Spinal cord

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Template:Vertebral column The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the brain. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Spinal cord

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2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invited sessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering. Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and poster sessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE.

  • 2015 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

    The conference will cover diverse topics ranging from biomedical engineering to healthcare technologies to medical and clinical applications. The conference program will consist of invited plenary lectures, symposia, workshops, invited sessions and oral and poster sessions of unsolicited contributions. All papers will be peer reviewed and accepted papers of up to 4 pages will appear in the Conference Proceedings and be indexed by IEEE Xplore and Medline/PubMed.

  • 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

    The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invited sessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering. Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and poster sessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE.

  • 2013 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

    The Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society covers a broad spectrum of topics from biomedical engineering and physics to medical and clinical applications. The conference program will consist of invited plenary lectures, symposia, workshops, invited sessions, oral and poster sessions of unsolicited contributions. All papers will be peer reviewed and accepted papers of up to 4 pages will appear in the Conference Proceedings and be indexed by PubMed and EI. Prop

  • 2012 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

    The annual conference of EMBS averages 2000 attendees from over 50 countries. The scope of the conference is general in nature to focus on the interdisciplinary fields of biomedical engineering. Themes included but not limited to are: Imaging, Biosignals, Biorobotics, Bioinstrumentation, Neural, Rehabilitation, Bioinformatics, Healthcare IT, Medical Devices, etc

  • 2011 33rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

    The annual conference of EMBS averages 2000 attendees from over 50 countries. The scope of the conference is general in nature to focus on the interdisciplinary fields of biomedical engineering. Themes included but not limited to are: Imaging, Biosignals, Biorobotics, Bioinstrumentation, Neural, Rehabilitation, Bioinformatics, Healthcare IT, Medical Devices, etc.

  • 2010 32nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

    The annual conference of EMBS averages 2000 attendees from over 50 countries. The scope of the conference is general in nature to focus on the interdisciplinary fields of biomedical engineering. Themes included but not limited to are: Imaging, Biosignals, Biorobotics, Bioinstrumentation, Neural, Rehabilitation, Bioinformatics, Healthcare IT, Medical Devices, etc

  • 2009 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

    The annual conference of EMBS averages 2000 attendees from over 50 countries. The scope of the conference is general in nature to focus on the interdisciplinary fields of biomedical engineering. Themes included but not limited to are: Imaging, Biosignals, Biorobotics, Bioinstrumentation, Neural, Rehabilitation, Bioinformatics, Healthcare IT, Medical Devices, etc

  • 2008 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

    The general theme of EMBC'08 is "Personalized Healthcare through Technology", covering a broad spectrum of topics from biomedical and clinical engineering and physics to medical and clinical applications. Transfer of research results from academia to industry will also be a focus of the conference.

  • 2007 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

  • 2006 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)


2016 IEEE 13th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2016)

The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is the premier forumfor the presentation of technological advances in theoretical and applied biomedical imaging. ISBI 2016 willbe the thirteenth meeting in this series. The previous meetings have played a leading role in facilitatinginteraction between researchers in medical and biological imaging. The 2016 meeting will continue thistradition of fostering crossfertilization among different imaging communities and contributing to an integrativeapproach to biomedical imaging across all scales of observation.

  • 2015 IEEE 12th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2015)

    The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances in theoretical and applied biomedical imaging. ISBI 2015 will be the 12th meeting in this series. The previous meetings have played a leading role in facilitating interaction between researchers in medical and biological imaging. The 2014 meeting will continue this tradition of fostering crossfertilization among different imaging communities and contributing to an integrative approach to biomedical imaging across all scales of observation.

  • 2014 IEEE 11th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2014)

    The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances in theoretical and applied biomedical imaging. ISBI 2014 will be the eleventh meeting in this series. The previous meetings have played a leading role in facilitating interaction between researchers in medical and biological imaging. The 2014 meeting will continue this tradition of fostering crossfertilization among different imaging communities and contributing to an integrative approach to biomedical imaging across all scales of observation.

  • 2013 IEEE 10th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2013)

    To serve the biological, biomedical, bioengineering, bioimaging and other technical communities through a quality program of presentations and papers on the foundation, application, development, and use of biomedical imaging.

  • 2012 IEEE 9th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2012)

    To serve the biological, biomedical, bioengineering, bioimaging, and other technical communities through a quality program of presentations and papers on the foundation, application, development, and use of biomedical imaging.

  • 2011 IEEE 8th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2011)

    To serve the biological, biomedical, bioengineering, bioimaging, and other technical communities through a quality program of presentations and papers on the foundation, application, development, and use of biomedical imaging.

  • 2010 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2010)

    To serve the biological, biomedical, bioengineering, bioimaging, and other technical communities through a quality program of presentations and papers on the foundation, application, development, and use of biomedical imaging.


