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2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)
The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invited sessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering. Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and poster sessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE.
2016 IEEE 13th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2016)
The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is the premier forumfor the presentation of technological advances in theoretical and applied biomedical imaging. ISBI 2016 willbe the thirteenth meeting in this series. The previous meetings have played a leading role in facilitatinginteraction between researchers in medical and biological imaging. The 2016 meeting will continue thistradition of fostering crossfertilization among different imaging communities and contributing to an integrativeapproach to biomedical imaging across all scales of observation.
Bioinformatics, Computational Biology, Biomedical Engineering
Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.
Rehabilitation aspects of biomedical engineering, including functional electrical stimulation, acoustic dynamics, human performance measurement and analysis, nerve stimulation, electromyography, motor control and stimulation, and hardware and software applications for rehabilitation engineering and assistive devices.
Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE, 2011
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a number of physiological and neurological changes resulting in loss of sensorimotor function. Recent work has shown that the central nervous system is capable of plastic behaviors post-injury, including axonal regrowth and cortical remapping. Functional integrity of afferent sensory pathways can be quantified using cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) recorded upon peripheral limb stimulation. We ...
Microwave Conference, 1992. 22nd European, 1992
This paper presents a method to calculate the near field and the specific absorption rate (SAR) pattern in a cylindrical dissipative medium inside which an insulated asymmetrical dipole applicator is placed with his axis in parallel to the axis of the cylinder. The predicted SAR pattern is obtained by using the calculation of the direct numerical evaluation.
Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, 2003. AIM 2003. Proceedings. 2003 IEEE/ASME International Conference on, 2003
This paper presents a new human robot interface (HRI) for the spinal cord injured person and a control scheme of the robot manipulator for the developed interface. The system is mainly aimed at people with C3 and C4 injuries who cannot move below the shoulder. HRI consists of a laser pointer and a pressure sensor. The interface makes 3 DOF ...
Bioengineering Conference (NEBEC), 2012 38th Annual Northeast, 2012
The purpose of this investigation was to determine a reliable motion correction method for pediatric spinal cord diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and show effects of motion correction on DTI parameters in normal subjects and patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Images were corrected for motion using two types of transformation and three cost functions. Corrected images and transformations were examined ...
Robotics and Automation, 2001. Proceedings 2001 ICRA. IEEE International Conference on, 2001
We examine a method to control the stepping motion of a paralyzed person suspended on a treadmill using a robot attached to the torso and hips. A leg swing motion is created by moving the hips without contact with the legs. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem for an underactuated articulated chain. The optimal control problem is ...
S. Snow; S. C. Jacobsen; D. L. Wells; K. W. Horch IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 2006
The effects of spinal cord injuries are likely to be ameliorated with the help of functional electrical stimulation of the spinal cord, a technique that may benefit from a new style of electrode: the cylindrical multielectrode. This paper describes the specifications for, fabrication techniques for, and in vitro evaluation of cylindrical multielectrodes. Four tip shapes were tested to determine which ...
S. Snow; K. W. Horch; V. K. Mushahwar IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 2006
A cylindrical multielectrode system specifically designed for intraspinal microstimulation was mechanically and electrically evaluated in the ventral horn of the feline lumbo-sacral spinal cord. Electrode insertions proved to be straight as evaluated from radiographs. Impedances were measured in situ and force recruitment curves from quadriceps muscles were collected over a wide range of stimulus parameters. For a given charge, higher ...
Gael Pages; Nacim Ramdani; Philippe Fraisse; David Guiraud Proceedings 2007 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2007
This paper addresses the problem of restoring standing in paralegia via functional electrical stimulation (FES) and investigates the relationship between body posture and voluntary upper-body movements. A methodology is presented for upper-body posture estimation in the sagittal plane from force and torque measurements exerted on handles during human standing, in the hypothesis of quasi-static equilibrium. The method consists in setting ...
Y. Mori; J. Okada; K. Takayama IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 2006
We have developed a standing style transfer system, or "ABLE," for a person with disabled legs. It allows travel in a standing posture even on uneven ground, a standing up motion from a chair, and allows the stairs. ABLE consists of three modules: a pair of telescopic crutches, a powered lower extremity orthosis, and a pair of mobile platforms. We ...
Yoshio Tanimoto; Kuniharu Nanba; Akihiro Tokuhiro; Hiroyuki Ukida; Hideki Yamamoto 2008 IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 2008
In remodeling the house of an SCI (spinal cord injury) patient, it is necessary to accurately determine and carry out changes that are suitable with regard to the patient's ability. In our rehabilitation center, house remodeling is demonstrated for patients and family members through the use of three-dimensional computer graphic images before the remodeling occurs. We here propose an evaluation ...
