Refractive index

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The refractive index or index of refraction of a substance is a measure of the speed of light in that substance. It is expressed as a ratio of the speed of light in vacuum relative to that in the considered medium. (Wikipedia.org)






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2011 7th Workshop on Fibre and Optical Passive Components (WFOPC)

The workshop will discuss the latest advances and innovations in specialty optical fibers, its applications and associated devices; and serve as a discussion forum by bringing together researchers, academics, manufacturers and students working in the field.

  • 2005 IEEE Workshop on Fibre and Optical Passive Components (WFOPC)



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Lightwave Technology, Journal of

All aspects of optical guided-wave science, technology, and engineering in the areas of fiber and cable technologies; active and passive guided-wave componentry (light sources, detectors, repeaters, switches, fiber sensors, etc.); integrated optics and optoelectronics; systems and subsystems; new applications; and unique field trials.


Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE

Rapid publication of original research relevant to photonics technology. This expanding field emphasizes laser and electro-optic technology, laser physics and systems, applications, and photonic/ lightwave components and applications. The journal offers short, archival publication with minimal delay.


Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Generation, amplification, modulation, detection, waveguiding, or techniques and effects that can affect the propagation characteristics of coherent electromagnetic radiation having submillimeter and shorter wavelengths


Sensors Journal, IEEE

The Field of Interest of the IEEE Sensors Journal is the science and applications of sensing phenomena, including theory, design, and application of devices for sensing and transducing physical, chemical, and biological phenomena. The emphasis is on the electronics, physics, biology, and intelligence aspects of sensors and integrated sensor-actuators. (IEEE Guide for Authors) (The fields of interest of the IEEE ...




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Mechanisms of high refractive index properties in fish-bone shape structures

In-Sung Lee; Jin-Kyu Yang; Chul-Sik Kee; Joong-Wook Lee 2015 11th Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim (CLEO-PR), 2015

We demonstrated the subwavelength metamaterial structures with multiple three- dimensional subwavelength confinement and high effective-refractive-index of terahertz electromagnetic waves. The properties can be explained by the coupling between electric-dipole and magnetic-dipole resonances.


Laser materials processing technologies and the future

Martin Richardson 2015 11th Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim (CLEO-PR), 2015

We present an overview of the advances in the field of laser materials processing, identifying those topics that are new or different, and speculating on their potential for applications in real world scenarios.


Top-down and bottom-up fabrication techniques for isotropic metamterials

Takuo Tanaka 2015 11th Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim (CLEO-PR), 2015

Top-down and bottom-up fabrication techniques are developed and applied for an isotropic infrared metamaterial that consists of fourfold-symmetric 3D SRRs. Mass-productive formation of the 3D SRRs was achieved by metal-stress driven self-folding process.


Femtosecond waveguide fabrication in bulk niobate (LiNbO<sub>3</sub>)

R. R. Thomson; S. Campbell; G. Brown; I. J. Blewett; A. K. Kar; D. T. Reid (CLEO). Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2005., 2005

We report fabrication of embedded waveguides supporting a well confined 1550 nm propagation mode in a z-cut lithium niobate crystal using focussed femtosecond pulses.


The theory of microwave line-of-sight propagation through a turbulent atmosphere

S. Clifford; J. Strohbehn IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1970

In this paper the covariance and spectra for amplitude and phase fluctuations for a microwave signal propagated over a line-of-sight path through a turbulent medium are calculated. It is shown that the results derived under the assumption that the wavelength is much smaller than the inner scale of turbulencel_{0}are also valid when the wavelength is equal to or greater thanl_{0}.


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eLearning

Mechanisms of high refractive index properties in fish-bone shape structures

In-Sung Lee; Jin-Kyu Yang; Chul-Sik Kee; Joong-Wook Lee 2015 11th Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim (CLEO-PR), 2015

We demonstrated the subwavelength metamaterial structures with multiple three- dimensional subwavelength confinement and high effective-refractive-index of terahertz electromagnetic waves. The properties can be explained by the coupling between electric-dipole and magnetic-dipole resonances.


