Conferences related to Solids

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2018 13th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC)

The EuMIC conference is jointly organized by GAAS® Association and EuMA and is the premierEuropean technical conference for RF microelectronics. Aim of the conference is to promote thediscussion of recent developments and trends, and to encourage the exchange of scientific andtechnical information covering a broad range of high-frequency related topics, from materialsand technologies to integrated circuits and applications, that will be addressed in all of theiraspects: theory, simulation, design and measurement. If you are interested in anything aboutmicrowave and RF IC's, the EuMIC conference is an exceptional venue to learn about the latestadvances in the field and meet recognized experts from both Industry and Academia.

  • 2017 12th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC)

    The EuMIC conference is jointly organized by GAAS® Association and EuMA and is the premier European technical conference for RF microelectronics. Aim of the conference is to promote the discussion of recent developments and trends, and to encourage the exchange of scientific and technical information covering a broad range of high-frequency related topics, from materials and technologies to integrated circuits and applications, that will be addressed in all of theiraspects: theory, simulation, design and measurement. If you are interested in anything about microwave and RF IC's, the EuMIC conference is an exceptional venue to learn about the latest advances in the field and meet recognized experts from both Industry and Academia.

  • 2016 11th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC)

    The EuMIC conference is jointly organized by GAAS® Association and EuMA and is the premier European technical conference for RF microelectronics. Aim of the conference is to promote the discussion of recent developments and trends, and to encourage the exchange of scientific and technical information covering a broad range of high-frequency related topics, from materials and technologies to integrated circuits and applications, that will be addressed in all of their aspects: theory, simulation, design and measurement. If you are interested in anything about microwave and RF IC's, the EuMIC conference is an exceptional venue to learn about the latest advances in the field and meet recognized experts from both Industry and Academia.

  • 2015 10th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC)

    The EuMIC conference is jointly organized by GAAS® Association and EuMA and is the premier European technical conference for RF microelectronics. Aim of the conference is to promote the discussion of recent developments and trends, and to encourage the exchange of scientific and technical information covering a broad range of high-frequency related topics, from materials and technologies to integrated circuits and applications, that will be addressed in all of their aspects: theory, simulation, design and measurement. If you are interested in anything about microwave and RF IC’s, the EuMIC conference is an exceptional venue to learn about the latest advances in the field and meet recognized experts from both Industry and Academia.

  • 2014 9th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC)

    The EuMIC conference is jointly organized by GAAS

  • 2013 European Microwave Integrated Circuit Conference (EuMIC)

    RF and microwave devices for telecommunication and sensor systems including UMTS/LTE, LMDS and other systems working in the microwave and millimetre -wave range. Covering recent development and trends in physical fundamentals, physical and behavoural modeling, microwave and opto-electric devices and monolithic design in GaAs, InP, SiGe, GaN and SiC technologies.

  • 2012 European Microwave Integrated Circuit Conference (EuMIC)

    Microwave integrated circuits: modelling, simulation and characterisation of devices and circuits; technologies and devices; circuit design and applications.

  • 2011 European Microwave Integrated Circuit Conference (EuMIC)

    RF and microwave devices for telecommunication and sensor systems including UMTS/LTE, LMDS and other systems working in the microwave and millimetre-wave range. Covering recent development and trends in physical fundamentals, physical and behavoural modeling, microwave and opto-electric devices and monolithic design in GaAs, InP, SiGe, GaN and SiC technologies.

  • 2010 European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC)

    EuMIC is the leading conference for MMICs/RFICs and their applications in Europe. The aim of the conference is to promote the discussion of recent developments and trends, and encourage the exchange of scientific and technical information on physical fundamentals, material technology, process development and technology, physics based and empirical behavioral modeling of microwave and optoelectronic active devices and design of monolithic ICs

  • 2009 European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC)

    The 4th European Microwave Integrated Circut Conference, EuMIC, in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, is one of four conferences at the European Microwave Week 2008, the largest event in Europe dedicated to microwave electronics. EuMIC is the leading European conference for RFIC/MMIC technology and applications. The aim of the conference is to cover recent research and development on material technology, process development/technology.

