Spinal cord

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Template:Vertebral column The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the brain. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Spinal cord

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2018 7th IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (Biorob)

The RAS/EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics - BioRob 2018 - is a joint effort of the two IEEE Societies of Robotics and Automation - RAS - and Engineering in Medicine and Biology - EMBS.BioRob covers both theoretical and experimental challenges posed by the application of robotics and mechatronics in medicine and biology. The primary focus of Biorobotics is to analyze biological systems from a "biomechatronic" point of view, trying to understand the scientific and engineering principles underlying their extraordinary performance. This profound understanding of how biological systems work, behave and interact can be used for two main objectives: to guide the design and fabrication of novel, high performance bio-inspired machines and systems for many different applications; and to develop novel nano, micro-, macro- devices that can act upon, substitute parts of, and assist human beings in prevention, diagnosis, surgery, prosthetics, rehabilitation.


2018 IEEE-EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES)

IECBES is a series of bi-annual conference since 2010. The conference will provide excellent platform for knowledge exchange between researchers, scientists, academicians and engineers working in the areas of biomedical engineering. It is open for local and international participants.

  • 2016 IEEE EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES)

    IECBES is the flagship conference of EMB Malaysia Chapter. Its scope includes new findings in research areas of Biomedical Engineering with keywords indicated above.

  • 2014 IEEE Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES)

    Biomedical Signal and Image Processing:Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Neural, Biomedical Instrumentation & Devices: Sensor, Micro / Nano / Wearable Technology,Biomaterial, Biomimetics, Rehabilitation andTherapeutic Health System, Biomedical Modeling and Simulation, Bioinformatics, Biomechanics and medical robotics, Ergonomics & Human Factors,Healthcare Information System, Telemedicine, eHealth, myHealth.

  • 2012 IEEE EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES 2012)

    Biomedical Signal and Image Processing:Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Neural, Biomedical Instrumentation & Devices: Sensor, Micro / Nano / Wearable Technology,Biomaterial, Biomimetics, Rehabilitation and Therapeutic Health System, Biomedical Modeling and Simulation, Bioinformatics, Biomechanics and medical robotics, Ergonomics & Human Factors,Healthcare Information System, Telemedicine, eHealth, myHealth.

  • 2010 IEEE EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES)

    Biomedical Signal and Image Processing: Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Neural Biomedical Instrumentation & Devices: Sensor, micro/ nano/wearable technology, biomaterial, biomimetic Rehabilitation and Therapeutic Health System Biomedical Modelling and Simulation Bioinformatics Biomechanics and medical robotics Healthcare Information System: Telemedicine, eHealth, mHealth


2017 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2017

The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the premier conference covering basic technologies, to passives and actives components to system over a wide range of frequencies including VHF, UHF, RF, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical. The conference will encompass the latest in RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation, wireless systems, RFID and related topics.

  • 2036 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2036

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2031 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2031

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2029 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2029

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2026 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2026

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2025 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2025

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conferencecovering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies;encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including thelatest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulationand more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions,panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2024 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2024

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2023 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2023

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2022 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2022

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2021 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2021

    The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the premier conference covering basic technologies, to passives and actives components to system over a wide range of frequencies including VHF, UHF, RF, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical. The conference will encompass the latest in RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation, wireless systems, RFID and related topics.

  • 2020 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2020

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2019 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2019

    Comprehensive symposium on microwave theory and techniques including active and passive circuit components, theory and microwave systems.

  • 2018 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2018

    Microwave theory and techniques, RF/microwave/millimeter-wave/terahertz circuit design and fabrication technology, radio/wireless communication.

  • 2016 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2016

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2015 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2015

    The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the premier conference covering basic technologies, to passives and actives components to system over a wide range of frequencies including VHF, UHF, RF, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical. The conference will encompass the latest in RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation, wireless systems, RFID and related topics. The IMS includes technical sessions, both oral and interactive, worksh

  • 2014 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2014

    IMS2014 will cover developments in microwave technology from nano devices to system applications. Technical paper sessions, interactive forums, plenary and panel sessions, workshops, short courses, industrial exhibits, and a wide array of other technical activities will be offered.

