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Steel is an alloy that consists mostly of iron and has a carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1% by weight, depending on the grade. Carbon is the most common alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, and tungsten. (

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2020 IEEE 16th International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control (AMC)

AMC2020 is the 16th in a series of biennial international workshops on Advanced Motion Control which aims to bring together researchers from both academia and industry and to promote omnipresent motion control technologies and applications.

2020 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS)

IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS) is an annual conference coordinated by the Plasma Science and Application Committee (PSAC) of the IEEE Nuclear & Plasma Sciences Society.


To promote awareness, understanding, advancement and application of ocean engineering and marine technology. This includes all aspects of science, engineering, and technology that address research, development, and operations pertaining to all bodies of water. This includes the creation of new capabilities and technologies from concept design through prototypes, testing, and operational systems to sense, explore, understand, develop, use, and responsibly manage natural resources.

  • OCEANS 2018 MTS/IEEE Charleston

    Ocean, coastal, and atmospheric science and technology advances and applications

  • OCEANS 2017 - Anchorage

    Papers on ocean technology, exhibits from ocean equipment and service suppliers, student posters and student poster competition, tutorials on ocean technology, workshops and town meetings on policy and governmental process.

  • OCEANS 2016

    The Marine Technology Scociety and the Oceanic Engineering Society of the IEEE cosponor a joint annual conference and exposition on ocean science, engineering, and policy. The OCEANS conference covers four days. One day for tutorials and three for approx. 500 technical papers and 150 -200 exhibits.

  • OCEANS 2015

    The Marine Technology Scociety and the Oceanic Engineering Society of the IEEE cosponor a joint annual conference and exposition on ocean science, engineering, and policy. The OCEANS conference covers four days. One day for tutorials and three for approx. 450 technical papers and 150-200 exhibits.

  • OCEANS 2014

    The OCEANS conference covers four days. One day for tutorials and three for approx. 450 technical papers and 150-200 exhibits.

  • OCEANS 2013

    Three days of 8-10 tracks of technical sessions (400-450 papers) and concurent exhibition (150-250 exhibitors)

  • OCEANS 2012

    Ocean related technology. Tutorials and three days of technical sessions and exhibits. 8-12 parallel technical tracks.

  • OCEANS 2011

    The Marine Technology Society and the Oceanic Engineering Scociety of the IEEE cosponsor a joint annual conference and exposition on ocean science engineering, and policy.

  • OCEANS 2010

    The Marine Technology Society and the Oceanic Engineering Scociety of the IEEE cosponsor a joint annual conference and exposition on ocean science engineering, and policy.

  • OCEANS 2009

  • OCEANS 2008

    The Marine Technology Society (MTS) and the Oceanic Engineering Society (OES) of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) cosponsor a joint conference and exposition on ocean science, engineering, education, and policy. Held annually in the fall, it has become a focal point for the ocean and marine community to meet, learn, and exhibit products and services. The conference includes technical sessions, workshops, student poster sessions, job fairs, tutorials and a large exhibit.

  • OCEANS 2007

  • OCEANS 2006

  • OCEANS 2005

  • OCEANS 2004

  • OCEANS 2003

  • OCEANS 2002

  • OCEANS 2001

  • OCEANS 2000

  • OCEANS '99

  • OCEANS '98

  • OCEANS '97

  • OCEANS '96

2019 21st European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE '19 ECCE Europe)

Energy conversion and conditioning technologies, power electronics, adjustable speed drives and their applications, power electronics for smarter grid, energy efficiency,technologies for sustainable energy systems, converters and power supplies

2019 44th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz)

Science, technology and applications spanning the millimeter-waves, terahertz and infrared spectral regions

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Periodicals related to Steel

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.

Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission

Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.

Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on

Component parts, hybrid microelectronics, materials, packaging techniques, and manufacturing technology.

Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, IEEE/ACM Transactions on

Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to, sequence analysis, comparison and alignment methods; motif, gene and signal recognition; molecular evolution; phylogenetics and phylogenomics; determination or prediction of the structure of RNA and Protein in two and three dimensions; DNA twisting and folding; gene expression and gene regulatory networks; deduction of metabolic pathways; micro-array design and analysis; proteomics; ...