The nervous system includes voluntary and autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) systems. This book is devoted almost entirely to the voluntary system. The system consists mostly of excitable tissueÂ -Â sensory receptors, neuron cell bodies, axons, and muscle fibers. If you step on a sharp object, it stimulates sensory receptors that in turn stimulate neurons; the latter send action potentials (APs) via axons to interneurons and motoneurons in the spinal cord. The motoneurons send APs to the appropriate muscles, which contract so as to make you jump off the object. Some of the activity involves atomic dimensions and, because distances are so small, time intervals are correspondingly small. It takes a factor of about 107 to transform atomic distances into dimensions that are familiar to us. For example, most atoms and simple compounds, if magnified by 107, turn out to be 3 mm (0.12 in.) in diameter. One centimeter multiplied by 107 equals 100 km (62 mi.). In time, one second multiplied by 107 is almost equal to 4 months. Sensory receptors are usually at rest when they are unstimulated. Neuron cell bodies are at rest when they are not generating APs, while muscle fibers and axons are at rest when they are not carrying APs (that is, no APs are propagating along the muscle fiber or axon). Body tissues are bathed in fluid that has an excess of sodium and chloride ions. Internally, excitable tissue at rest has an excess of potassium and large organic negative ions. This external-internal combination forms a battery that makes the inside of the tissue 60 to 90 mV more negative than the outside. The electric field across the membrane is very highÂ -Â up to 12,000 V/mm. The physiologically compatible ionic concentrations are maintained by sodium and potassium pumps.
Combating neural degeneration from injury or disease is extremely difficult in the brain and spinal cord, i.e. central nervous system (CNS). Unlike the peripheral nerves, CNS neurons are bombarded by physical and chemical restrictions that prevent proper healing and restoration of function. The CNS is vital to bodily function, and loss of any part of it can severely and permanently alter a person's quality of life. Tissue engineering could offer much needed solutions to regenerate or replace damaged CNS tissue. This review will discuss current CNS tissue engineering approaches integrating scaffolds, cells and stimulation techniques. Hydrogels are commonly used CNS tissue engineering scaffolds to stimulate and enhance regeneration, but fiber meshes and other porous structures show specific utility depending on application. CNS relevant cell sources have focused on implantation of exogenous cells or stimulation of endogenous populations. Somatic cells of the CNS are rarely utilized for tissue engineering; however, glial cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) may be used to myelinate and protect spinal cord damage. Pluripotent and multipotent stem cells offer alternative cell sources due to continuing advancements in identification and differentiation of these cells. Finally, physical, chemical, and electrical guidance cues are extremely important to neural cells, serving important roles in development and adulthood. These guidance cues are being integrated into tissue engineering approaches. Of particular interest is the inclusion of cues to guide stem cells to differentiate into CNS cell types, as well to guide neuron targeting. This review should provide the reader with a broad understanding of CNS tissue engineering challenges and tactics, with the goal of fostering the future development of biologically inspired designs. Table of Contents: Introduction / Anatomy of the CNS and Progression of Neurological Damage / Biomaterials for Scaffold Preparation / Cel Sources for CNS TE / Stimulation and Guidance / Concluding Remarks
This chapter contains sections titled: 7.1 Motor Computation Basics, 7.2 Biological Movement Organization, 7.3 Cortex: Movement Plans, 7.4 Cerebellum: Checking Expectations, 7.5 Spinal Cord: Coding the Movement Library, 7.6 Reading Human Movement Data, 7.7 Summary
This chapter contains sections titled: 2.1 Spinal Cord and Brainstem, 2.2 The Forebrain: An Overview, 2.3 Cortex: Long-Term Memory, 2.4 Basal Ganglia: The Program Sequencer, 2.5 Thalamus: Input and Output, 2.6 Hippocampus: Program Modifications, 2.7 Amygdala: Rating What' s Important, 2.8 How the Brain Programs Itself, 2.9 Summary
The nervous system uses lateral inhibition to improve spatial resolution and contrast. Suppose, for example, that we have a stimulus distribution shaped like a bell. In lateral inhibition the stimulus distribution is shifted laterally (left and right in this case, say) by lateral branches of afferent axons, and subtracted (hence the designation _inhibition_) from the original stimulus curve. This yields a narrower curve (the sides of the ?>bell?> are steeper). Suppose that we have two bell-shaped stimulus curves, so close together that they partially merge to yield a single stimulus peak. Lateral inhibition may nevertheless be able to reveal that two stimuli are actually present. A hypothetical three-stage model is examined in which the primary stimulus is a blunt ?>compass?> point pressing against the hand, and lateral inhibition is applied in the spinal cord, thalamus, and somatosensory cortex. Several two-dimensional models are also examined. A special case known as _zero-sum lateral inhibition_ is especially important because it can extract the edges of the spatial stimulus curve.
