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2016 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop (NSS/MIC/RTSD)
The NSS/MIC offers an outstanding opportunity for scientists and engineers interested in the fields of nuclear science, radiation detection, accelerators, high energy physics and astrophysics, and related software to present their latest developments and ideas. The scientific program provides a comprehensive review of the latest developments in technology and covers a wide range of applications from radiation and accelerator instrumentation, new detector materials, to complex detector systems for physical sciences, and advanced imaging systems for biological and medical research.
2014 5th IEEE RAS & EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob)
Theoretical and experimental challenges posed by the application of robotics and mechatronics in medicine and biology. Analysis of biological systems from a biomechatronic point of view. Design and fabrication of bio-inspired and biomimetic machines. Robotic and mechatronic devices and systems for prevention, diagnosis, surgery, prosthetics, rehabilitation and personal assistance.
2013 IEEE 13th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR 2013)
The conference presents the latest results from world leading research labs and clinics in the field of rehabilitation robotics. A special focus is on clinical evaluation and promotion of interaction between engineers, clinicians and therapists.
Enterprise Management, Engineering Management, Service Science, Financial Management, Knowledge Management
Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.
Field Programmable Logic and Applications, 2005. International Conference on, 2005
A mobile robot is being built which utilize a biologically inspired whisker array as the primary sensor for both spatial exploration and surface textural analysis. The theme of biomimetry is being developed further by utilizing physiological and electro-physiological studies of the neural pathways involved in the processing and subsequent motor response of real rodents as they use their whiskers. The ...
Biomedical Sciences and Engineering Conference (BSEC), 2010, 2010
In present war time conditions, traumatic brain injury (TBI) has moved to the forefront as a "signature injury." In terms of prevalence and understanding the biological mechanisms that underlie the injury, blast-induced TBI - particularly in "mild" cases-has proven to be a significant challenge for military medicine. Basic research that employs animal models of TBI is a key element for ...
Neural Information Processing, 2002. ICONIP '02. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on, 2002
An abstract model of a cortical hypercolumn is presented. This model could replicate experimental findings relating to the orientation tuning mechanism in the primary visual cortex. Properties of the orientation selective cells in the primary visual cortex, like contrast-invariance and response saturation, were demonstrated in simulations. We hypothesize that broadly tuned inhibition and local excitatory connections are sufficient for achieving ...
Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 2003 IEEE, 2003
Using the photomultiplier-quadrant-sharing (PQS) design, BGO-detector blocks have been developed to show the feasibility of high resolution (∼2mm) at much lower cost for small animal PET. It is an alternative to the prevailing animal PET detector assembly of LSO or GSO, optical-fiber or light-guide with PS-PMT. In order to reduce cost, BGO crystals and 19-mm regular round PMTs were used ...
Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on, 2005
Using the photomultiplier-quadrant-sharing (PQS) technique, we designed pentagonal detector blocks with high resolution (2.0 mm) and high sensitivity for a rodent research PET (RRPET). In order to reduce the cost, 8 × 8 Bismuth germinate (BGO) crystal array and 19-mm regular round PMTs were used in this research. The average detector pitch was about 2.0 × 2.0 mm and 10 ...
Nikolaos A. Laskaris; Efstratios K. Kosmidis; Dejan Vucinic; Ryota Homma IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 2008
The olfactory bulb (OB) is the first stage of olfactory information processing in the brain. On its way to the cortex, odor information is encoded in spatiotemporal maps of activated loci in the bulb, and these are known as input maps. Using optical recording techniques, experimental neuro-scientists can reveal the input maps by applying response-dependent fluorescent dyes to the OB ...
Guocai Liu; Yaonan Wang 2009 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (NSS/MIC), 2009
We proposed an organ-by-organ segmentation method for whole-body rodent dynamic PET images based on our hierarchical Mumford-Shah model for vector- valued image segmentation (HMSMv). First, we extract the shape parameters of time-activity curves (TAC) of a volume of interest(VOI) in a dynamic PET image via a noise-normalized principal component analysis (PCA). Then we segment one organ at a time in ...
T. G. Raslear; Y. Akyel Proceedings of the 15th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Societ, 1993
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J. A. Nessler; K. Minakata; K. Sharp; D. J. Reinkensmeyer 9th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, 2005. ICORR 2005., 2005
The purpose of this study was to investigate the locomotor activity of spinal cord contused rats in response to robot-assisted extension of their hindlimbs. Nineteen rats received a contusion injury to the mid-thoracic spinal cord. We used a robotic gait-training device ("the rat stepper") and a robotic paw platform (the "slide") to pull the animals' hindlimbs into extension. The injured ...