  • 2008 European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC)

    The third European Microwave Integrated Circut Conference, EuMIC, in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, is one of four conferences at the European Microwave Week 2008, the largest event in Europe dedicated to microwave electronics. EuMIC is the leading European conference for RFIC/MMIC technology and applications. The aim of the conference is to cover recent research and development on material technology, process development/technology.

  • 2007 European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC)

    RF and microwave devices for telecommunication and sensor systems including UMTS, LMDS and other systems working in the microwave and millimetre-wave range. Covering recent development and trends in physical fundamentals, physicas and behavoural modeling, microwave and opto-electric devices and monolithic design in GaAs, InP, SiGe, GaN and SiC technologies.

  • 2006 European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC) (Formerly GAAS)

  • GAAS 2005 - European Gallium Arsenide and Other Semiconductors Application Symposium


2018 14th IEEE International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

Process & Device Technologies1. Channel Engineering2. High-k/Metal gate Technology3. Advanced Source/Drain Technology4. Interconnect Technology5. Advanced 3D Integration6. Novel Process Technologies7. Ultra-Thin Body Transistors and Device Variability8. Advanced High-k Metal Gate SoC and High Performance CMOS Platforms 9. CMOS Performance Enhancing and Novel Devices 10. Advanced FinFETs and Nanowire FETs11. CNT, MTJ Devices and Nanowire Photodiodes12. Low- Power and Steep Slope Switching Devices13. Graphene Devices14. Advanced Technologies for Ge MOSFETs15. Organic semiconductor devices and technologies16. Compound semiconductor devices and Technology 17. Ultra High Speed Transistors, HEMT/HBT etc. 18. Advanced Power Devices and Reliability19. Flash Memory20. IT Magnetic RAM21. Resistive RAM

  • 2016 13th IEEE International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

    Process & Device Technologies1. Channel Engineering2. High-k/Metal gate Technology3. Advanced Source/Drain Technology4. Interconnect Technology5. Advanced 3D Integration6. Novel Process Technologies7. Ultra-Thin Body Transistors and Device Variability8. Advanced High-k Metal Gate SoC and High Performance CMOS Platforms 9. CMOS Performance Enhancing and Novel Devices 10. Advanced FinFETs and Nanowire FETs11. CNT, MTJ Devices and Nanowire Photodiodes12. Low- Power and Steep Slope Switching Devices13. Graphene Devices14. Advanced Technologies for Ge MOSFETs15. Organic semiconductor devices and technologies16. Compound semiconductor devices and Technology 17. Ultra High Speed Transistors, HEMT/HBT etc. 18. Advanced Power Devices and Reliability19. Flash Memory20. IT Magnetic RAM21. Resistive RAMs22. Phase Change Memory23. 3-Dimensional Memory24. MEMS Technology25. Thin Film Transistors26. Biosensors27. PV and Energy Harvesting28. Front End of Line (FEOL) R

  • 2014 IEEE 12th International Conference on Solid -State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

    Process & Device Technologies1. Channel Engineering2. High-k/Metal gate Technology3. Advanced Source/Drain Technology4. Interconnect Technology5. Advanced 3D Integration6. Novel Process Technologies7. Ultra-Thin Body Transistors and Device Variability8. Advanced High-k Metal Gate SoC and High Performance CMOS Platforms 9. CMOS Performance Enhancing and Novel Devices 10. Advanced FinFETs and Nanowire FETs11. CNT, MTJ Devices and Nanowire Photodiodes12. Low- Power and Steep Slope Switching Devices13. Graphene Devices14. Advanced Technologies for Ge MOSFETs15. Organic semiconductor devices and technologies16. Compound semiconductor devices and Technology 17. Ultra High Speed Transistors, HEMT/HBT etc. 18. Advanced Power Devices and Reliability19. Flash Memory20. IT Magnetic RAM21. Resistive RAMs22. Phase Change Memory23. 3-Dimensional Memory24. MEMS Technology25. Thin Film Transistors26. Biosensors27. PV and Energy Harvesting28. Front End of Line (FEOL) R

  • 2012 IEEE 11th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

    Silicon IC, Silicon/germanium devices , Interconnect , Low K and High Kdielectric , Advance Memories , nano -electronics, Organic and Compound semiconductor devices ,sensors and MEMS, Semiconductor material erization, Reliability , Modeling and simulation,Packaging and testing , Digital, Analog, Mixed Signal IC and SOC design technology,Low -power, RF devices & circuits, ICCAD

  • 2010 IEEE 10th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

    Silicon IC, Silicon/germanium devices , Interconnect , Low K and High K dielectric , Advance Memories , nano-electronics, Organic and Compound semiconductor devices , sensors and MEMS, Semiconductor material characterization, Reliability , Modeling and simulation, Packaging and testing , Digital, Analog, Mixed Signal IC and SOC design technology,Low-power, RF devices & circuits, IC CAD .