In the last ten years many different brain imaging devices have conveyed a lot of information about the brain functioning in different experimental conditions. In every case, the biomedical engineers, together with mathematicians, physicists and physicians are called to elaborate the signals related to the brain activity in order to extract meaningful and robust information to correlate with the external behavior of the subjects. In such attempt, different signal processing tools used in telecommunications and other field of engineering or even social sciences have been adapted and re- used in the neuroscience field. The present book would like to offer a short presentation of several methods for the estimation of the cortical connectivity of the human brain. The methods here presented are relatively simply to implement, robust and can return valuable information about the causality of the activation of the different cortical areas in humans using non invasive electroencephalographic r cordings. The knowledge of such signal processing tools will enrich the arsenal of the computational methods that a engineer or a mathematician could apply in the processing of brain signals. Table of Contents: Introduction / Estimation of the Effective Connectivity from Stationary Data by Structural Equation Modeling / Estimation of the Functional Connectivity from Stationary Data by Multivariate Autoregressive Methods / Estimation of Cortical Activity by the use of Realistic Head Modeling / Application: Estimation of Connectivity from Movement-Related Potentials / Application to High-Resolution EEG Recordings in a Cognitive Task (Stroop Test) / Application to Data Related to the Intention of Limb Movements in Normal Subjects and in a Spinal Cord Injured Patient / The Instantaneous Estimation of the Time-Varying Cortical Connectivity by Adaptive Multivariate Estimators / Time-Varying Connectivity from Event-Related Potentials
Current control approaches to robotic legged locomotion rely on centralized planning and tracking or motion pattern matching. Central control is not available to robotic assistive devices that integrate with humans, and matching predefined patterns severely limits user dexterity. By contrast, biological systems show substantial legged dexterity even when their central nervous system is severed from their spinal cord, indicating that neuromuscular feedback controls can be harnessed to encode stability, adaptability, and maneuverability into legged systems. Here we present the initial steps to develop a robotic gait testbed that can implement and verify neuromuscular controls for robotic assistive devices. The initial stage consists of an antagonistically actuated two segment leg with a floating compliant joint. We detail its electromechanical design and low level, velocity-based torque control. Additionally, we present experiments that test the leg's performance during human-like high fidelity motions. The results show that the robot can track fast motions corresponding to 87% of the maximum performance limit of human muscle. The experiments also reveal limitations of our current implementation and we discuss solutions to overcoming them.
Damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems is associated with a loss of motor drive and a defective afferent input to the central nervous system (CNS). This chapter starts with a presentation of neuron injury. The injuries are categorized based on the extent and type of damage to the nerve and the surrounding connective tissue. The chapter addresses sensory - motor deficits that are caused by neuron injury or disease: (a) cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or stroke, which causes impairments due to changes in blood supply to the brain; (b) spinal cord injuries (SCIs), which result in total or partial obstruction of flow of both sensory and motor information between the peripheral and central nervous systems; (c) nontraumatic disorders of the CNS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis); and (d) cerebral palsy (CP). Finally, the chapter presents the incidence of CNS diseases.
The present book illustrates the theoretical aspects of several methodologies related to the possibility of i) enhancing the poor spatial information of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity on the scalp and giving a measure of the electrical activity on the cortical surface. ii) estimating the directional influences between any given pair of channels in a multivariate dataset. iii) modeling the brain networks as graphs. The possible applications are discussed in three different experimental designs regarding i) the study of pathological conditions during a motor task, ii) the study of memory processes during a cognitive task iii) the study of the instantaneous dynamics throughout the evolution of a motor task in physiological conditions. The main outcome from all those studies indicates clearly that the performance of cognitive and motor tasks as well as the presence of neural diseases can affect the brain network topology. This evidence gives the power of reflecting cerebral "s ates" or "traits" to the mathematical indexes derived from the graph theory. In particular, the observed structural changes could critically depend on patterns of synchronization and desynchronization - i.e. the dynamic binding of neural assemblies - as also suggested by a wide range of previous electrophysiological studies. Moreover, the fact that these patterns occur at multiple frequencies support the evidence that brain functional networks contain multiple frequency channels along which information is transmitted. The graph theoretical approach represents an effective means to evaluate the functional connectivity patterns obtained from scalp EEG signals. The possibility to describe the complex brain networks sub-serving different functions in humans by means of "numbers" is a promising tool toward the generation of a better understanding of the brain functions. Table of Contents: Introduction / Brain Functional Connectivity / Graph Theory / High- Resolution EEG / Cortical Networks n Spinal Cord Injured Patients / Cortical Networks During a Lifelike Memory Task / Application to Time-varying Cortical Networks / Conclusions
Spinal cord injury (SCI) paralyzes approximately 12,000 people each year in the United States. Individuals with an injury at and above the sixth cervical vertebra (C6) lose function in the upper and lower limbs. To provide greater independence to this population, the restoration of reaching and grasping movements is critically important. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is currently the only clinical approach for reanimating paralyzed muscles. The chapter starts by reviewing existing technologies for obtaining a control signal that is usable for a FES neuroprosthesis. This is followed by a discussion of the promise that recent advances in brain??-??machine interfaces (BMIs) hold for more natural user interfaces. Differences in the information content of potential signal sources suggest that enhanced control signals may be generated through an efficient combination of the available sources from each individual. Finally, the chapter discusses the relation between off-line decoder accuracy and online user performance.
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