th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Informatics (BMEI)

BMEI is a premier international forum for scientists and researchers to present the state of the art of biomedical engineering and informatics. Specific topics include Biomedical imaging and visualization; Biomedical signal processing and analysis; etc.

  • 2011 4th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Informatics (BMEI)

    CISP 11-BMEI 11 is a premier international forum for scientists and researchers to present the state of the art of biomedical engineering and informatics. Specific topics include Biomedical imaging and visualization; Biomedical signal processing and analysis; Biomedical instrumentation, devices, sensors, artificial organs, and nano technologies; Rehabilitation engineering; bioinformatics and medical informatics, etc.

  • 2010 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Informatics (BMEI)

    BMEI 10 is a premier international forum for scientists and researchers to present the state of the art of biomedical engineering and biomedical informatics. It is co-located with the 3rd International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP 2010) to promote interactions biomedical research and signal processing.


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Periodicals related to Surgery

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Computer

Computer, the flagship publication of the IEEE Computer Society, publishes peer-reviewed technical content that covers all aspects of computer science, computer engineering, technology, and applications. Computer is a resource that practitioners, researchers, and managers can rely on to provide timely information about current research developments, trends, best practices, and changes in the profession.


Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE

Both general and technical articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering; societal implications of medical technologies; current news items; book reviews; patent descriptions; and correspondence. Special interest departments, students, law, clinical engineering, ethics, new products, society news, historical features and government.


Information Technology in Biomedicine, IEEE Transactions on

Telemedicine, teleradiology, telepathology, telemonitoring, telediagnostics, 3D animations in health care, health information networks, clinical information systems, virtual reality applications in medicine, broadband technologies, and global information infrastructure design for health care.




Xplore Articles related to Surgery

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Decision Support System for Fetal Delivery Using Soft Computing Techniques

R. R. Janghel; Anupam Shukla; Ritu Tiwari 2009 Fourth International Conference on Computer Sciences and Convergence Information Technology, 2009

In the present work an attempt is made to develop a decision support system (DSS) using the pathological attributes to predict the fetal delivery to be done normal or by surgical procedure. The pathological tests like blood sugar (BR), blood pressure (BP), resistivity index (RI) and systolic/diastolic (S/P) ratio will be recorded at the time of delivery. All attributes lie ...


On the use of meshfree methods and a geometry based surgical cutting algorithm in multimodal medical simulations

Y. -J. Lim; S. De Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, 2004. HAPTICS '04. Proceedings. 12th International Symposium on, 2004

In this paper, we present some of our recent advances in the simulation of surgical procedures including surgical cutting in multimodal virtual environments. Progressive cutting, without the generation of new primitives, is achieved by snapping the nearest nodes to the interaction point between the cutting tool and the underlying polygon edge. The realism of the simulation is enhanced by employing ...


Neural damage from continuous microstimulation in the cochlear nucleus; correlation with stimulus parameters

Douglas B. McCreery; T. G. H Yuen; W. F. Agnew; L. A. Bullara 1992 14th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1992

Seven hours of continuous stimulation in the cochlear nucleus with chronically implanted activated iridium microelectrodes resulted in neural injury characterized primarily by a localized zone of severe extracellular edema accompanied by abnormal cellular elements. The severity of the damage was correlated positively with the stimulus frequency and charge per phase, but a correlation with the geometric charge density was not ...


Surgical navigation by autostereoscopic image overlay of integral videography

Hongen Liao; N. Hata; S. Nakajima; M. Iwahara; I. Sakuma; T. Dohi IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, 2004

This paper describes an autostereoscopic image overlay technique that is integrated into a surgical navigation system to superimpose a real three- dimensional (3-D) image onto the patient via a half-silvered mirror. The images are created by employing a modified version of integral videography (IV), which is an animated extension of integral photography. IV records and reproduces 3-D images using a ...


Design of a dimpled femoral head in total hip replacements using elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory

N. Sharma; D. Meyer Proceedings of the IEEE 31st Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, 2005., 2005

In this paper, a three-dimensional computational and analytical elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) analysis of a new dimpled design of an artificial hip joint is discussed. The shape, size and location of the dimple are known a priori. The method employed here differs from those found in literature, in that, unlike existing methods, which express the film thickness as a function of ...


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Educational Resources on Surgery

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eLearning

Decision Support System for Fetal Delivery Using Soft Computing Techniques

R. R. Janghel; Anupam Shukla; Ritu Tiwari 2009 Fourth International Conference on Computer Sciences and Convergence Information Technology, 2009

In the present work an attempt is made to develop a decision support system (DSS) using the pathological attributes to predict the fetal delivery to be done normal or by surgical procedure. The pathological tests like blood sugar (BR), blood pressure (BP), resistivity index (RI) and systolic/diastolic (S/P) ratio will be recorded at the time of delivery. All attributes lie ...