Shaoting Zhang; Junzhou Huang; Mustafa Uzunbas; Tian Shen; Foteini Delis; Xiaolei Huang; Nora Volkow; Panayotis Thanos; Dimitris Metaxas 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro, 2011
Object boundary extraction is an important task in brain image analysis. Acquiring detailed 3D representations of the brain structures could improve the detection rate of diseases at earlier stages. Deformable model based segmentation methods have been widely used with considerable success. Recently, 3D Active Volume Model (AVM) was proposed, which incorporates both gradient and region information for robustness. However, the ...
Rodents use their whiskers (vibrissae) for tactile perception, specifically for texture discrimination and shape recognition. In this paper, we present an artificial whisker system biologically inspired by rodent whiskers. We first focus on the question, how the natural frequencies of the whisker bar affect the processing of tactile signals. For texture discrimination it is shown that separating the range of the tactile signals from the natural frequencies improves the classification quality. In contrast, natural frequencies prove to be a source of information for distance estimation. It is also demonstrated that the time course of deflection angles or deflection velocities can determine the distance of objects.
Considerable evidence suggests that the behavioral mechanisms for instrumental action selection are mediated by two distinct learning processes: a goal- directed process whereby actions are selected with reference to the incentive value and causal relationship between actions and associated outcomes, and a more reflexive habitual process in which actions are elicited by antecedent stimuli without any consideration of the associated outcome. This chapter reviews evidence from experiments in both rodents and humans which suggests that the behavioral dichotomy between these two modes of action selection are also reflected at the neural level, involving at least partly dissociable regions: a circuit involving the medial prefrontal cortex and dorsomedial striatum is implicated in goal-directed learning, whereas a region of posterior lateral dorsal striatum is implicated in habitual learning. Building on the arguments put forward by Winstanley et al. (this volume), it can be concluded that the specific neural circuits identified as contributing to goal-directed learning, but not those involved in habit learning, are a constituent element of the neural systems underlying cognitive search.
A biologically inspired integrated model of different hippocampal subsystems makes a distinction between place cells (PC) within entorhinal cortex (diffuse) or dentate gyrus (segregated), and transition cells (TC) in CA3-CA1 that encode transitions between events. These two types of codes support two kinds of hippocampo-cortical cognitive maps: -A context-independent map in subiculum and EC encodes essentially the spatial layout of the environment thanks to a local dominance of ideothetic movement-related information over allothetic (visual) information; -A task-andtemporal- context dependent map based on the TCs in CA3-CA1 allows encoding, in higher order structures, maps as graphs resulting from coinbination of learned sequences of events. The dominantly spatial and the temporal-task-dependent maps are permanently stored in parietal cortex and prefrontal cortex respectively. On the basis of these two maps two distinct goal-oriented navigation strategies were designed in experimental robotic paradigms: -one based on a (population) vector code of the location-actions pairs to iearn and implement to reach the goal; another based on linking TCs together as conditioning chains that will be implemented under the topdown guidance of drives and motivations
Whiskers have recently received an increasing interest as touch sensors capable of providing rich information about the close environment of an agent. Many different animal species - especially rodents - heavily rely on them for tasks as varied as short-range navigation and object exploration. For roboticists, whiskers are not only interesting because of the unique physical process on which they are based (which is e.g. independent of illumination - a non trivial problem that vision-based modalities have to deal with), but also because of the potential overlap with other sensory modalities. Although there is a considerable body of literature about whiskers, some questions remain unanswered. For example: is there any appropriate morphological arrangement of the whiskers for a given task, since this arrangement is highly preserved within many animal species? What are the advantages of using flexible touch sensors rather than rigid ones? In this paper, we present a software that we have developed for the simulation and investigation of agents using whisker sensors. As an illustration of possible applications with this tool, we then present some results about the implications of the material properties of the whiskers on morphology, behavior and evolution.
Examples of simulation models applied to the long distance orientation of rodents, bees, salmon and pigeons are reviewed. In each case the models provide new insights which are contradictory to the current map hypothesis. Salmon and rodent performances are assumed to be consistent with a random process. Bees supposedly use non cognitive processes to perform map-like orientation procedures, and pigeons' homing is found to involve mainly stochastic processes. The efficiency of the simulated models as well as the fact that they point to hitherto underestimated aspects of orientation make them useful new tools for solving spatial problems.
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