  • 2008 9th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated-Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

  • 2006 8th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated-Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

  • 2004 7th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated-Circuit Technology (ICSICT)


2018 14th IEEE/ASME International Conference on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Applications (MESA)

The goal of the 14th ASME/IEEE MESA2018 is to bring together experts from the fields of mechatronic and embedded systems, disseminate the recent advances in the area, discuss future research directions, and exchange application experience. The main achievement of MESA2018 is to bring out and highlight the latest research results and developments in the IoT (Internet of Things) era in the field of mechatronics and embedded systems.


2018 26th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU)

The general scope of the conference ranges from signal and image processing to telecommunication, and applications of signal processing methods in biomedical and communication problems.

  • 2017 25th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU)

    Signal Processing and Communication Applications (SIU) conference is the most prominent scientific meeting on signal processing in Turkey bringing together researchers working in signal processing and communication fields. Topics include but are not limited to the areas of research listed in the keywords.

  • 2016 24th Signal Processing and Communication Application Conference (SIU)

    Signal Processing Theory, Statistical Signal Processing, Nonlinear Signal Processing, Adaptive Signal Processing, Array and Multichannel Signal Processing, Signal Processing for Sensor Networks, Time-Frequency Analysis, Speech / Voice Processing and Recognition, Computer Vision, Pattern Recognition, Machine Learning for Signal Processing, Human-Machine Interaction, Brain-Computer Interaction, Signal-Image Acquisition and Generation, image Processing, video Processing, Image Printing and Presentation, Image / Video / Audio browsing and retrieval, Image / Video / Audio Watermarking, Multimedia Signal Processing, Biomedical Signal Processing and Image Processing, Bioinformatics, Biometric Signal-Image Processing and Recognition, Signal Processing for Security and Defense, Signal and Image Processing for Remote Sensing, Signal Processing Hardware, Signal Processing Education, Radar Signal Processing, Communication Theory, Communication Networks, Wireless Communications

  • 2015 23th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU)

    Signal Processing Theory Statistical Signal Processing Nonlinear Signal Processing Adaptive Signal Processing Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Signal Processing for Sensor Networks Time-Frequency Analysis Speech / Voice Processing and Recognition Computer Vision Pattern Recognition Machine Learning for Signal Processing Human-Machine Interaction Brain-Computer Interaction Signal-Image Acquisition and Generation image Processing video Processing Image Printing and Presentation Image / Video / Audio browsing and retrieval Image / Video / Audio Watermarking Multimedia Signal Processing Biomedical Signal Processing and Image Processing Bioinformatics Biometric Signal-Image Processing and Recognition Signal Processing for Security and Defense Signal and Image Processing for Remote Sensing Signal Processing Hardware Signal Processing Education Radar Signal Processing Communication Theory Communication Networks Wireless Communications

  • 2014 22nd Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU)

    SIU will be held in Trabzon, Turkey at the Karadeniz Technical University Convention and Exhibition Centre on April 23, 2014. SIU is the largest and most comprehensive technical conference focused on signal processing and its applications in Turkey. Last year there were 500 hundred participants. The conference will feature renowned speakers, tutorials, and thematic workshops. Topics include but are not limited to: Signal Procesing, Image Processing, Communication, Computer Vision, Machine Learning, Biomedical Signal Processing,

  • 2013 21st Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU)

    Conference will discuss state of the art solutions and research results on existing and future DSP and telecommunication systems, applications, and related standardization activities. Conference will also include invited lectures, tutorials and special sessions.

  • 2012 20th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU)

    Conference will discuss state of the art solutions and research results on existing and future DSP and telecommunication systems, applications, and related standardization activities. Conference will also include invited lectures, tutorials and special sessions.