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Xplore Articles related to Steel

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Discussion on “observation of harmonics in current and in voltage wave shapes of transformers”, San Francisco, Cal., May 6, 1910 (see proceedings for May, 1910)

[] Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1910


Electrical steels: past, present and future developments

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Sch. of Electr. Electron. & Syst. Eng., Univ. of Wales Coll. of Cardiff, UK', u'authorUrl': u'', u'full_name': u'A.J. Moses', u'id': 37264982900}] IEE Proceedings A - Physical Science, Measurement and Instrumentation, Management and Education, 1990

The author reviews the development of electrical steels from hot-rolled silicon iron, first produced around 1905, through the discovery of grain- oriented steels in the late 1930s, to the modern domain-refined high- permeability materials and low-loss nonoriented steels. The use of the steel as the magnetic core material of rotating machines and transformers is considered. This is followed by a ...

Rolling mill motors

[{u'author_order': 1, u'full_name': u'E. W. Yearsley'}] Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1909

Protection is extremely important in the steel mill where conditions are necessarily uncleanly, and electrical apparatus must work in the midst of dust, moisture, and gases. Large motors should be enclosed in solidly built tight compartments, ventilated by clean air if necessary, or should be of the totally enclosed type.

Electric power, market forces, and the public welfare

[{u'author_order': 1, u'authorUrl': u'', u'full_name': u'J.A. Casazza', u'id': 37372604500}] IEEE Power Engineering Review, 1991

Economic characteristics of electric power systems are reviewed. Maintaining system benefits with privatization is discussed. The establishment of national electric power policies is addressed. The relationship between market forces and social responsibility is examined.<<ETX>>

An exhaust steam turbine plant

[{u'author_order': 1, u'full_name': u'Henry H. Wait'}] Proceedings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1908

At the Wisconsin Steel Company's Mill at South Chicago the turbine utilizes the exhaust steam from a reversible engine which drives the blooming rolls. The steam passes first to the receiver which takes out the shock of the puffs of steam, thence to the steam accumulator or “regenerator”, and from there to the turbine and condenser. The general layout of ...

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Educational Resources on Steel

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No eLearning Articles are currently tagged "Steel"


  • Transmission Lines and Cables

    This chapter contains sections titled: * Construction * Components of the Transmission Lines * Cables * Transmission Line Electrical Parameters * Magnetic Field Generated by Transmission Lines * Transmission Line Inductance * Transmission Line Capacitance * Transmission Line Networks * Concept of Transmission Line Protection * Application Examples ]]>

  • Current Collecting Systems, Protection Systems, and Auxiliary Services onboard Vehicles

    This chapter introduces the main devices installed onboard to ensure traction and complementary services. The devices include braking systems, electrochemical batteries, onboard protection systems, electrical power systems, compressed air production systems, and current collecting systems. Onboard protection systems are assigned to a main circuit breaker that is positioned immediately downstream of the current collecting system. Current collecting systems can be divided into two main families: systems based on overhead lines and pantographs, and systems based on third side rails and slippers. The auxiliary services onboard, depending on their power, can be supplied at different voltage levels. Electrochemical rechargeable batteries are of great importance in many electrical systems because they can store chemical energy that can be converted and sent whenever and wherever needed, in electrical form. Especially in railway systems, this kind of battery covers an important role, both for safety and for operations.

  • Materials for Grounding

    This chapter introduces the requirement on material and size for grounding conductors, corrosion of grounding conductor and concrete‐encased electrodes, low‐resistivity material and its performances in decreasing power‐frequency and impulse grounding resistance.

  • Basic Information

    The first gas insulated switchgear (GIS) assemblies were designed for high voltage levels in the 1920s using oil as the insulating medium. This chapter provides a brief and simplified explanation of GIS and gaseous insulation physics. The failure distributions of the single components of GIS have been investigated for circuit breakers (CB), disconnect and earthing/grounding switches (DS/GS), and instrument transformers (IT). It describes each of the basic design elements such as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas, conductors, enclosures, solid support insulators, conductor contacts, and enclosure joints. Next each functional component will be described. The arrangement of the components to match typical electrical one-lines will then be explained. Personnel safety holds a very high priority status when operating a GIS.