  • 2013 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2013

    The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the premier conference covering basic technologies, to passives and actives components to system over a wide range of frequencies including VHF, UHF, RF, microwave, millimeter -wave, terahertz, and optical. The conference will encompass the latest in RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation, wireless systems, RFID and related topics.The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2012 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2012

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2011 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2011

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2010 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2010

    Reports of research and development at the state-of-the-art of the theory and techniques related to the technology and applications of devices, components, circuits, modules and systems in the RF, microwave, millimeter-wave, submillimeter-wave and Terahertz ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  • 2009 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2009

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2008 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2008

  • 2007 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2007

  • 2006 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2006

  • 2005 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2005

  • 2004 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2004

  • 2003 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2003

  • 2002 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2002

  • 2001 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2001

  • 2000 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2000

  • 1999 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT '99

  • 1998 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT '98

  • 1997 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT '97

  • 1996 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT '96


2017 39th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

The 39th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC’17) in conjunction with International Biomedical Engineering Conference of KOSOMBE will be held at International Convention Center (ICC), Jeju Island, Korea from July 11 to 15, 2017. The overall theme of the conference is “Smarter Technology for Healthier World” and will cover diverse topics of cutting-edge research in biomedical engineering, healthcare technology R&D, translational clinical research, technology transfer and entrepreneurship, and biomedical engineering education. The conference program will feature high-profile keynote lectures, minisymposia, workshops, invited sessions, oral and poster sessions, sessions for students and young professions, sessions for clinicians and entrepreneurs, and exhibitions.


2017 56th Annual Conference of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers of Japan (SICE)

Covering a broad range of fields from measurement and control to system analysis and design, from theory to application, and from software to hardware.


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Periodicals related to Spinal cord

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Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Serves as a compendium for papers on the technological advances in control engineering and as an archival publication which will bridge the gap between theory and practice. Papers will highlight the latest knowledge, exploratory developments, and practical applications in all aspects of the technology needed to implement control systems from analysis and design through simulation and hardware.


Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE

Both general and technical articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering; societal implications of medical technologies; current news items; book reviews; patent descriptions; and correspondence. Special interest departments, students, law, clinical engineering, ethics, new products, society news, historical features and government.


Information Technology in Biomedicine, IEEE Transactions on

Telemedicine, teleradiology, telepathology, telemonitoring, telediagnostics, 3D animations in health care, health information networks, clinical information systems, virtual reality applications in medicine, broadband technologies, and global information infrastructure design for health care.


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Xplore Articles related to Spinal cord

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A new approach to medical diagnosis

C. N. Schizas; C. S. Pattichis; L. T. Middleton Proceedings of the 1992 International Biomedical Engineering Days, 1992

The diagnostic usefulness of artificial neural networks (ANNs) is explored by means of an integrated system for medical diagnosis. The models were developed by using the unsupervized self organizing feature maps algorithm. Clinical and laboratory data for training and testing the ANNs was collected from 71 subjects by applying examination protocols that were developed by experts in the appropriate fields. ...


A fail-safe ASIC for implantable neural stimulation

Xiao Liu; Andreas Demosthenous ESSCIRC 2007 - 33rd European Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2007

We implemented a stimulator output stage that is failsafe without the need for off-chip blocking capacitors. Both the system architecture and details on the key circuits are described. The novel design employs high-frequency current- switching, a fully isolated bridge rectifier core, and AC-coupled discharging for the stimulation load. The prototype circuit was fabricated in a 1-mum silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology and ...


X-Ray Reconstruction of the Spinal Cord, Using Bone Suppression

Irving S. Reed; William V. Glenn; T. K. Truong; Yik S. Kwoh; Chien M. Chang IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 1980

In this paper, a new method is developed for obtaining an X-ray reconstruction of the soft tissue detail of the spinal canal. By removing the dominant effects of the bony vertebral body within the projection actual clinical data, higher quality images of the residual soft tissues components can be reconstructed. The intent is a direct visualization of the spinal cord ...


Current Pathways in High-Voltage Injuries

Anthony Sances; Joel B. Myklebust; John F. Szablya; Thomas J. Swiontek; Sanford J. Larson; Michael Chilbert; Thomas Prieto; Joseph F. Cusick; Dennis J. Maiman; Karl Pintar IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 1983

Studies were done in the hog with limb-to-limb contacts at potentials up to 2000 V. The current density in nerve, vessels, muscle, bone, fat, lungs, heart, kidney, liver, intestines, and spinal cord were determined. The current densities in the leg are largest in nerve and artery, followed by muscle, fat, and bone. The temperature was greatest in fat and nerve. ...