2010 4th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (iCBBE)

Bioinformatics, Computational Biology, Biomedical Engineering



Periodicals related to Spinal cord

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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Rehabilitation aspects of biomedical engineering, including functional electrical stimulation, acoustic dynamics, human performance measurement and analysis, nerve stimulation, electromyography, motor control and stimulation, and hardware and software applications for rehabilitation engineering and assistive devices.




Xplore Articles related to Spinal cord

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Conceptual Network Model From Sensory Neurons to Astrocytes of the Human Nervous System

Yiqun Yang; Chai Kiat Yeo IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 2015

From a single-cell animal like paramecium to vertebrates like ape, the nervous system plays an important role in responding to the variations of the environment. Compared to animals, the nervous system in the human body possesses more intricate organization and utility. The nervous system anatomy has been understood progressively, yet the explanation at the cell level regarding complete information transmission ...


The Effects Of A Lower Body Positive Pressure Suit On The Cardiovascular Capacities Of Spinal Cord Injured Individuals

K. H. Pitelli; D. E. Malzahn; K. D. Campbell Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Volume 13: 1991, 1991

First Page of the Article ![](/xploreAssets/images/absImages/00684797.png)


Prediction of gait recovery as a tool to rationalize locomotor training in spinal cord injury

M. M. Mirbagheri; X. Niu; D. Varoqui; M. Kindig 2012 4th IEEE RAS & EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob), 2012

Our objectives were to explore the effects of robotic-orthosis (LOKOMAT) training on walking impairment recovery in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), and to develop robust predictors of these recovery patterns. Twelve SCI subjects with different degrees of ankle spasticity participated in a 12-session LOKOMAT training regimen. One-hour gait training sessions were provided three times per week for four ...


Force-velocity and length-tension properties of stimulated human quadriceps muscle in spinal cord injured children

R. J. Triolo; D. E. Robinson; R. R. Betz Images of the Twenty-First Century. Proceedings of the Annual International Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society,, 1989

The force-velocity and length-tension properties of electrically stimulated quadriceps muscles were determined in a pilot study with two teenage subjects with midthoracic spinal cord injuries. Percutaneous intramuscular electrodes were used to elicit maximal isometric and concentric isokinetic contractions over angles range from 20° to 80° of knee flexion and over speeds from 30° to 150° per second. Submaximal contractions were ...


Games-based biofeedback training applications in rehabilitation and fall prevention

Eric Heiden; Yves Lajoie; Avi Nativ 2009 Virtual Rehabilitation International Conference, 2009

Games-based biofeedback training uses augmented feedback signals to control the action of computer games. The NeuroGymreg system of games-based biofeedback has been used to improve the muscle activation and gait pattern of a patient with spinal cord injury. Training with this system also improved functional balance in a group of active older adults.


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Educational Resources on Spinal cord

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eLearning

Conceptual Network Model From Sensory Neurons to Astrocytes of the Human Nervous System

Yiqun Yang; Chai Kiat Yeo IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 2015

From a single-cell animal like paramecium to vertebrates like ape, the nervous system plays an important role in responding to the variations of the environment. Compared to animals, the nervous system in the human body possesses more intricate organization and utility. The nervous system anatomy has been understood progressively, yet the explanation at the cell level regarding complete information transmission ...


The Effects Of A Lower Body Positive Pressure Suit On The Cardiovascular Capacities Of Spinal Cord Injured Individuals

K. H. Pitelli; D. E. Malzahn; K. D. Campbell Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Volume 13: 1991, 1991

First Page of the Article ![](/xploreAssets/images/absImages/00684797.png)


Prediction of gait recovery as a tool to rationalize locomotor training in spinal cord injury

M. M. Mirbagheri; X. Niu; D. Varoqui; M. Kindig 2012 4th IEEE RAS & EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob), 2012

Our objectives were to explore the effects of robotic-orthosis (LOKOMAT) training on walking impairment recovery in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), and to develop robust predictors of these recovery patterns. Twelve SCI subjects with different degrees of ankle spasticity participated in a 12-session LOKOMAT training regimen. One-hour gait training sessions were provided three times per week for four ...


Force-velocity and length-tension properties of stimulated human quadriceps muscle in spinal cord injured children

R. J. Triolo; D. E. Robinson; R. R. Betz Images of the Twenty-First Century. Proceedings of the Annual International Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society,, 1989

The force-velocity and length-tension properties of electrically stimulated quadriceps muscles were determined in a pilot study with two teenage subjects with midthoracic spinal cord injuries. Percutaneous intramuscular electrodes were used to elicit maximal isometric and concentric isokinetic contractions over angles range from 20° to 80° of knee flexion and over speeds from 30° to 150° per second. Submaximal contractions were ...


