Spinal cord

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Template:Vertebral column The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the brain. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Spinal cord

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2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invited sessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering. Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and poster sessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE.

  • 2015 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

    The conference will cover diverse topics ranging from biomedical engineering to healthcare technologies to medical and clinical applications. The conference program will consist of invited plenary lectures, symposia, workshops, invited sessions and oral and poster sessions of unsolicited contributions. All papers will be peer reviewed and accepted papers of up to 4 pages will appear in the Conference Proceedings and be indexed by IEEE Xplore and Medline/PubMed.

  • 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

    The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invited sessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering. Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and poster sessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE.

  • 2013 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

    The Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society covers a broad spectrum of topics from biomedical engineering and physics to medical and clinical applications. The conference program will consist of invited plenary lectures, symposia, workshops, invited sessions, oral and poster sessions of unsolicited contributions. All papers will be peer reviewed and accepted papers of up to 4 pages will appear in the Conference Proceedings and be indexed by PubMed and EI. Prop

  • 2012 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

    The annual conference of EMBS averages 2000 attendees from over 50 countries. The scope of the conference is general in nature to focus on the interdisciplinary fields of biomedical engineering. Themes included but not limited to are: Imaging, Biosignals, Biorobotics, Bioinstrumentation, Neural, Rehabilitation, Bioinformatics, Healthcare IT, Medical Devices, etc

  • 2011 33rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

    The annual conference of EMBS averages 2000 attendees from over 50 countries. The scope of the conference is general in nature to focus on the interdisciplinary fields of biomedical engineering. Themes included but not limited to are: Imaging, Biosignals, Biorobotics, Bioinstrumentation, Neural, Rehabilitation, Bioinformatics, Healthcare IT, Medical Devices, etc.

  • 2010 32nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

    The annual conference of EMBS averages 2000 attendees from over 50 countries. The scope of the conference is general in nature to focus on the interdisciplinary fields of biomedical engineering. Themes included but not limited to are: Imaging, Biosignals, Biorobotics, Bioinstrumentation, Neural, Rehabilitation, Bioinformatics, Healthcare IT, Medical Devices, etc

  • 2009 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

    The annual conference of EMBS averages 2000 attendees from over 50 countries. The scope of the conference is general in nature to focus on the interdisciplinary fields of biomedical engineering. Themes included but not limited to are: Imaging, Biosignals, Biorobotics, Bioinstrumentation, Neural, Rehabilitation, Bioinformatics, Healthcare IT, Medical Devices, etc

  • 2008 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

    The general theme of EMBC'08 is "Personalized Healthcare through Technology", covering a broad spectrum of topics from biomedical and clinical engineering and physics to medical and clinical applications. Transfer of research results from academia to industry will also be a focus of the conference.

  • 2007 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

  • 2006 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)


2016 IEEE 13th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2016)

The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is the premier forumfor the presentation of technological advances in theoretical and applied biomedical imaging. ISBI 2016 willbe the thirteenth meeting in this series. The previous meetings have played a leading role in facilitatinginteraction between researchers in medical and biological imaging. The 2016 meeting will continue thistradition of fostering crossfertilization among different imaging communities and contributing to an integrativeapproach to biomedical imaging across all scales of observation.

  • 2015 IEEE 12th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2015)

    The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances in theoretical and applied biomedical imaging. ISBI 2015 will be the 12th meeting in this series. The previous meetings have played a leading role in facilitating interaction between researchers in medical and biological imaging. The 2014 meeting will continue this tradition of fostering crossfertilization among different imaging communities and contributing to an integrative approach to biomedical imaging across all scales of observation.

  • 2014 IEEE 11th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2014)

    The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances in theoretical and applied biomedical imaging. ISBI 2014 will be the eleventh meeting in this series. The previous meetings have played a leading role in facilitating interaction between researchers in medical and biological imaging. The 2014 meeting will continue this tradition of fostering crossfertilization among different imaging communities and contributing to an integrative approach to biomedical imaging across all scales of observation.

  • 2013 IEEE 10th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2013)

    To serve the biological, biomedical, bioengineering, bioimaging and other technical communities through a quality program of presentations and papers on the foundation, application, development, and use of biomedical imaging.