Description of the electromyographic variables during voluntary cough in humans — A systematic review

F. S. Macedo; C. C. S. C. Paz; S. R. M. Mateus 2014 Pan American Health Care Exchanges (PAHCE), 2014

The objective of this article is to present the electromyographic surface or invasive variables used to analyze cough in individuals with and without spinal cord injury (SCI). A systematic literature review was conducted to find scientific evidence in databases: PuhMed, Science Direct, SciELO and PEDro. Scientific papers conducted in individuals with and without spinal cord injury to assess the electromyographic ...


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Educational Resources on Spinal cord

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eLearning

A new approach to medical diagnosis

C. N. Schizas; C. S. Pattichis; L. T. Middleton Proceedings of the 1992 International Biomedical Engineering Days, 1992

The diagnostic usefulness of artificial neural networks (ANNs) is explored by means of an integrated system for medical diagnosis. The models were developed by using the unsupervized self organizing feature maps algorithm. Clinical and laboratory data for training and testing the ANNs was collected from 71 subjects by applying examination protocols that were developed by experts in the appropriate fields. ...


A fail-safe ASIC for implantable neural stimulation

Xiao Liu; Andreas Demosthenous ESSCIRC 2007 - 33rd European Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2007

We implemented a stimulator output stage that is failsafe without the need for off-chip blocking capacitors. Both the system architecture and details on the key circuits are described. The novel design employs high-frequency current- switching, a fully isolated bridge rectifier core, and AC-coupled discharging for the stimulation load. The prototype circuit was fabricated in a 1-mum silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology and ...


X-Ray Reconstruction of the Spinal Cord, Using Bone Suppression

Irving S. Reed; William V. Glenn; T. K. Truong; Yik S. Kwoh; Chien M. Chang IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 1980

In this paper, a new method is developed for obtaining an X-ray reconstruction of the soft tissue detail of the spinal canal. By removing the dominant effects of the bony vertebral body within the projection actual clinical data, higher quality images of the residual soft tissues components can be reconstructed. The intent is a direct visualization of the spinal cord ...


Current Pathways in High-Voltage Injuries

Anthony Sances; Joel B. Myklebust; John F. Szablya; Thomas J. Swiontek; Sanford J. Larson; Michael Chilbert; Thomas Prieto; Joseph F. Cusick; Dennis J. Maiman; Karl Pintar IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 1983

Studies were done in the hog with limb-to-limb contacts at potentials up to 2000 V. The current density in nerve, vessels, muscle, bone, fat, lungs, heart, kidney, liver, intestines, and spinal cord were determined. The current densities in the leg are largest in nerve and artery, followed by muscle, fat, and bone. The temperature was greatest in fat and nerve. ...


Description of the electromyographic variables during voluntary cough in humans — A systematic review

F. S. Macedo; C. C. S. C. Paz; S. R. M. Mateus 2014 Pan American Health Care Exchanges (PAHCE), 2014

The objective of this article is to present the electromyographic surface or invasive variables used to analyze cough in individuals with and without spinal cord injury (SCI). A systematic literature review was conducted to find scientific evidence in databases: PuhMed, Science Direct, SciELO and PEDro. Scientific papers conducted in individuals with and without spinal cord injury to assess the electromyographic ...


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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Diseases and Injuries of the Central Nervous System Leading to Sensory-Motor Impairment

    Damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems is associated with a loss of motor drive and a defective afferent input to the central nervous system (CNS). This chapter starts with a presentation of neuron injury. The injuries are categorized based on the extent and type of damage to the nerve and the surrounding connective tissue. The chapter addresses sensory - motor deficits that are caused by neuron injury or disease: (a) cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or stroke, which causes impairments due to changes in blood supply to the brain; (b) spinal cord injuries (SCIs), which result in total or partial obstruction of flow of both sensory and motor information between the peripheral and central nervous systems; (c) nontraumatic disorders of the CNS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis); and (d) cerebral palsy (CP). Finally, the chapter presents the incidence of CNS diseases.