Laser materials processing technologies and the future

Martin Richardson 2015 11th Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim (CLEO-PR), 2015

We present an overview of the advances in the field of laser materials processing, identifying those topics that are new or different, and speculating on their potential for applications in real world scenarios.


Top-down and bottom-up fabrication techniques for isotropic metamterials

Takuo Tanaka 2015 11th Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim (CLEO-PR), 2015

Top-down and bottom-up fabrication techniques are developed and applied for an isotropic infrared metamaterial that consists of fourfold-symmetric 3D SRRs. Mass-productive formation of the 3D SRRs was achieved by metal-stress driven self-folding process.


Femtosecond waveguide fabrication in bulk niobate (LiNbO<sub>3</sub>)

R. R. Thomson; S. Campbell; G. Brown; I. J. Blewett; A. K. Kar; D. T. Reid (CLEO). Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2005., 2005

We report fabrication of embedded waveguides supporting a well confined 1550 nm propagation mode in a z-cut lithium niobate crystal using focussed femtosecond pulses.


The theory of microwave line-of-sight propagation through a turbulent atmosphere

S. Clifford; J. Strohbehn IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1970

In this paper the covariance and spectra for amplitude and phase fluctuations for a microwave signal propagated over a line-of-sight path through a turbulent medium are calculated. It is shown that the results derived under the assumption that the wavelength is much smaller than the inner scale of turbulencel_{0}are also valid when the wavelength is equal to or greater thanl_{0}.


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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • TwoDimensional MTMs

    This chapter contains sections titled: Eigenvalue Problem Driven Problem by the Transmission Matrix Method (TMM) Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) Modeling Method Negative Refractive Index (NRI) Effects Distributed 2D Structures References

  • Antenna Applications and Subwavelength Focusing Using NegativeRefractiveIndex Transmission Line Structures

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Planar Transmission Line Media with Negative Refractive Index Zero-Degree Phase-Shifting Lines and Applications Backward Leaky-Wave Antenna Radiating in Its Fundamental Spatial Harmonic Superresolving NRI Transmission Line Lens Detailed Dispersion of Planar NRI-TL Media Acknowledgments References

  • Refractive Index, Polarization, and Brightness

    This chapter contains sections titled: Light Propagation¿¿-¿¿Refractive Index Huygens' Principle Polarization Polarization Components Birefringence Brewster's Angle Brightness

  • Multipath Fading

    The overall performance of fixed point to point microwave systems is limited by short-duration, large, received signal power variations called fading. As a microwave signal travels over a relatively long path, the received signal may have propagated over several slightly different paths between the transmitter and the receiver. The different paths are caused by slight time and space- dependent variation in the atmospheric refractive index. This multipath fading is also called scintillation. The short echo usually varies in and out of phase with the direct signal fairly quickly. Its effect is to produce a short- duration, broad, frequency-independent signal power depression near the operating frequency. This produces the well-known flat fade. The overall received signal power loss due to the longer delayed signal echo of a dispersive fade is usually relatively insignificant. Both of these effects are illustrated in detail in this chapter.

  • Appendix A: Refractive Index of InGaAsP

    The phenomenal growth in Internet traffic has lead to a huge increase in demand for data transmission capacity on a worldwide level. As a result, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology emerged, which makes it possible to transmit a large number of optical channels on a single optical fiber. An equally significant development occurred in optical networks, where switching and routing of signals takes place in the optical domain. This technology places special demands on the optical sources (lasers) used in the system. This text offers a description of the optical sources (equipment and devices) designed to meet these demands. Sources for DWDM Systems is intended for the engineers and graduate students working on optical networks. There is currently a nearly explosive interest in optical networks and the components required for such networks, but there is presently no single work which covers the variety of optical sources which may be used. This book will cover a particular component, tunable lasers, which is the next "big thing" in DWDM. The primary market are engineers developing tuneable lasers for optical networks, as well as graduate students enrolled in the optical engineering curriculum, especially: optical communication, semiconductor lasers, optical networks, and/or components for optical networks.