On the use of meshfree methods and a geometry based surgical cutting algorithm in multimodal medical simulations

Y. -J. Lim; S. De Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, 2004. HAPTICS '04. Proceedings. 12th International Symposium on, 2004

In this paper, we present some of our recent advances in the simulation of surgical procedures including surgical cutting in multimodal virtual environments. Progressive cutting, without the generation of new primitives, is achieved by snapping the nearest nodes to the interaction point between the cutting tool and the underlying polygon edge. The realism of the simulation is enhanced by employing ...


Neural damage from continuous microstimulation in the cochlear nucleus; correlation with stimulus parameters

Douglas B. McCreery; T. G. H Yuen; W. F. Agnew; L. A. Bullara 1992 14th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1992

Seven hours of continuous stimulation in the cochlear nucleus with chronically implanted activated iridium microelectrodes resulted in neural injury characterized primarily by a localized zone of severe extracellular edema accompanied by abnormal cellular elements. The severity of the damage was correlated positively with the stimulus frequency and charge per phase, but a correlation with the geometric charge density was not ...


Surgical navigation by autostereoscopic image overlay of integral videography

Hongen Liao; N. Hata; S. Nakajima; M. Iwahara; I. Sakuma; T. Dohi IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, 2004

This paper describes an autostereoscopic image overlay technique that is integrated into a surgical navigation system to superimpose a real three- dimensional (3-D) image onto the patient via a half-silvered mirror. The images are created by employing a modified version of integral videography (IV), which is an animated extension of integral photography. IV records and reproduces 3-D images using a ...


Design of a dimpled femoral head in total hip replacements using elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory

N. Sharma; D. Meyer Proceedings of the IEEE 31st Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, 2005., 2005

In this paper, a three-dimensional computational and analytical elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) analysis of a new dimpled design of an artificial hip joint is discussed. The shape, size and location of the dimple are known a priori. The method employed here differs from those found in literature, in that, unlike existing methods, which express the film thickness as a function of ...


More eLearning Resources

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Bibliography

    Robot motion planning has become a major focus of robotics. Research findings can be applied not only to robotics but to planning routes on circuit boards, directing digital actors in computer graphics, robot-assisted surgery and medicine, and in novel areas such as drug design and protein folding. This text reflects the great advances that have taken place in the last ten years, including sensor-based planning, probabalistic planning, localization and mapping, and motion planning for dynamic and nonholonomic systems. Its presentation makes the mathematical underpinnings of robot motion accessible to students of computer science and engineering, rleating low-level implementation details to high-level algorithmic concepts.

  • Index

    Robot motion planning has become a major focus of robotics. Research findings can be applied not only to robotics but to planning routes on circuit boards, directing digital actors in computer graphics, robot-assisted surgery and medicine, and in novel areas such as drug design and protein folding. This text reflects the great advances that have taken place in the last ten years, including sensor-based planning, probabalistic planning, localization and mapping, and motion planning for dynamic and nonholonomic systems. Its presentation makes the mathematical underpinnings of robot motion accessible to students of computer science and engineering, rleating low-level implementation details to high-level algorithmic concepts.

  • Virtual Reality in Medicine and Biology

    The practice of medicine and major segments of the biologic sciences have always relied on visualizations of the relationship of anatomic structure to biologic function. Traditionally, these visualizations either have been direct, via vivisection and postmortem examination, or have required extensive mental reconstruction, as in the microscopic examination of serial histologic sections. The revolutionary capabilities of new three-dimensional (3-D) and four-dimensional (4-D) imaging modalities and the new 3-D scanning microscope technologies underscore the vital importance of spatial visualization to these sciences. Computer reconstruction and rendering of multidimensional medical and histologic image data obviate the taxing need for mental reconstruction and provide a powerful new visualization tool for biologists and physicians. Voxel-based computer visualization has a number of important uses in basic research, clinical diagnosis, and treatment or surgery planning; but it is limited by relatively long rendering times and minimal possibilities for image object manipulation. The use of virtual reality (VR) technology opens new realms in the teaching and practice of medicine and biology by allowing the visualizations to be manipulated with intuitive immediacy similar to that of real objects; by allowing the viewer to enter the visualizations, taking any viewpoint; by allowing the objects to be dynamic, either in response to viewer actions or to illustrate normal or abnormal motion; and by engaging other senses, such as touch and hearing (or even smell) to enrich the visualization. Biologic applications extend across a range of scale from investigating the structure of individual cells through the organization of cells in a tissue to the representation of organs and organ systems, including functional attributes such as electrophysiologic signal distribution on the surf ace of an organ. They are of use as instructional aids as well as basic science research tools. Medical applications include basic anatomy instruction, surgical simulation for instruction, visualization for diagnosis, and surgical simulation for treatment planning and rehearsal. Infrastructure, methods and applications are discussed in this chapter. The most complex and challenging applications, those that show the greatest promise of significantly changing the practice of medical research or treatment, require an intimate and immediate union of image and model with real-world, real-time data.