  • Peripheral and Spinal Plasticity after Nerve Injuries

    Peripheral nerves contain several types of nerve fibers, serving different functions. Peripheral nerve injuries induce a cascade of events, at the molecular, cellular, and system levels, that support axonal regeneration and target reinnervation in the periphery, but also imply plastic changes at the spinal cord and the brain. Mechanisms involved in these changes include alterations of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections, sprouting of new connections, and reorganization of sensory and motor maps in the nervous system. All these changes have to be considered when attempting to interact with the injured nervous system for rehabilitation strategies.

  • No title

    In the last ten years many different brain imaging devices have conveyed a lot of information about the brain functioning in different experimental conditions. In every case, the biomedical engineers, together with mathematicians, physicists and physicians are called to elaborate the signals related to the brain activity in order to extract meaningful and robust information to correlate with the external behavior of the subjects. In such attempt, different signal processing tools used in telecommunications and other field of engineering or even social sciences have been adapted and re- used in the neuroscience field. The present book would like to offer a short presentation of several methods for the estimation of the cortical connectivity of the human brain. The methods here presented are relatively simply to implement, robust and can return valuable information about the causality of the activation of the different cortical areas in humans using non invasive electroencephalographic r cordings. The knowledge of such signal processing tools will enrich the arsenal of the computational methods that a engineer or a mathematician could apply in the processing of brain signals. Table of Contents: Introduction / Estimation of the Effective Connectivity from Stationary Data by Structural Equation Modeling / Estimation of the Functional Connectivity from Stationary Data by Multivariate Autoregressive Methods / Estimation of Cortical Activity by the use of Realistic Head Modeling / Application: Estimation of Connectivity from Movement-Related Potentials / Application to High-Resolution EEG Recordings in a Cognitive Task (Stroop Test) / Application to Data Related to the Intention of Limb Movements in Normal Subjects and in a Spinal Cord Injured Patient / The Instantaneous Estimation of the Time-Varying Cortical Connectivity by Adaptive Multivariate Estimators / Time-Varying Connectivity from Event-Related Potentials

  • Methods for Movement Restoration

    Restoration of movement in humans with motor disability is an important element of rehabilitation that allows reintegration into healthy life. The basis of movement restoration is the external assistance that provides the compromised function for the person with the disability. This chapter presents methods of assistance and illustrates them with some systems that are currently being accepted as favorable for rehabilitation: balance and body weight robot assistants for training of walking; reaching assistants for training shoulder and elbow functions; assistive systems based on electrical stimulation. It also briefly presents the possible use of magnetic or direct electrical stimulation of brain structures and spinal cord to enhance motor function and have therapeutic effect.

  • Development of a Testbed for Robotic Neuromuscular Controllers

    Current control approaches to robotic legged locomotion rely on centralized planning and tracking or motion pattern matching. Central control is not available to robotic assistive devices that integrate with humans, and matching predefined patterns severely limits user dexterity. By contrast, biological systems show substantial legged dexterity even when their central nervous system is severed from their spinal cord, indicating that neuromuscular feedback controls can be harnessed to encode stability, adaptability, and maneuverability into legged systems. Here we present the initial steps to develop a robotic gait testbed that can implement and verify neuromuscular controls for robotic assistive devices. The initial stage consists of an antagonistically actuated two segment leg with a floating compliant joint. We detail its electromechanical design and low level, velocity-based torque control. Additionally, we present experiments that test the leg's performance during human-like high fidelity motions. The results show that the robot can track fast motions corresponding to 87% of the maximum performance limit of human muscle. The experiments also reveal limitations of our current implementation and we discuss solutions to overcoming them.

  • Skeletal Muscle Circuits

    A skeletal muscle fiber receives action potentials (APs) from its motoneuron. Embedded in the skeletal muscles are (a) tendon organ receptors that monitor tendon stress, and (b) spindles that generate an error signal in accordance with the following equation: Error = reference (desired contraction) - distance (actual contraction), or _e(t) = r(t) - x(t)_. Three feedback loops are involved in the control of muscle contraction as follows: (a) an annulospiral receptor in the spindle feeds the error signal back to the motoneuron, exciting it until the error is zero; (b) a flower- spray receptor in the spindle also feeds the error signal back if the error is relatively large, thereby further increasing motoneuron excitation; and (c) the tendon organ feeds an _inhibitory_ signal to the motoneuron if the tendon stress is excessive. A typical motoneuron receives excitatory signals from synergistic muscles and inhibitory signals from ipsilateral antagonistic muscles. Clonus can occur if excessive time is taken for the spindle signal to travel from a wrist muscle, say, to its motoneuron in the spinal cord and from the latter back to the skeletal muscle. If the motoneuron synaptic junction weighting factor is too high, the system will oscillate.