  • Light Waves

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Wavelength and Frequency Refractive Index Graded-Index Media Dispersion

  • Strong Fluctuation Theory

    This chapter contains sections titled: Parabolic Equation Assumption for the Refractive Index Fluctuations Equation for the Average Field and General Solution Parabolic Equation for the Mutual Coherence Function Solutions for the Mutual Coherence Function Examples of Mutual Coherence Functions Mutual Coherence Function in a Turbulent Medium Temporal Frequency Spectra Two-Frequency Correlation Function Plane Wave Solution for the Two-Frequency Mutual Coherence Function Pulse Shape Angular and Temporal Frequency Spectra Fourth Order Moments Thin Screen Theory Approximate Solution for the Thin Screen Theory Thin Screen Theory for Spherical Waves Extended Sources Extended Medium Optical Propagation in a Turbulent Medium Modulation Transfer Function of a Random Medium Adaptive Optics This chapter contains sections titled: Appendix 20A Appendix 20B Appendix 20C

  • SuperResolving NegativeRefractiveIndex TransmissionLine Lenses

    The prelims comprise: The Distributed Dual Transmission Line The Periodic Dual Transmission Line Interpreting Negative Permittivity and Permeability The 2-D Dual Transmission Line The Negative-Refractive-Index (NRI) TL Lens Reflection and Transmission Through the Lossless NRI-TL Lens The Super-Resolving NRI Transmission-Line Lens An Experimental NRI-TL Lens Characterization of an Experimental NRI-TL Lens An Isotropic 3-D Transmission-Line Metamaterial with a Negative Refractive Index References

  • Index

    Learn about the revolutionary new technology of negative-refraction metamaterials Negative-Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications introduces artificial materials that support the unusual electromagnetic property of negative refraction. Readers will discover several classes of negative-refraction materials along with their exciting, groundbreaking applications, such as lenses and antennas, imaging with super- resolution, microwave devices, dispersion-compensating interconnects, radar, and defense. The book begins with a chapter describing the fundamentals of isotropic metamaterials in which a negative index of refraction is defined. In the following chapters, the text builds on the fundamentals by describing a range of useful microwave devices and antennas. Next, a broad spectrum of exciting new research and emerging applications is examined, including: * Theory and experiments behind a super-resolving, negative-refractive-index transmission-line lens * 3-D transmission-line metamaterials with a negative refractive index * Numerical simulation studies of negative refraction of Gaussian beams and associated focusing phenomena * Unique advantages and theory of shaped lenses made of negative-refractive-index metamaterials * A new type of transmission-line metamaterial that is anisotropic and supports the formation of sharp steerable beams (resonance cones) * Implementations of negative-refraction metamaterials at optical frequencies * Unusual propagation phenomena in metallic waveguides partially filled with negative-refractive- index metamaterials * Metamaterials in which the refractive index and the underlying group velocity are both negative This work brings together the best minds in this cutting-edge field. It is fascinating reading for scie ntists, engineers, and graduate-level students in physics, chemistry, materials science, photonics, and electrical engineering.

  • Appendix C: Turbulence and Refractive Index Fluctuations

    This appendix contains sections titled: Laminar Flow and Turbulence Developed Turbulence Scalar Quantities Conserved in a Turbulence and Neutral, Stable, and Unstable Atmosphere Fluctuations of the Index of Refraction Structure Functions of a Conservative Scalar and the Index of Refraction Fluctuation The Energy Dissipation Rate and the Energy Budget of Atmospheric Turbulence The Rate of Dissipation of the Fluctuation N Calculation of the Structure Constant Boundary Layer, Free Atmosphere, Large- and Small-Scale Turbulence The Structure Constant for the Index of Refraction in the Boundary Layer The Structure Constant Cn for Free Atmosphere Relation between the Structure Constant Cn and the Variance of the Index of Refraction Fluctuation



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