  • 2012 IEEE 9th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2012)

    To serve the biological, biomedical, bioengineering, bioimaging, and other technical communities through a quality program of presentations and papers on the foundation, application, development, and use of biomedical imaging.

  • 2011 IEEE 8th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2011)

    To serve the biological, biomedical, bioengineering, bioimaging, and other technical communities through a quality program of presentations and papers on the foundation, application, development, and use of biomedical imaging.

  • 2010 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2010)

    To serve the biological, biomedical, bioengineering, bioimaging, and other technical communities through a quality program of presentations and papers on the foundation, application, development, and use of biomedical imaging.


2010 4th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (iCBBE)

Bioinformatics, Computational Biology, Biomedical Engineering



Periodicals related to Spinal cord

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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Rehabilitation aspects of biomedical engineering, including functional electrical stimulation, acoustic dynamics, human performance measurement and analysis, nerve stimulation, electromyography, motor control and stimulation, and hardware and software applications for rehabilitation engineering and assistive devices.




Xplore Articles related to Spinal cord

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Information contained in sensory nerve recordings made with intrafascicular electrodes

E. V. Goodall; T. M. Lefurge; K. W. Horch IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 1991

Multiunit recordings were made in anesthetized cats with chronically implanted intrafascicular electrodes over a period of six months. Neural signals recorded with these electrodes consisted of activity in sensory fibers innervating a variety of cutaneous mechanoreceptors. Mechanical stimuli were used to selectively activate individual nerve fibers, and the receptive field and receptor type were identified for each unit. Over a ...


Neuromorphic aVLSI circuit of lamprey unit pattern generator

E. J. Brauer; B. Thompsen; R. Jung; J. J. Abbas 42nd Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (Cat. No.99CH36356), 1999

We have designed, built, and tested a neuromorphic model of the lamprey unit pattern generator using analog VLSI CMOS circuits. The lamprey is an eel-like fish with 100 segments in the spinal cord. Our neuromorphic single-segment model utilizes 6 neurons, 4 excitatory synapses, 8 inhibitory synapses, and 6 tonic synapses with simplified biophysical properties. The chip exhibits fixed point and ...


EMG-based prediction of shoulder and elbow kinematics in able-bodied and spinal cord injured individuals

A. T. C. Au; R. F. Kirsch IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, 2000

The authors have evaluated the ability of a time-delayed artificial neural network (TDANN) to predict shoulder and elbow motions using only electromyographic (EMG) signals recorded from six shoulder and elbow muscles as inputs, both in able-bodied subjects and in subjects with tetraplegia arising from C5 spinal cord injury. For able-bodied subjects, all four joint angles (elbow flexion-extension and shoulder-horizontal flexion-extension, ...


Flexible microelectrode arrays with integrated insertion devices

D. P. O'Brien; T. R. Nichols; M. G. Allen Technical Digest. MEMS 2001. 14th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Cat. No.01CH37090), 2001

Flexible microelectrode arrays (FMAs) allow interfacing to delicate living tissues such as neural tissue with a minimum of physical disruption of that tissue during and after insertion. This physical disruption is minimized since the compliant FMAs can deform along with the tissue. However, a problem with these arrays is the insertion and subsequent precise positioning of the arrays in the ...


A predictive model of muscle forces for children with spinal cord injuries

J. Ding; A. S. Wexler; S. C. K. Lee; S. A. Binder-Macleod Proceedings of the IEEE 28th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference (IEEE Cat. No.02CH37342), 2002

This study tested our mathematical model's ability to predict isometric forces for children with spinal cord injuries. The model accounted more than 95% of the variance in the experimental forces produced by stimulation trains with mean frequencies from 12.5 to 100 Hz for both non-fatigued and fatigued muscles. The ability of the model to predict forces suggests its use for ...


More Xplore Articles

Educational Resources on Spinal cord

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eLearning

Information contained in sensory nerve recordings made with intrafascicular electrodes

E. V. Goodall; T. M. Lefurge; K. W. Horch IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 1991

Multiunit recordings were made in anesthetized cats with chronically implanted intrafascicular electrodes over a period of six months. Neural signals recorded with these electrodes consisted of activity in sensory fibers innervating a variety of cutaneous mechanoreceptors. Mechanical stimuli were used to selectively activate individual nerve fibers, and the receptive field and receptor type were identified for each unit. Over a ...