  • Basic Set Definitions

    Robot motion planning has become a major focus of robotics. Research findings can be applied not only to robotics but to planning routes on circuit boards, directing digital actors in computer graphics, robot-assisted surgery and medicine, and in novel areas such as drug design and protein folding. This text reflects the great advances that have taken place in the last ten years, including sensor-based planning, probabalistic planning, localization and mapping, and motion planning for dynamic and nonholonomic systems. Its presentation makes the mathematical underpinnings of robot motion accessible to students of computer science and engineering, rleating low-level implementation details to high-level algorithmic concepts.

  • Telepresence Robots for Medical and Homecare Applications

    This chapter explores the up-to-date research findings and industry practices in telepresence robots for medical and homecare applications, including rehabilitation and therapy, monitoring and assistance, and communication. Moreover, the key contributing factors to the success of telepresence robots are also discussed to address the future trends and opportunities. Robots have the advantages of high precision, strong consistency, and stability. Thus, in the field of medical applications, the use of robots exactly helps to overcome the technical limitations of conventional surgery performed by physicians. Telepresence helps extend not only human vision and hearing but also the sense of touch, which is important for physical rehabilitation. From the user's perspective, human-centered design is definitely critical to the success of the telepresence robot. Once the real demands can be explored and realized, telepresence robots will eventually enter our lives as new roles for modern medicine and homecare.

  • Medical Applications of Virtual Reality in Japan

    Japan is famous as a major power of video games and as an electronically developed industrial country. However, the present Japanese situation of academic research on virtual reality (VR) is not well known because of the linguistic barrier. In this chapter, VR research in Japan and its medical applications is surveyed and the future view of Japanese activities in these fields is discussed. Trends in medical applications are discussed. Specific research such as in computer surgery, training, education, remote medicine, psychotherapy and rehabilitation are detailed.

  • Virtual Reality and MedicineChallenges for the TwentyFirst Century

    Robert Mann first proposed a virtual reality (VR) system for medical applications in 1965. His initial ideas were for a rehabilitation application for virtual reality. Later, his vision was to develop a system that would allow surgeons to test out multiple operations for a given orthopedic problem. Then in a virtual environment (VE), the clock could be speeded up to predict the future outcome of different surgical approaches. In effect, the patient could leave the operating table, go through rehabilitation, and then return for evaluation. The surgeon could then pick the best choice for the real operation. This approach would need a model that was not only patient specific but also accurate in terms of the deformity and its response to treatment over time. This is the ultimate goal for the twenty-first century for a VR system in surgery. It is difficult to create a model of the human body that is realistic enough to accurately portray a surgical mission that is planned. The interface tools that are presently available are much more advanced than the ones discussed here that were available to NASA in the 1980s; however, without a true model to interact with they are unable to provide the realism for surgical education and training that is needed. Present cadaver laboratories and training through hands-on experience provide the majority of medical education today in surgery. It is unlikely that present VR simulators will change this without a significant improvements in the models. Most of the author's work has been directed at creating digital models of humans. Some of this work is reviewed and what needs to be done is emphasized, rather than focus on what has already been accomplished. Systems are presently available for many medical training applications, including microsurgery, urology, general surgery, heart surgery, vascular surgery, eye surgery, otolaryngology, mi litary wound d?bridement, and obstetrics. Ultimately these systems will be able to provide teaching at a distance for telemedicine and telesurgery. The goal of this chapter is to better define where is needed to make improvements in the human body models for all of these systems. Most of these systems assume normal tissue properties and do not address the response over time of the tissues to the disease state, to the surgical intervention, or to the healing process. The pathologic state of tissues and the tissue's response to interventions over time should be the next grand challenge in virtual reality and medicine.