  • 2011 19th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU)

    Conference will bring together academia and industry professionals as well as students and researchers to present and discuss state of the art solutions and research results on existing and future DSP and telecommunication systems, applications, and related standardization activities. The Conference will also include invited lectures, tutorials and special sessions.

  • 2010 IEEE 18th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU)

    S1.Theory of Signal-Processing S2.Statistical Signal-Processing S3.Multimedia Signal-Processing S4.Biomedical Signal-Processing S5.Sensor Networks S6.Multirate Signal-Processing S7.Pattern Recognition S8.Computer Vision S9.Adaptive Filters S10.Image/Video/Speech Browsing, Retrieval S11.Speech/Audio Coding S12.Speech Processing S13.Human-Machine Interfaces S14.Surveillance Signal Processing S15.Bioinformatics S16.Self-Learning S17.Signal-Processing Education S18.Signal-Processing Systems S1

  • 2009 IEEE 17th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU)

    The scope of the conference is to cover recent topics in theory and applications of Signal Processing and Communications.

  • 2008 IEEE 16th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU)

    Signal Processing, Image Processing, Speech Processing, Pattern Recognition, Human Computer Interaction, Communication, Video and Speech indexing, Computer Vision, Biomedical Signal Processing

  • 2007 IEEE 15th Signal Processing and Communications Applications (SIU)

  • 2006 IEEE 14th Signal Processing and Communications Applications (SIU)

  • 2005 IEEE 13th Signal Processing and Communications Applications (SIU)

  • 2004 IEEE 12th Signal Processing and Communications Applications (SIU)


2018 IEEE 16th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN)

The aim of INDIN´18 is to bring together researchers and practitioners from industry and academia and provide them with a platform to report and discuss recent developments, deployments, technology trends and research results, as well as initiatives related to industrial informatics and their application.


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Periodicals related to Solids

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on

The theory, design and application of Control Systems. It shall encompass components, and the integration of these components, as are necessary for the construction of such systems. The word `systems' as used herein shall be interpreted to include physical, biological, organizational and other entities and combinations thereof, which can be represented through a mathematical symbolism. The Field of Interest: shall ...


Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


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Most published Xplore authors for Solids

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Xplore Articles related to Solids

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A Pilot Study of the Development of Online Learning Strategies Scale (OLSS)

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'National Taipei University, Taiwan', u'full_name': u'Meng-Jung Tsai'}] Seventh IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2007), None

This study presented a pilot development of the Online Learning Strategies Scale (OLSS) for evaluating students' online learning strategies. In-depth interviews were used for collecting candidate items of the scale. A survey based on the pool of candidate items was then administered to 136 students and a factor analysis was used to examine its construct validity. In addition, a reliability ...


Recognizing Straight Skeletons and Voronoi Diagrams and Reconstructing Their Input

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'David R. Cheriton Sch. of Comput. Sci., Univ. of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada', u'full_name': u'Therese Biedl'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'FB Computerwissenschaften, Univ. Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria', u'full_name': u'Martin Held'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Inst. of Sci. & Technol. Austria, Klosterneuburg, Austria', u'full_name': u'Stefan Huber'}] 2013 10th International Symposium on Voronoi Diagrams in Science and Engineering, None

A straight skeleton is a well-known geometric structure, and several algorithms exist to construct the straight skeleton for a given polygon or planar straight-line graph. In this paper, we ask the reverse question: Given the straight skeleton (in form of a planar straight-line graph, with some rays to infinity), can we reconstruct a planar straight-line graph for which this was ...


Simulation and analysis of coalescence of water droplets on composite insulating surface under DC electric field

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Ecole Centrale de Lyon, University of Lyon, AMPERE Lab CNRS UMR 5005 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully, France Faculty of Industrial Engineering, University of Douala, BP 2701 Douala, Cameroon', u'full_name': u'J. Ndoumbe'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Ecole Centrale de Lyon, University of Lyon, AMPERE Lab CNRS UMR 5005 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully, France', u'full_name': u'A. Beroual'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Faculty of Science, University of Douala, BP 24157 Douala, Cameroon', u'full_name': u'A. Moukengue Imano'}] IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 2015

This paper is aimed at numerical simulations and experiments on the coalescence of pairs of sessile water droplets deposited on dielectric composite insulating surfaces. The mechanisms as well as parameters involved in coalescence under the influence of DC electric field are investigated. A mathematical approach based on a diffuse interface model that essentially consists of a coupling between Navier-Stokes equations, ...