  • Lateral Inhibition

    The nervous system uses lateral inhibition to improve spatial resolution and contrast. Suppose, for example, that we have a stimulus distribution shaped like a bell. In lateral inhibition the stimulus distribution is shifted laterally (left and right in this case, say) by lateral branches of afferent axons, and subtracted (hence the designation _inhibition_) from the original stimulus curve. This yields a narrower curve (the sides of the ?>bell?> are steeper). Suppose that we have two bell-shaped stimulus curves, so close together that they partially merge to yield a single stimulus peak. Lateral inhibition may nevertheless be able to reveal that two stimuli are actually present. A hypothetical three-stage model is examined in which the primary stimulus is a blunt ?>compass?> point pressing against the hand, and lateral inhibition is applied in the spinal cord, thalamus, and somatosensory cortex. Several two-dimensional models are also examined. A special case known as _zero-sum lateral inhibition_ is especially important because it can extract the edges of the spatial stimulus curve.

  • Advanced User Interfaces for Upper Limb Functional Electrical Stimulation

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) paralyzes approximately 12,000 people each year in the United States. Individuals with an injury at and above the sixth cervical vertebra (C6) lose function in the upper and lower limbs. To provide greater independence to this population, the restoration of reaching and grasping movements is critically important. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is currently the only clinical approach for reanimating paralyzed muscles. The chapter starts by reviewing existing technologies for obtaining a control signal that is usable for a FES neuroprosthesis. This is followed by a discussion of the promise that recent advances in brain??-??machine interfaces (BMIs) hold for more natural user interfaces. Differences in the information content of potential signal sources suggest that enhanced control signals may be generated through an efficient combination of the available sources from each individual. Finally, the chapter discusses the relation between off-line decoder accuracy and online user performance.

  • Brain Overview

    This chapter contains sections titled: 2.1 Spinal Cord and Brainstem, 2.2 The Forebrain: An Overview, 2.3 Cortex: Long-Term Memory, 2.4 Basal Ganglia: The Program Sequencer, 2.5 Thalamus: Input and Output, 2.6 Hippocampus: Program Modifications, 2.7 Amygdala: Rating What' s Important, 2.8 How the Brain Programs Itself, 2.9 Summary

  • Excitable Tissue

    The nervous system includes voluntary and autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) systems. This book is devoted almost entirely to the voluntary system. The system consists mostly of excitable tissue - sensory receptors, neuron cell bodies, axons, and muscle fibers. If you step on a sharp object, it stimulates sensory receptors that in turn stimulate neurons; the latter send action potentials (APs) via axons to interneurons and motoneurons in the spinal cord. The motoneurons send APs to the appropriate muscles, which contract so as to make you jump off the object. Some of the activity involves atomic dimensions and, because distances are so small, time intervals are correspondingly small. It takes a factor of about 107 to transform atomic distances into dimensions that are familiar to us. For example, most atoms and simple compounds, if magnified by 107, turn out to be 3 mm (0.12 in.) in diameter. One centimeter multiplied by 107 equals 100 km (62 mi.). In time, one second multiplied by 107 is almost equal to 4 months. Sensory receptors are usually at rest when they are unstimulated. Neuron cell bodies are at rest when they are not generating APs, while muscle fibers and axons are at rest when they are not carrying APs (that is, no APs are propagating along the muscle fiber or axon). Body tissues are bathed in fluid that has an excess of sodium and chloride ions. Internally, excitable tissue at rest has an excess of potassium and large organic negative ions. This external-internal combination forms a battery that makes the inside of the tissue 60 to 90 mV more negative than the outside. The electric field across the membrane is very high - up to 12,000 V/mm. The physiologically compatible ionic concentrations are maintained by sodium and potassium pumps.



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