  • Technology

    The gas insulated substations (GIS) technology is a continuous development process involving new materials, technical functionality, manufacturing processes, quality, and reliability improvements. The design of a GIS follows the rules of pressure vessel design with the exception of the repetitive pressure test after installation. The use of SF6within the power energy supply is mainly driven by the gas insulated switchgear. To manufacture GIS special requirements related to high voltage conditions need to be fulfilled. GIS are assembled using standard equipment modules to construct a substation that matches the desired electrical one-line diagram of the substation. These standard modules include circuit breakers, current transformers, voltage transformers, disconnect switches, grounding switches, interconnecting bus, surge arresters, and connections to the surrounding power system, such as SF6gas-to-air bushings, cable sealing ends, and transformer interface modules.

  • Fundamentals of Ground Grid Design

    The grounding system is an essential part of both high- and low-voltage electrical power networks. Design of a ground grid is part of the overall design of a substation. The ground rods are driven in and the ground grid constructed before the surface layer of gravel is poured and the above-ground portions of the substation constructed. The most important factor in terms of overcurrent phenomena is the sizing of the ground grid conductors. The conductors of a ground grid should be designed for a particular maximum fault current, X/R ratio, and clearing time. This chapter illustrates a design data for ground grid example from IEEE standard 80. This calculation is performed using improved and more uniform calculation procedures than those used in the referenced standard.

  • Higher Orders of Punctuation

    With respect to the punctuation of qualifiers, a comma (or a pair of commas) is used to set off certain types of qualifiers, namely, nonrestrictive qualifiers. Some situations - such as when one nonrestrictive qualifier is nested within another nonrestrictive qualifier - a higher order of punctuation may be necessary to avoid confusion. There, a dash was used for this purpose. This chapter explores other higher orders of punctuation. There is no need to formulate a rule with respect to the correspondence between type of punctuation and order of punctuation. However, good technical writing maintains a consistency of use within a given document. The chapter presents some examples that illustrate the use of a higher order of punctuation to set off an interior nonrestrictive qualifier that contains a list. For completeness, it presents examples where dashes and/or parentheses may be used as the first order of punctuation, rather than commas.

  • Technology Specifications

    Development and deployment of automated transit has been the goal of a number of individuals and institutions for more than 40 years. To reduce congestion, many transit advocates simply believe that people should get out of their single occupancy vehicles (SOV) and use public transit. The characteristics of various automated transit or automated guideway transit (AGT) modes have to be evaluated and differentiated. This chapter presents a thorough description of the main components of automated transit. Given the current landscape of automated transit development, the specification focuses on technologies that are in operation stages, such as AGT. There are commonalities among various AGT, such as DLM, APM, and PRT technologies, even though certain unique features exist and separate one submode from another. There are basically six large categories of AGT components: vehicle, guide‐way, propulsion and system power, communication and control, station and platform, and maintenance and storage facilities.

  • Rotor Winding Insulation Systems

    This chapter outlines where insulation is needed and the stresses that act on the insulation for the various rotor winding components such as windings, slip rings, retaining rings, end winding banding, etc. Rotor winding insulation is exposed to stresses that are different from those in the stator winding. Most types of rotors in motors and generators, except the SCI type, have both ground and turn insulation. Collector rings are also needed for wound induction rotor motor windings. The retaining ring insulation is inserted between the radial outer (or top) of the field coils and the retaining rings. A number of materials have been used for retaining ring insulation. More complicated designs for direct-cooled rotors for the largest generators utilize hollow sections of copper for the slot sections of the coils and partially for the copper under the retaining rings.

  • Reluctance Method

    The reluctance method is a way of using Ampere's law to solve for magnetic fluxes and magnetic fields. For very simple problems, its results are often reasonably accurate, and thus it often serves as a first step in the process of designing magnetic actuators and sensors. This chapter highlights the steps involved in reluctance method, and provides examples for the method for a?>C?> steel path with airgap and for a sensor with variable airgap. The chapter provides a brief discussion on the concepts of fringing flux and complex reluctance, and is concluded by highlighting the limitations of reluctance method.

Standards related to Steel

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IEEE Guide to the Assembly and Erection of Concrete Pole Structures

IEEE Standard Method for Measuring the Effectiveness of Electromagnetic Shielding Enclosures

This standard provides uniform measurement procedures for determining the effectiveness of electromagnetic (EM) shielding enclosures at frequencies from 9 kHz to 18 GHz (extendable down to 50 Hz and up to 100 GHz). The owner of the shielding enclosure shall provide the frequencies at which the shield will be tested, and the shielding effectiveness (SE) limits for pass/fail. This standard ...

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