Enhancement of heat removal using concave liquid metal targets for high-power accelerators

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Argonne National Laboratory, USA', u'full_name': u'I. Konkashbaev'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Argonne National Laboratory, USA', u'full_name': u'P. Fischer'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Argonne National Laboratory, USA', u'full_name': u'A. Hassanein'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA', u'full_name': u'N. V. Mokhov'}] 2007 IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference (PAC), None

The need is increasing for development of high-power targets and beam dump areas for the production of intense beams of secondary particles. The severe constraints arising from a megawatt beam deposited on targets and absorbers call for nontrivial procedures to dilute the beam. This study describes the development of targets and absorbers and the advantages of using flowing liquid metal ...


Growth of GaSb and GaAsSb in Single Phase Region by MOVPE

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Science, P.R. China', u'full_name': u'Da-cheng Lu'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'full_name': u'Du Wang'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'full_name': u'Xianglin Liu'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'full_name': u'Lanying Lin'}] Sixth International Conference Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy, None

First Page of the Article ![](/xploreAssets/images/absImages/00664928.png)


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Educational Resources on Solids

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eLearning

No eLearning Articles are currently tagged "Solids"

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Radiometry, Noise Temperature, and Interferometry

    This chapter first discusses radiometry, which is the passive detection of natural radiation from various media, targets, and objects. Included in this discussion are brightness, antenna temperature, radiative transfer, and emissivity. Next, the chapter discusses the effects of the receiving system on the system noise temperature and the minimum detectable temperature, and deals with the use of interferometry for mapping the brightness distribution. The fundamental quantity in radiometry is the brightness (B). The chapter considers the propagation of the brightness in a medium emitting electromagnetic radiation. All objects emit electromagnetic energy. A perfect absorber that absorbs electromagnetic energy at all wavelengths is called a blackbody. The brightness of the electromagnetic radiation from a blackbody depends only on its temperature and frequency. The chapter further describes how the noise temperature is emitted, propagated, absorbed, and scattered, and then reaches the antenna. Finally, it discusses what happens in the receiver.

  • Planar EBGs: Fundamentals and Design

    This chapter introduces a complete procedure for the analysis of planar electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structures based on the concept of total inductance. The planar EBG is made by a sequence of patches connected by narrow bridges, thus altering the ideal solid plane pair geometry usually employed for power delivery purposes and signal/power return. The chapter focuses on the comprehensive electromagnetic characterization of planar EBGs, concentrating on the simple yet effective EBG made by a sequence of square patches and straight bridges. It provides accurate evaluation of the bandgap lower limit fLow and also provides a more precise evaluation of the bandgap upper limit fHigh quantifying the effect of the parameters altering its analytical calculation. The EBG structures discussed in the chapter deal with patterned planes laid out on the outer stack¿¿¿up layers of a multilayer printed circuit board (PCB). The problems related to this type of layout are also discussed.

  • Distribution Theory

    This chapter provides results on sampling moments and distributions of error rates for classification rules specified by general discriminants, including the true error rate and the resubstitution, leave-one-out, cross-validation, and bootstrap error estimators. It also addresses the issue of separate sampling, side by side with mixture sampling, in a unified framework. The sampling issue creates problems for classifier design and error estimation. An example from Esfahani and Dougherty (2014a) illustrates the discrepancy in expected linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classification error between the two sampling mechanisms. The chapter discusses the sample-based discriminants with an eye toward differentiating between mixture and separate sampling. Finally, it describes the higher-order moments of the true error rate and of the resubstitution and leave-one-out estimated error rates, as well as the sampling distributions of resubstitution and leave-one-out.