Games-based biofeedback training applications in rehabilitation and fall prevention

Eric Heiden; Yves Lajoie; Avi Nativ 2009 Virtual Rehabilitation International Conference, 2009

Games-based biofeedback training uses augmented feedback signals to control the action of computer games. The NeuroGymreg system of games-based biofeedback has been used to improve the muscle activation and gait pattern of a patient with spinal cord injury. Training with this system also improved functional balance in a group of active older adults.


More eLearning Resources

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Development of a Testbed for Robotic Neuromuscular Controllers

    Current control approaches to robotic legged locomotion rely on centralized planning and tracking or motion pattern matching. Central control is not available to robotic assistive devices that integrate with humans, and matching predefined patterns severely limits user dexterity. By contrast, biological systems show substantial legged dexterity even when their central nervous system is severed from their spinal cord, indicating that neuromuscular feedback controls can be harnessed to encode stability, adaptability, and maneuverability into legged systems. Here we present the initial steps to develop a robotic gait testbed that can implement and verify neuromuscular controls for robotic assistive devices. The initial stage consists of an antagonistically actuated two segment leg with a floating compliant joint. We detail its electromechanical design and low level, velocity-based torque control. Additionally, we present experiments that test the leg's performance during human-like high fidelity motions. The results show that the robot can track fast motions corresponding to 87% of the maximum performance limit of human muscle. The experiments also reveal limitations of our current implementation and we discuss solutions to overcoming them.

  • Excitable Tissue

    The nervous system includes voluntary and autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) systems. This book is devoted almost entirely to the voluntary system. The system consists mostly of excitable tissue - sensory receptors, neuron cell bodies, axons, and muscle fibers. If you step on a sharp object, it stimulates sensory receptors that in turn stimulate neurons; the latter send action potentials (APs) via axons to interneurons and motoneurons in the spinal cord. The motoneurons send APs to the appropriate muscles, which contract so as to make you jump off the object. Some of the activity involves atomic dimensions and, because distances are so small, time intervals are correspondingly small. It takes a factor of about 107 to transform atomic distances into dimensions that are familiar to us. For example, most atoms and simple compounds, if magnified by 107, turn out to be 3 mm (0.12 in.) in diameter. One centimeter multiplied by 107 equals 100 km (62 mi.). In time, one second multiplied by 107 is almost equal to 4 months. Sensory receptors are usually at rest when they are unstimulated. Neuron cell bodies are at rest when they are not generating APs, while muscle fibers and axons are at rest when they are not carrying APs (that is, no APs are propagating along the muscle fiber or axon). Body tissues are bathed in fluid that has an excess of sodium and chloride ions. Internally, excitable tissue at rest has an excess of potassium and large organic negative ions. This external-internal combination forms a battery that makes the inside of the tissue 60 to 90 mV more negative than the outside. The electric field across the membrane is very high - up to 12,000 V/mm. The physiologically compatible ionic concentrations are maintained by sodium and potassium pumps.

  • Brain Overview

    This chapter contains sections titled: 2.1 Spinal Cord and Brainstem, 2.2 The Forebrain: An Overview, 2.3 Cortex: Long-Term Memory, 2.4 Basal Ganglia: The Program Sequencer, 2.5 Thalamus: Input and Output, 2.6 Hippocampus: Program Modifications, 2.7 Amygdala: Rating What' s Important, 2.8 How the Brain Programs Itself, 2.9 Summary

  • Peripheral and Spinal Plasticity after Nerve Injuries

    Peripheral nerves contain several types of nerve fibers, serving different functions. Peripheral nerve injuries induce a cascade of events, at the molecular, cellular, and system levels, that support axonal regeneration and target reinnervation in the periphery, but also imply plastic changes at the spinal cord and the brain. Mechanisms involved in these changes include alterations of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections, sprouting of new connections, and reorganization of sensory and motor maps in the nervous system. All these changes have to be considered when attempting to interact with the injured nervous system for rehabilitation strategies.

  • Lateral Inhibition

    The nervous system uses lateral inhibition to improve spatial resolution and contrast. Suppose, for example, that we have a stimulus distribution shaped like a bell. In lateral inhibition the stimulus distribution is shifted laterally (left and right in this case, say) by lateral branches of afferent axons, and subtracted (hence the designation _inhibition_) from the original stimulus curve. This yields a narrower curve (the sides of the ?>bell?> are steeper). Suppose that we have two bell-shaped stimulus curves, so close together that they partially merge to yield a single stimulus peak. Lateral inhibition may nevertheless be able to reveal that two stimuli are actually present. A hypothetical three-stage model is examined in which the primary stimulus is a blunt ?>compass?> point pressing against the hand, and lateral inhibition is applied in the spinal cord, thalamus, and somatosensory cortex. Several two-dimensional models are also examined. A special case known as _zero-sum lateral inhibition_ is especially important because it can extract the edges of the spatial stimulus curve.

