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Steel is an alloy that consists mostly of iron and has a carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1% by weight, depending on the grade. Carbon is the most common alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, and tungsten. (

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2019 IEEE 28th Symposium on Fusion Engineering (SOFE)

fusion engineering, physics and materials, plasma heating, vacuum technology, tritium processing, fueling, first walls, blankets and divertors

2018 15th International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control (AMC)

1. Advanced Motion Control2. Haptics, Robotics and Human-Machine Systems3. Micro/Nano Motion Control Systems4. Intelligent Motion Control Systems5. Nonlinear, Adaptive and Robust Control Systems6. Motion Systems for Robot Intelligence and Humanoid Robotics7. CPG based Feedback Control, Morphological Control8. Actuators and Sensors in Motion System9. Motion Control of Aerial/Ground/Underwater Robots10. Advanced Dynamics and Motion Control11. Motion Control for Assistive and Rehabilitative Robots and Systems12. Intelligent and Advanced Traffic Controls13. Computer Vision in Motion Control14. Network and Communication Technologies in Motion Control15. Motion Control of Soft Robots16. Automation Technologies in Primary Industries17. Other Topics and Applications Involving Motion Dynamics and Control

2018 20th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'18 ECCE Europe)

Energy conversion and conditioning technologies, power electronics, adjustable speed drives and their applications, power electronics for smarter grid, energy efficiency,technologies for sustainable energy systems, converters and power supplies

2018 43rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz2018)

Covering terahertz, far infrared and millimeter wave science, technology and applications

2018 9th International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC)

Topics cover a complete survey of the field of charged particle accelerator science and technology and infrastructure.

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Periodicals related to Steel

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.

Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission

Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.

Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on

Component parts, hybrid microelectronics, materials, packaging techniques, and manufacturing technology.

Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, IEEE/ACM Transactions on

Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to, sequence analysis, comparison and alignment methods; motif, gene and signal recognition; molecular evolution; phylogenetics and phylogenomics; determination or prediction of the structure of RNA and Protein in two and three dimensions; DNA twisting and folding; gene expression and gene regulatory networks; deduction of metabolic pathways; micro-array design and analysis; proteomics; ...

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Xplore Articles related to Steel

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Discussion on “observation of harmonics in current and in voltage wave shapes of transformers”, San Francisco, Cal., May 6, 1910 (see proceedings for May, 1910)

[] Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1910


Electrical steels: past, present and future developments

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Sch. of Electr. Electron. & Syst. Eng., Univ. of Wales Coll. of Cardiff, UK', u'full_name': u'A.J. Moses'}] IEE Proceedings A - Physical Science, Measurement and Instrumentation, Management and Education, 1990

The author reviews the development of electrical steels from hot-rolled silicon iron, first produced around 1905, through the discovery of grain- oriented steels in the late 1930s, to the modern domain-refined high- permeability materials and low-loss nonoriented steels. The use of the steel as the magnetic core material of rotating machines and transformers is considered. This is followed by a ...

Rolling mill motors

[{u'author_order': 1, u'full_name': u'E. W. Yearsley'}] Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1909

Protection is extremely important in the steel mill where conditions are necessarily uncleanly, and electrical apparatus must work in the midst of dust, moisture, and gases. Large motors should be enclosed in solidly built tight compartments, ventilated by clean air if necessary, or should be of the totally enclosed type.

Electric power, market forces, and the public welfare

[{u'author_order': 1, u'full_name': u'J.A. Casazza'}] IEEE Power Engineering Review, 1991

Economic characteristics of electric power systems are reviewed. Maintaining system benefits with privatization is discussed. The establishment of national electric power policies is addressed. The relationship between market forces and social responsibility is examined.<<ETX>>

An exhaust steam turbine plant

[{u'author_order': 1, u'full_name': u'Henry H. Wait'}] Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1908

At the Wisconsin Steel Company's Mill at South Chicago the turbine utilizes the exhaust steam from a reversible engine which drives the blooming rolls. The steam passes first to the receiver which takes out the shock of the puffs of steam, thence to the steam accumulator or “regenerator”, and from there to the turbine and condenser. The general layout of ...

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No eLearning Articles are currently tagged "Steel"


  • Transmission Lines and Cables

    This chapter contains sections titled: * Construction * Components of the Transmission Lines * Cables * Transmission Line Electrical Parameters * Magnetic Field Generated by Transmission Lines * Transmission Line Inductance * Transmission Line Capacitance * Transmission Line Networks * Concept of Transmission Line Protection * Application Examples ]]>

  • Current Collecting Systems, Protection Systems, and Auxiliary Services onboard Vehicles

    This chapter introduces the main devices installed onboard to ensure traction and complementary services. The devices include braking systems, electrochemical batteries, onboard protection systems, electrical power systems, compressed air production systems, and current collecting systems. Onboard protection systems are assigned to a main circuit breaker that is positioned immediately downstream of the current collecting system. Current collecting systems can be divided into two main families: systems based on overhead lines and pantographs, and systems based on third side rails and slippers. The auxiliary services onboard, depending on their power, can be supplied at different voltage levels. Electrochemical rechargeable batteries are of great importance in many electrical systems because they can store chemical energy that can be converted and sent whenever and wherever needed, in electrical form. Especially in railway systems, this kind of battery covers an important role, both for safety and for operations.