Neuromorphic aVLSI circuit of lamprey unit pattern generator

E. J. Brauer; B. Thompsen; R. Jung; J. J. Abbas 42nd Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (Cat. No.99CH36356), 1999

We have designed, built, and tested a neuromorphic model of the lamprey unit pattern generator using analog VLSI CMOS circuits. The lamprey is an eel-like fish with 100 segments in the spinal cord. Our neuromorphic single-segment model utilizes 6 neurons, 4 excitatory synapses, 8 inhibitory synapses, and 6 tonic synapses with simplified biophysical properties. The chip exhibits fixed point and ...


EMG-based prediction of shoulder and elbow kinematics in able-bodied and spinal cord injured individuals

A. T. C. Au; R. F. Kirsch IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, 2000

The authors have evaluated the ability of a time-delayed artificial neural network (TDANN) to predict shoulder and elbow motions using only electromyographic (EMG) signals recorded from six shoulder and elbow muscles as inputs, both in able-bodied subjects and in subjects with tetraplegia arising from C5 spinal cord injury. For able-bodied subjects, all four joint angles (elbow flexion-extension and shoulder-horizontal flexion-extension, ...


Flexible microelectrode arrays with integrated insertion devices

D. P. O'Brien; T. R. Nichols; M. G. Allen Technical Digest. MEMS 2001. 14th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Cat. No.01CH37090), 2001

Flexible microelectrode arrays (FMAs) allow interfacing to delicate living tissues such as neural tissue with a minimum of physical disruption of that tissue during and after insertion. This physical disruption is minimized since the compliant FMAs can deform along with the tissue. However, a problem with these arrays is the insertion and subsequent precise positioning of the arrays in the ...


A predictive model of muscle forces for children with spinal cord injuries

J. Ding; A. S. Wexler; S. C. K. Lee; S. A. Binder-Macleod Proceedings of the IEEE 28th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference (IEEE Cat. No.02CH37342), 2002

This study tested our mathematical model's ability to predict isometric forces for children with spinal cord injuries. The model accounted more than 95% of the variance in the experimental forces produced by stimulation trains with mean frequencies from 12.5 to 100 Hz for both non-fatigued and fatigued muscles. The ability of the model to predict forces suggests its use for ...


More eLearning Resources

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • No title

    Combating neural degeneration from injury or disease is extremely difficult in the brain and spinal cord, i.e. central nervous system (CNS). Unlike the peripheral nerves, CNS neurons are bombarded by physical and chemical restrictions that prevent proper healing and restoration of function. The CNS is vital to bodily function, and loss of any part of it can severely and permanently alter a person's quality of life. Tissue engineering could offer much needed solutions to regenerate or replace damaged CNS tissue. This review will discuss current CNS tissue engineering approaches integrating scaffolds, cells and stimulation techniques. Hydrogels are commonly used CNS tissue engineering scaffolds to stimulate and enhance regeneration, but fiber meshes and other porous structures show specific utility depending on application. CNS relevant cell sources have focused on implantation of exogenous cells or stimulation of endogenous populations. Somatic cells of the CNS are rarely utilized for tissue engineering; however, glial cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) may be used to myelinate and protect spinal cord damage. Pluripotent and multipotent stem cells offer alternative cell sources due to continuing advancements in identification and differentiation of these cells. Finally, physical, chemical, and electrical guidance cues are extremely important to neural cells, serving important roles in development and adulthood. These guidance cues are being integrated into tissue engineering approaches. Of particular interest is the inclusion of cues to guide stem cells to differentiate into CNS cell types, as well to guide neuron targeting. This review should provide the reader with a broad understanding of CNS tissue engineering challenges and tactics, with the goal of fostering the future development of biologically inspired designs. Table of Contents: Introduction / Anatomy of the CNS and Progression of Neurological Damage / Biomaterials for Scaffold Preparation / Cel Sources for CNS TE / Stimulation and Guidance / Concluding Remarks