  • Maxillofacial Virtual Surgery from 3D CT Images

    The history of scientific development is characterized by some key moments owing to the union of competences coming from far away research areas. Virtual surgery, a new discipline that recently appeared among the medical sciences, is an excellent example of contribution from medical and computational knowledges to health development and progress. Craniofacial surgery is a surgical branch regarding study and treatment of any kind of disease (malformations, trauma, and tumors) affecting the face. The anatomic and functional complexity of the face and skull, characterized by the presence of the eyes, ear, nose, mouth, facial nerves, and the proximity of important the brain and the respiratory system, make this area extremely hazardous for even skilled surgeons and a dangerous mine field for residents, fellows, and surgeons in training. For scientific and teaching reasons, we planned a research project for craniofacial surgery simulation from 3-D CT images. Generally, the goal of computer-based surgery simulation is to enable a surgeon to experiment with different surgical procedures in an artificial environment. We propose a simulation method that allows one to deal with extremely complex anatomical geometries. The computational grid is the natural Cartesian grid in which the acquired 3-D image is defined. The rest of the chapter discusses theoretical basis of the linear elastic problem with embedded Dirichlet boundary conditions, the numerical approximation scheme and the solution method, and the results obtained by the application of the method to a number of datasets. We show comparisons between virtual and real operations in real patients, and consider future work.

  • Current Trends in Robotics: Technology and Ethics

    This chapter contains sections titled: 2.1 What Is a Robot?, 2.2 Robotics around the World, 2.3 Industrial/Manufacturing Robots: Robots as Coworkers, 2.4 Human-Robot Interaction in Healthcare, Surgery, and Rehabilitation, 2.5 Robots as Co-inhabitants; Humanoid Robots, 2.6 Socially Interactive Robots, 2.7 Military Robots, 2.8 Conclusion, Notes, References

  • Future Technologies for Medical Applications

    The modern age of surgery began at the end of the nineteenth century because medicine discovered the Industrial Age, with its wealth of revolutionary technologies such as anesthesia, asepsis, microscopy, and new materials. At the close of the twentieth century, the Information Age diffused into medicine, and a revolution of even greater magnitude occurred. To understand the change it is necessary to look outside of medicine to society as a whole and find the underlying principles, and then apply them within our discipline. The medical record is now becoming electronic and nearly all of our imaging has changed from film (atoms) to digital images (bits). Medical education is using computer-aided instructions, CD-ROM, and VR to simulate and supplement cadaver and animal models. With the new research in robotics, even our hand motions are being changed in to electronic signals and being sent from one place to another. The future of medicine is no longer blood and guts, but bits and bytes. A commonality of information enables us to tie together a whole new concept of how medicine could evolve, like an entire medical ecosystem, whereby discoveries in micro-sensors permits new imaging devices, which in turn enable new forms of image-based surgery. It is an upward spiral, one discovery providing a giant step forward toward the next technology and escalating the whole changing system logarithmically. This could help explain why we are all so overwhelmed by the rapidity of our changing profession. Yet the younger generation of physicians-to-be are not so uncomfortable with the rapidly changing technologies. One of their fundamental tools is the ability to understand the world in the form of three-dimensional (3-D) visualization. There is a speculative scenario that can be used as a framework to illuminate the integrating power of this concept. It is referred to as the doorway t o the future and extrapolates to 20, 50 or perhaps 100 years into the future. As a patient visits her surgeon for a consult, she passes through the office door and, just as scanning is performed today by airport security, she has multiple imaging modalities scanning her (perhaps CT, MRI, ultrasound, and infrared). The data are all collected and then displayed as a 3-D image of her (looking like the Visible Human) but with not only correct anatomic structure but also all the biochemical and other data added to the correct organ systems. If an abnormality is seen, such as a colon mass, a virtual colonoscopy can be done on the image by flying through the colon with the same view as an actual colonoscopy. If a lesion is found, the image can be used for patient education, illustrating to the patient exactly what her specific problem is. At the time of surgery, an image can be imported onto the video monitor of laparoscopic colon resection, and with data fusion the two images displayed simultaneously as an intraoperative navigation tool (stereotactic navigation). At the postoperative follow up visit, the patient is scanned again, by comparing the postoperative with the preoperative datasets and using digital subtraction techniques, the difference between the two datasets is automatic outcomes analysis. Because the record is a dataset, it can be stored on a credit card (the U.S. military is using a prototype card called the MARC card) or kept on a Web server to be distributed worldwide over the Internet for consultation. The purpose of the this scenario is to provide an explanation of and rationale for why it is so important to understand how information can empower us, to show the looking glass through which the next-generation surgeon will be viewing the world. To bring the scenario out of the speculative and rhetorical and into the real world, the technologies that these views are presented in this chapter must be held accountable to the scrutiny of science. Only when these new discoveries are properly evaluated with rigorous testing and clinical trials can ...



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