  • Synchronous Generator and Induction Motor

    This chapter contains sections titled: * Theory and Modeling of Synchronous Generator * Theory and Modeling of the Induction Motor * References

  • Life Cycle Assessment and Solid Waste Management

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) process includes assembling a life cycle inventory (LCI) of pertinent energy and material inputs and emissions, assessing the potential environmental impacts associated with recognized inputs and outputs in LCI, and explaining the results to help decision makers achieve more risk- informed and forward-looking decisions. This chapter provides a knowledge base of LCA applied to solid waste management (SWM). It describes major terminologies widely used in LCA, and explains the steps required to conduct an LCA. The chapter also describes the major LCA software packages available to help develop real world LCA case studies. It explains how the current methodological approaches provide a wealth of realistic viewpoints with the aid of software packages. The chapter concludes by highlighting the changing nature of LCA.

  • Transformer Insulation Materials and Ageing

    Sufficient insulation between different active parts of the transformer is necessary for its safe operation. The insulation system in a transformer can be categorized as follows: major insulation, and minor insulation. The solid insulation materials widely used in the transformer are paper, pressboard, and transformer board, which are formed from the cellulose found in plants. The main concern with using dry paper as an insulating material is that it is very hygroscopic. The presence of cellulose insulation affects the voltage distribution in heterogeneous dielectric systems: it contributes to the dielectric loss; determines the short¿¿¿term dielectric strength; and, to a major extent, the life of the total insulated system. Oil is an equally important part of a transformer's overall insulation. The insulation system of a transformer undergoes ageing due to transformer operating conditions. This chapter provides an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book.

  • THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

    The federal government and its policies can have enormous impact on industry beyond export controls. By 1991, LEOMA had made significant headway with the major issues that had dominated its earliest years. LEOMA coordinated input from the U.S. laser industry so that it presented a coherent and accurate picture of the industry's capability. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) included a category explicitly for lasers, but the proposed subdivisions within that category did not reflect a realistic breakout of industry products. The LEOMA board realized that a Commerce Department survey of domestic and international laser sales could be beneficial, but the proposed survey would not produce useful data. Although LEOMA efforts with the federal government had pretty close to negligible impact on issues such as the research and development tax credit, it had a significant impact in altering the strategies of the national laboratories.

  • Impact of Planar EBGs on Signal Integrity in High¿¿¿Speed Digital Boards

    This chapter investigates the electromagnetic phenomena involved in the propagation of a signal on a microstrip over an electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure, when an interconnect is referenced to the shaped (or patterned) layer. In a real board where the EBG structure is employed in the stack¿¿¿up of a multilayer printed circuit board (PCB), some traces will be referenced to the EBG patterned plane. The basic planar EBG geometry is realized by a suitably designed patterned plane on top of a continuous one, creating a cavity. The chapter talks about the coupling between the electromagnetic field associated with the transmitted signal and the field inside the cavity over a large frequency range. Peaks and notches of the embedded planar EBG cavity transfer function correspond to notches and high values of the single¿¿¿ended trace transfer function. The chapter also investigates the relationship between the power plane impedance profile and the transfer function of the microstrip line.

  • Social and Economic Concerns

    This chapter addresses financial, economic, and social factors in relation to the planning, design, and management of a solid waste management (SWM) system. These considerations may be oriented for different projects, programs, and schemes that can be flexibly implemented for any type of SWM system. Whereas financial planning is required in the project planning phase, economic assessment has to be linked to multiple aspects of environmental, resources, and welfare economics of an SWM project. However, social concerns are tied to the legal aspects in decision-making and the attitudes and feedbacks from the community when implementing these SWM projects. SWM with perspectives of economic incentives, policy context, social implications and socio economic assessment processes associated with environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) were articulated within a highly multidisciplinary framework.

  • Switchgear and Motor Control Centers

    In industrial environments, electricity is provided to loads from load centers, including switchgear and motor control centers (MCCs). Both of these load centers are having hinged doors for easy internal access. Smaller electrical components can be housed in enclosures that are classified by NEMA Type, which defines the ability of the enclosure to resist environmental factors. Several important ratings apply to both switchgear and MCCs. A continuous current rating limits the temperature rise of the load center components, particularly the insulation. A short-circuit current rating determines both the interrupting capability of the circuit breakers and fuses, and the mechanical strength of the bracing and support systems. Arc flash hazard must be addressed to determine safe working procedures around energized equipment. NFPA standard 70E and IEEE standard 1584 address the arc flash hazard by providing guidance for performing calculations to determine the incident energy during an arc flash event.