  • No title

    In the last ten years many different brain imaging devices have conveyed a lot of information about the brain functioning in different experimental conditions. In every case, the biomedical engineers, together with mathematicians, physicists and physicians are called to elaborate the signals related to the brain activity in order to extract meaningful and robust information to correlate with the external behavior of the subjects. In such attempt, different signal processing tools used in telecommunications and other field of engineering or even social sciences have been adapted and re- used in the neuroscience field. The present book would like to offer a short presentation of several methods for the estimation of the cortical connectivity of the human brain. The methods here presented are relatively simply to implement, robust and can return valuable information about the causality of the activation of the different cortical areas in humans using non invasive electroencephalographic r cordings. The knowledge of such signal processing tools will enrich the arsenal of the computational methods that a engineer or a mathematician could apply in the processing of brain signals. Table of Contents: Introduction / Estimation of the Effective Connectivity from Stationary Data by Structural Equation Modeling / Estimation of the Functional Connectivity from Stationary Data by Multivariate Autoregressive Methods / Estimation of Cortical Activity by the use of Realistic Head Modeling / Application: Estimation of Connectivity from Movement-Related Potentials / Application to High-Resolution EEG Recordings in a Cognitive Task (Stroop Test) / Application to Data Related to the Intention of Limb Movements in Normal Subjects and in a Spinal Cord Injured Patient / The Instantaneous Estimation of the Time-Varying Cortical Connectivity by Adaptive Multivariate Estimators / Time-Varying Connectivity from Event-Related Potentials

  • Motor Routines

    This chapter contains sections titled: 7.1 Motor Computation Basics, 7.2 Biological Movement Organization, 7.3 Cortex: Movement Plans, 7.4 Cerebellum: Checking Expectations, 7.5 Spinal Cord: Coding the Movement Library, 7.6 Reading Human Movement Data, 7.7 Summary

  • No title

    The present book illustrates the theoretical aspects of several methodologies related to the possibility of i) enhancing the poor spatial information of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity on the scalp and giving a measure of the electrical activity on the cortical surface. ii) estimating the directional influences between any given pair of channels in a multivariate dataset. iii) modeling the brain networks as graphs. The possible applications are discussed in three different experimental designs regarding i) the study of pathological conditions during a motor task, ii) the study of memory processes during a cognitive task iii) the study of the instantaneous dynamics throughout the evolution of a motor task in physiological conditions. The main outcome from all those studies indicates clearly that the performance of cognitive and motor tasks as well as the presence of neural diseases can affect the brain network topology. This evidence gives the power of reflecting cerebral "s ates" or "traits" to the mathematical indexes derived from the graph theory. In particular, the observed structural changes could critically depend on patterns of synchronization and desynchronization - i.e. the dynamic binding of neural assemblies - as also suggested by a wide range of previous electrophysiological studies. Moreover, the fact that these patterns occur at multiple frequencies support the evidence that brain functional networks contain multiple frequency channels along which information is transmitted. The graph theoretical approach represents an effective means to evaluate the functional connectivity patterns obtained from scalp EEG signals. The possibility to describe the complex brain networks sub-serving different functions in humans by means of "numbers" is a promising tool toward the generation of a better understanding of the brain functions. Table of Contents: Introduction / Brain Functional Connectivity / Graph Theory / High- Resolution EEG / Cortical Networks n Spinal Cord Injured Patients / Cortical Networks During a Lifelike Memory Task / Application to Time-varying Cortical Networks / Conclusions

  • EMG in Exercise Physiology and Sports

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) is useful in studying many issues of motor control. This chapter analyzes the issues of coactivation, onset muscle timing, and characterization of exercise under the viewpoint of muscle coordination. Surface EMG has been widely used to study muscle coordination during locomotion such as walking, running, and cycling. The pattern of muscle activation during locomotion can be analyzed in terms of activity level and/or activation timing. A motor unit (MU) consists of a motoneuron in the spinal cord and the muscle fibers it innervates. The electrical activity in a muscle is determined by the number of motor units recruited and their mean discharge frequency of excitation, that is, the same factors that determine muscle force. The chapter investigates the physiological effects of static stretching upon delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in conjunction with the spinal alpha motoneuron pool excitability.