  • Materials for Grounding

    This chapter introduces the requirement on material and size for grounding conductors, corrosion of grounding conductor and concrete‐encased electrodes, low‐resistivity material and its performances in decreasing power‐frequency and impulse grounding resistance.

  • 6 No Doubt to Hack You, Writed by UglyGorilla: China's PLA Unit 61398 and Economic Espionage

    On February 8, 2010, twenty employees of U.S. Steel received an email from the company's Chief Executive Officer, John Surma. The subject line read “Meeting Invitation,” and the agenda for the proposed meeting was also included as an attachment, in a file titled simply “” It was not until long after several of the recipients had opened the attachment and installed the contents on their computers that anyone realized the message had not, in fact, been sent by Surma, but instead by Sun Kailiang, an officer in China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) Unit 61398, the branch of the PLA responsible for conducting cyber operations and signals intelligence from a twelve-story building on Datong Road in the Pudong District of Shanghai.1In 2010, few civilians in the United States had heard of PLA Unit 61398, but U.S. Steel's IT staff noticed several suspicious emails on their systems—the “Meeting Invitation” was only one of roughly fifty phishing messages that Sun sent during February 2010 to U.S. Steel employees, ostensibly from the company's own high-level executives. Many of those emails featured subject lines like “U.S. Steel Industry Outlook” and included links or attachments that, like the file, installed malware on the recipients' computers when clicked.2

  • Basic Information

    The first gas insulated switchgear (GIS) assemblies were designed for high voltage levels in the 1920s using oil as the insulating medium. This chapter provides a brief and simplified explanation of GIS and gaseous insulation physics. The failure distributions of the single components of GIS have been investigated for circuit breakers (CB), disconnect and earthing/grounding switches (DS/GS), and instrument transformers (IT). It describes each of the basic design elements such as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas, conductors, enclosures, solid support insulators, conductor contacts, and enclosure joints. Next each functional component will be described. The arrangement of the components to match typical electrical one-lines will then be explained. Personnel safety holds a very high priority status when operating a GIS.

  • Technology

    The gas insulated substations (GIS) technology is a continuous development process involving new materials, technical functionality, manufacturing processes, quality, and reliability improvements. The design of a GIS follows the rules of pressure vessel design with the exception of the repetitive pressure test after installation. The use of SF6within the power energy supply is mainly driven by the gas insulated switchgear. To manufacture GIS special requirements related to high voltage conditions need to be fulfilled. GIS are assembled using standard equipment modules to construct a substation that matches the desired electrical one-line diagram of the substation. These standard modules include circuit breakers, current transformers, voltage transformers, disconnect switches, grounding switches, interconnecting bus, surge arresters, and connections to the surrounding power system, such as SF6gas-to-air bushings, cable sealing ends, and transformer interface modules.

  • 2 Passion for Machines (1940–1944)

    Stan's first step toward becoming a machinist was a job for the summer of 1940, before his senior year of high school. Through Ben's connections, he was hired at a company that made molds for automobile tires. Not yet eighteen, he lied about his age to obtain his work permit.1

  • Acknowledgments

    The ideas I write about in this book are not mine alone, although they have been with me for a long time. First and foremost they are shaped by years of friendship and family, especially with my spouse, Jeff Heer. In many cases, I draw from engagements that are not tied to one person or group in particular, and thus they are difficult to acknowledge in full. Nevertheless, this book is for the many people whose lives and stories have influenced its making and in whose debt I remain, whether or not they read the pages that follow.

  • Fundamentals of Ground Grid Design

    The grounding system is an essential part of both high- and low-voltage electrical power networks. Design of a ground grid is part of the overall design of a substation. The ground rods are driven in and the ground grid constructed before the surface layer of gravel is poured and the above-ground portions of the substation constructed. The most important factor in terms of overcurrent phenomena is the sizing of the ground grid conductors. The conductors of a ground grid should be designed for a particular maximum fault current, X/R ratio, and clearing time. This chapter illustrates a design data for ground grid example from IEEE standard 80. This calculation is performed using improved and more uniform calculation procedures than those used in the referenced standard.

  • Higher Orders of Punctuation

    With respect to the punctuation of qualifiers, a comma (or a pair of commas) is used to set off certain types of qualifiers, namely, nonrestrictive qualifiers. Some situations - such as when one nonrestrictive qualifier is nested within another nonrestrictive qualifier - a higher order of punctuation may be necessary to avoid confusion. There, a dash was used for this purpose. This chapter explores other higher orders of punctuation. There is no need to formulate a rule with respect to the correspondence between type of punctuation and order of punctuation. However, good technical writing maintains a consistency of use within a given document. The chapter presents some examples that illustrate the use of a higher order of punctuation to set off an interior nonrestrictive qualifier that contains a list. For completeness, it presents examples where dashes and/or parentheses may be used as the first order of punctuation, rather than commas.

Standards related to Steel

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IEEE Guide to the Assembly and Erection of Concrete Pole Structures

IEEE Standard Method for Measuring the Effectiveness of Electromagnetic Shielding Enclosures

This standard provides uniform measurement procedures for determining the effectiveness of electromagnetic (EM) shielding enclosures at frequencies from 9 kHz to 18 GHz (extendable down to 50 Hz and up to 100 GHz). The owner of the shielding enclosure shall provide the frequencies at which the shield will be tested, and the shielding effectiveness (SE) limits for pass/fail. This standard ...

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