  • No title

    The present book illustrates the theoretical aspects of several methodologies related to the possibility of i) enhancing the poor spatial information of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity on the scalp and giving a measure of the electrical activity on the cortical surface. ii) estimating the directional influences between any given pair of channels in a multivariate dataset. iii) modeling the brain networks as graphs. The possible applications are discussed in three different experimental designs regarding i) the study of pathological conditions during a motor task, ii) the study of memory processes during a cognitive task iii) the study of the instantaneous dynamics throughout the evolution of a motor task in physiological conditions. The main outcome from all those studies indicates clearly that the performance of cognitive and motor tasks as well as the presence of neural diseases can affect the brain network topology. This evidence gives the power of reflecting cerebral "s ates" or "traits" to the mathematical indexes derived from the graph theory. In particular, the observed structural changes could critically depend on patterns of synchronization and desynchronization - i.e. the dynamic binding of neural assemblies - as also suggested by a wide range of previous electrophysiological studies. Moreover, the fact that these patterns occur at multiple frequencies support the evidence that brain functional networks contain multiple frequency channels along which information is transmitted. The graph theoretical approach represents an effective means to evaluate the functional connectivity patterns obtained from scalp EEG signals. The possibility to describe the complex brain networks sub-serving different functions in humans by means of "numbers" is a promising tool toward the generation of a better understanding of the brain functions. Table of Contents: Introduction / Brain Functional Connectivity / Graph Theory / High- Resolution EEG / Cortical Networks n Spinal Cord Injured Patients / Cortical Networks During a Lifelike Memory Task / Application to Time-varying Cortical Networks / Conclusions

  • Motor Routines

    This chapter contains sections titled: 7.1 Motor Computation Basics, 7.2 Biological Movement Organization, 7.3 Cortex: Movement Plans, 7.4 Cerebellum: Checking Expectations, 7.5 Spinal Cord: Coding the Movement Library, 7.6 Reading Human Movement Data, 7.7 Summary

  • Skeletal Muscle Circuits

    A skeletal muscle fiber receives action potentials (APs) from its motoneuron. Embedded in the skeletal muscles are (a) tendon organ receptors that monitor tendon stress, and (b) spindles that generate an error signal in accordance with the following equation: Error = reference (desired contraction) - distance (actual contraction), or _e(t) = r(t) - x(t)_. Three feedback loops are involved in the control of muscle contraction as follows: (a) an annulospiral receptor in the spindle feeds the error signal back to the motoneuron, exciting it until the error is zero; (b) a flower- spray receptor in the spindle also feeds the error signal back if the error is relatively large, thereby further increasing motoneuron excitation; and (c) the tendon organ feeds an _inhibitory_ signal to the motoneuron if the tendon stress is excessive. A typical motoneuron receives excitatory signals from synergistic muscles and inhibitory signals from ipsilateral antagonistic muscles. Clonus can occur if excessive time is taken for the spindle signal to travel from a wrist muscle, say, to its motoneuron in the spinal cord and from the latter back to the skeletal muscle. If the motoneuron synaptic junction weighting factor is too high, the system will oscillate.

  • Diseases and Injuries of the Central Nervous System Leading to Sensory-Motor Impairment

    Damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems is associated with a loss of motor drive and a defective afferent input to the central nervous system (CNS). This chapter starts with a presentation of neuron injury. The injuries are categorized based on the extent and type of damage to the nerve and the surrounding connective tissue. The chapter addresses sensory - motor deficits that are caused by neuron injury or disease: (a) cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or stroke, which causes impairments due to changes in blood supply to the brain; (b) spinal cord injuries (SCIs), which result in total or partial obstruction of flow of both sensory and motor information between the peripheral and central nervous systems; (c) nontraumatic disorders of the CNS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis); and (d) cerebral palsy (CP). Finally, the chapter presents the incidence of CNS diseases.

  • Advanced User Interfaces for Upper Limb Functional Electrical Stimulation

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) paralyzes approximately 12,000 people each year in the United States. Individuals with an injury at and above the sixth cervical vertebra (C6) lose function in the upper and lower limbs. To provide greater independence to this population, the restoration of reaching and grasping movements is critically important. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is currently the only clinical approach for reanimating paralyzed muscles. The chapter starts by reviewing existing technologies for obtaining a control signal that is usable for a FES neuroprosthesis. This is followed by a discussion of the promise that recent advances in brain??-??machine interfaces (BMIs) hold for more natural user interfaces. Differences in the information content of potential signal sources suggest that enhanced control signals may be generated through an efficient combination of the available sources from each individual. Finally, the chapter discusses the relation between off-line decoder accuracy and online user performance.



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