  • Excitable Tissue

    The nervous system includes voluntary and autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) systems. This book is devoted almost entirely to the voluntary system. The system consists mostly of excitable tissue - sensory receptors, neuron cell bodies, axons, and muscle fibers. If you step on a sharp object, it stimulates sensory receptors that in turn stimulate neurons; the latter send action potentials (APs) via axons to interneurons and motoneurons in the spinal cord. The motoneurons send APs to the appropriate muscles, which contract so as to make you jump off the object. Some of the activity involves atomic dimensions and, because distances are so small, time intervals are correspondingly small. It takes a factor of about 107 to transform atomic distances into dimensions that are familiar to us. For example, most atoms and simple compounds, if magnified by 107, turn out to be 3 mm (0.12 in.) in diameter. One centimeter multiplied by 107 equals 100 km (62 mi.). In time, one second multiplied by 107 is almost equal to 4 months. Sensory receptors are usually at rest when they are unstimulated. Neuron cell bodies are at rest when they are not generating APs, while muscle fibers and axons are at rest when they are not carrying APs (that is, no APs are propagating along the muscle fiber or axon). Body tissues are bathed in fluid that has an excess of sodium and chloride ions. Internally, excitable tissue at rest has an excess of potassium and large organic negative ions. This external-internal combination forms a battery that makes the inside of the tissue 60 to 90 mV more negative than the outside. The electric field across the membrane is very high - up to 12,000 V/mm. The physiologically compatible ionic concentrations are maintained by sodium and potassium pumps.

  • Brain Overview

    This chapter contains sections titled: 2.1 Spinal Cord and Brainstem, 2.2 The Forebrain: An Overview, 2.3 Cortex: Long-Term Memory, 2.4 Basal Ganglia: The Program Sequencer, 2.5 Thalamus: Input and Output, 2.6 Hippocampus: Program Modifications, 2.7 Amygdala: Rating What' s Important, 2.8 How the Brain Programs Itself, 2.9 Summary

  • Peripheral and Spinal Plasticity after Nerve Injuries

    Peripheral nerves contain several types of nerve fibers, serving different functions. Peripheral nerve injuries induce a cascade of events, at the molecular, cellular, and system levels, that support axonal regeneration and target reinnervation in the periphery, but also imply plastic changes at the spinal cord and the brain. Mechanisms involved in these changes include alterations of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections, sprouting of new connections, and reorganization of sensory and motor maps in the nervous system. All these changes have to be considered when attempting to interact with the injured nervous system for rehabilitation strategies.

  • Lateral Inhibition

    The nervous system uses lateral inhibition to improve spatial resolution and contrast. Suppose, for example, that we have a stimulus distribution shaped like a bell. In lateral inhibition the stimulus distribution is shifted laterally (left and right in this case, say) by lateral branches of afferent axons, and subtracted (hence the designation _inhibition_) from the original stimulus curve. This yields a narrower curve (the sides of the ?>bell?> are steeper). Suppose that we have two bell-shaped stimulus curves, so close together that they partially merge to yield a single stimulus peak. Lateral inhibition may nevertheless be able to reveal that two stimuli are actually present. A hypothetical three-stage model is examined in which the primary stimulus is a blunt ?>compass?> point pressing against the hand, and lateral inhibition is applied in the spinal cord, thalamus, and somatosensory cortex. Several two-dimensional models are also examined. A special case known as _zero-sum lateral inhibition_ is especially important because it can extract the edges of the spatial stimulus curve.

  • Skeletal Muscle Circuits

    A skeletal muscle fiber receives action potentials (APs) from its motoneuron. Embedded in the skeletal muscles are (a) tendon organ receptors that monitor tendon stress, and (b) spindles that generate an error signal in accordance with the following equation: Error = reference (desired contraction) - distance (actual contraction), or _e(t) = r(t) - x(t)_. Three feedback loops are involved in the control of muscle contraction as follows: (a) an annulospiral receptor in the spindle feeds the error signal back to the motoneuron, exciting it until the error is zero; (b) a flower- spray receptor in the spindle also feeds the error signal back if the error is relatively large, thereby further increasing motoneuron excitation; and (c) the tendon organ feeds an _inhibitory_ signal to the motoneuron if the tendon stress is excessive. A typical motoneuron receives excitatory signals from synergistic muscles and inhibitory signals from ipsilateral antagonistic muscles. Clonus can occur if excessive time is taken for the spindle signal to travel from a wrist muscle, say, to its motoneuron in the spinal cord and from the latter back to the skeletal muscle. If the motoneuron synaptic junction weighting factor is too high, the system will oscillate.



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